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Saving and Restoring Files Using BACKUP
The BACKUP program saves disk files on magnetic tape and places all or
some of these files back onto the disk. You can save your disk area
on magnetic tape and restore all of your files or a subset of your
files back to your area. You can also use this program to move your
files from one system to another. Please refer to the TOPS-10
Operator's Guide for detailed information about the BACKUP program.
where: command is one of the BACKUP commands, which are in verb form.
BACKUP prompts with a slash (/), after which you respond with
one of three command types:
o Action command
o Status-setting command
o Tape-positioning command
Action commands perform I/O on the tape specified in the last TAPE
command. You must specify a tape using the TAPE command before you
use an action command. TAPE is described under the status-setting
commands for BACKUP.
SAVE file-spec Saves the specified disk files on tape.
RESTORE file-spec Restores the specified tape files to
CHECK file-spec Verifies that the tape and the disk
files are the same.
[N]PRINT file-spec Prints a directory of the entire tape
specified by file-spec. N is an
optional prefix meaning narrow. PRINT
produces the effect of a NODIRECTORIES
command; that is, no user directories
The file-spec arguments are optional. File specifications may have
wildcards. You can specify input and output files in the form
output=input, or you can specify input alone. Use commas to separate
file-spec entries in a list.
If you do not supply an argument with an action command, BACKUP
defaults to a file-spec as follows:
o For anyone logged-in under [1,2], the default file spec is
ALL:*.*[*,*,*,*,*,*,*]. This specifies all files on all
UFDs, and all SFDs of all file structures, with no renaming.
o For all other users, the default file spec is ALL:*.*
[PPN,*,*,*,*,*] where PPN is the user's PPN. This specifies
all files in the user's areas should be saved with a disk
structure specified, and restored to the appropriate
Action Command Switches
You can use the following switches in the file specification list for
the action commands. These switches can be either permanent or
temporary. Input files are those being transferred from disk to tape.
Output files are those being transferred from tape to disk.
/ABEFORE date On input file, includes only files
accessed before the specified date.
/ASINCE date On input file, includes only files
accessed since the specified date.
/BEFORE date-time On input file, includes only files
created before the specified date-time.
/ERNONE On input file, gives an error if no
/ERPROTECTION On input file, gives an error if there
is a protection failure.
/ERSUPERSEDE On output file, does not restore a file
from tape if it already exists on disk.
/ESTIMATE n On output file, estimates output size
/LENGTH low:high On input file, includes the file only if
file length is between low (minimum file
size) and high (maximum file size).
/MBEFORE nD:hh:mm:ss On input file, includes only files
modified before date-time. nD
represents the number of days.
/MSINCE nD:hh:mm:ss On input file, includes only files
modified since date-time. nD represents
the number of days.
/OKNONE On input file, does not give an error if
no files match your file specification.
/OKPROTECTION On input file, does not give an error if
there is a protection failure.
/OKSUPERSEDE On output file, always restores the
file, even if the file is already on
/[NO]PHYSICAL On input or output file, ignores any
/PROTECTION nnn On output file, sets the protection
/SINCE date-time On input file, includes only those files
created since the specified date-time.
/STRS On input file, examines all structures
for the file.
/VERSION v On output file, sets the version number
of the file.
You can issue the following runtime commands during the execution of
any action commands. BACKUP prompts with an exclamation point (!)
when ready to accept a runtime command.
[NO]DIRECTORIES Prints every directory processed.
EXIT Exits from BACKUP when done.
[NO]FILES Prints every file and directory
GO Continues after a STOP.
HELP Lists BACKUP commands and explanations.
KILL Aborts execution of the current action
PAUSE Does not exit from BACKUP when done.
RESET Resets all status settings to their
original defaults when done.
SILENCE Stops printing every directory or file.
STOP Stops action temporarily; can be
continued by GO.
WHAT Displays current file name and status.
Status-setting commands specify one or more parameters that affect
future action commands.
ABEFORE date Includes only files accessed before the
[NO]APPEND Appends to the existing list file.
ASINCE date Includes only the files accessed since
the specified date.
BEFORE date-time Includes only the files created and
modified before the specified date-time.
BLOCKINGFACTOR n Sets the number of disk blocks per tape
block read or written on tape. The
default value is 4 for comptability with
tapes written by BACKUP without blocking
factor capability. The specified value
must be in the range of 4 to 96, and
must be a multiple of 4 disk blocks.
Due to KS20 UNIBUS adapter limitations,
the maximum blocking factor on a KS10 is
Tape blocking is writing a tape block
that contains more than one disk block.
Older versions of BACKUP (version prior
to %6(700)) may be said to use a
blocking factor of 4, because they write
4 disk blocks per tape block. Higher
blocking factors permit BACKUP to fit
more information in less space. The
higher the blocking factor specified,
the smaller the amount of space between
[NO]CPOINT Uses checkpoints.
[NO]DATE75 Always accepts files with possible
[NO]DELETE Deletes disk files after saving them.
DENSITY nnnn Sets the tape density. The density,
expressed in bits per inch (bpi), can be
200, 556, 800, 1600, or 6250.
[NO]DIRECTORIES Prints each user's directory while
[NO]ENCRYPT Encrypts (codes) the files. This makes
the files impossible to read without the
ERRMAX n Set maximum number of recoverable tape
errors. Default is 100.
[NO]EXEMPT Exempts project-programmer numbers of
the form [A,*] and [*,B], where A and B
are less than 7, from date, time, and
[NO]FILES Prints each file name while running.
INITIAL file Starts processing at the specified file.
[NO]INTERCHANGE Runs in interchange mode. Interchange
is used to copy files from one
installation to another with no
directory dependencies. Interchange
mode forces a blocking factor of 4 for
compatability with other programs such
as TOPS-20 DUMPER.
LENGTH low:high Includes only files whose length is
between low (minimum file size) and high
(maximum file size).
[NO]LIST file-spec While running, creates a listing file on
file-spec. LIST produces the effect of
a NODIRECTORIES command; that is, no
user directories will be printed.
MBEFORE date-time Includes only files that were moved or
modified before the specified time.
MESSAGE [NO]PREFIX Suppresses the error message prefix.
MESSAGE [NO]FIRST Suppresses the first line of the error
MSINCE date-time Includes only files that have been moved
or modified since the specified time.
[NO]MULTIREEL Allows multiple reels during a save.
[NO]NFS Does not save files that have the RP.NFS
RIB status bit set.
OPTION name Uses line BACKUP:name from a SWITCH.INI
PARITY (even,odd) Sets the tape parity.
[NO]REPEAT Repeats a split file on the continuation
RESUME n Sets a checkpoint block number where
processing resumes after a crash that
occurred during a checkpointed SAVE or
[NO]SDELETE Deletes a file without respect to its
protection code, if the user has
sufficient privilege to rename the file
to a lower protection code.
SILENCE Does not print file names or directories
SINCE date-time Includes only those files created or
modified since the specified date-time.
SORT DIRECTORIES x Sorts directories within each file
structure in order of x when saving. x
is ALPHABETICAL, LOCATION, or NONE.
SORT FILES x Sorts files within each directory in the
order of x. x is ALPHABETICAL,
LOCATION, or NONE.
SSNAME name Specifies the saveset name. Use ALL to
include all savesets.
SUPERSEDE ALWAYS Restores all files from tape,
superseding files on disk that have the
same file name.
SUPERSEDE NEVER Does not restore files that have the
same name as an existing file.
SUPERSEDE OLDER Restores only the files that are newer
than the files on disk of the same name.
TAPE MTxn: Uses tape unit MTxn:. If a magnetic
tape drive has the logical name BACKUP,
then the TAPE verb need not be
TPNUM x Sets the number of the tape to x
[NO]UNIQUE Generates unique extension numbers in
the range 000 to 999 if the file being
restored from tape already exists on
UPROTECTION nnn Sets the protection code for the created
[NO]USAGE Enables USAGE accounting. When USAGE is
enabled, BACKUP writes accounting
records to the system ACTDAE, for every
directory in a save operation. You must
have [1,2] privileges to enable or
[NO]USETI Runs in USETI mode.
[NO]WRITE Writes onto disk during a RESTORE. This
is the default action.
Use these commands before action commands or after action commands are
EOT volid-list Skips to the end-of-tape mark for each
tape in the list. The volid-list is a
list of the volume-identifications of
REWIND volid-list Rewinds to the beginning of the tape for
each tape in the list.
SKIP n volid-list Skips the specified number of savesets
forward for each tape in the list.
SKIP 0 volid-list Backs up to the start of the current
saveset for each tape in the list.
SKIP -n volid-list Skips the specified number of savesets
backward for each tape in the list.
UNLOAD volid-list Unloads each tape in the list from its
The BACKUP program:
Places your terminal at user level.
Destroys your core image.
1. To save the entire contents of DSKB: on magnetic tape and at
the same time produce a directory listing, run BACKUP while
logged in under [1,2].
BACKUP prints each UFD as it begins to save files from that
area. If the tape becomes full before the save is complete,
BACKUP stops, types out the full file specification and block
number of the current file being saved, unloads the magnetic
tape and prints the following message:
$BKPEOT REACHED EOT -- MOUNT NEW TAPE THEN TYPE "GO"
When you type GO, BACKUP continues the save on the new tape.
A file can be split across tapes.
2. Copy the file FILE.MAC from tape to disk.