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The DIRECTORY command prints a list of the file names in a
specified directory area. The standard output consists of the
following information: file name, file name extension, length of
the file in blocks, protection code, creation date, version
number, account, structure name, and directory name.
DIRECTORY output file-spec=input file-spec
Where: input file-spec is a single file specification, or a
string of file specifications separated by commas or
plus signs. The devices used on input can be DSK:,
DTA:, or MTA:. If the device is a magnetic tape, the
tape is rewound before and after the listing operation
and analyzed to determine if it is a BACKUP tape. The
default input specification is DSK:*.*, and the files
in all file structures defined by your job's search
list are listed. Generally, a device name, file name
extension, or a directory name that precedes the file
name becomes the default for all succeeding files in
output file-spec = This argument and the equal sign are
optional. If you omit the entire output specification,
the default is TTY:. If you do not specify an output
device, the default device is DSK:. If you do not
specify an output file name, and one is needed, the
file name is generated from the time of day as hhmmss.
The default output extension is .DIR.
The full wildcard construction (* and/or ?) can be used in the
input file-spec. When a wildcard designation is used, DIRECTORY
limits its search for the file to certain directories. When you
give a wildcard designation for a file name or extension, the
program only searches the specified directory or your default
directory. No additional devices, such as LIB: or SYS:, which
might be in your default path, are searched. For more
information on directory paths see the DIRPAT help file. See
also the PATH monitor call description in the TOPS-10 Monitor
Calls Manual, for information about directory paths.
If you use the wildcard construction in the directory name, only
the directories implied by the wildcard construction are
searched. No additional directories are searched.
The following switches can be used in the command string.
Generally, any switches can be used together in the same command
string, unless the switches contradict one another. Switches
that precede the file name become the default for all succeeding
files in the same command line.
You can abbreviate switches as long as the result is unique.
This is not recommended for batch control files. Spaces are not
permitted within a switch.
/ACCESS:n Updates the access date of any file of n
blocks or less to the current date. Because
some installations delete files that have not
been recently accessed, this switch allows
you to prevent such deletion by updating the
files. n is a decimal number, and refers to
the number of blocks written in the file
unless the /ALLOC switch is also used. If
you omit the /ACCESS switch, the system does
not change the date. If you specify /ACCESS
but you omit :n, 5 is assumed.
/ACCOUNT Prints the account name associated with that
file. The account you are logged in under is
stored in the RIB of all files created or
/ALLOCATED Lists the allocated length of the file
instead of the written length. Space on a
structure is sometimes allocated in units of
more than one block for efficiency.
Therefore, the number of blocks allocated to
a file can be greater than the number of
blocks actually written. The LOGOUT program
uses the allocated length when checking
quotas. The total allocated length of all
files is the same as the length output by the
QUOLST program under the USED column.
Normally, when a file is created, the system
allocates 30 blocks for it. Then the system
deallocates unused blocks after file creation
is complete. This switch is the complement
to the /WRITTEN switch.
/ANYDEVICE Searches all devices.
/AUTHOR Prints the project-programmer number of the
author of the file.
/BEFORE:date-time Lists those files created before the
specified date and time. Default is
+infinity. For more information on date-time
arguments, see the help file DTARGS.
/BLOCKINGFACTOR:n Sets the number of disk blocks per tape block
read from tape. The default value is 4 for
compatability with tapes written by BACKUP
without blocking-factor capability. The
specified value must be in the range of 4 to
96, and must be a multiple of 4 disk blocks.
Due to KS10 UNIBUS adapter limitations, the
maximum blocking-factor on a KS10 is 56.
/BLOCKS Prints the length of the file in blocks.
This is the default. Complement to /WORDS.
/CHECKSUM Computes and prints an 18-bit checksum for
each file. This checksum is computed by
rotating the result to the left one bit
before adding each word. Complement to
/COMPARE Suppresses headers and titles, as well as
error messages in the output. This makes the
output file suitable for comparison with
another file (with FILCOM). Default is
/DENSITY:n Uses the specified density when reading a
magnetic tape. n is 200, 556, 800, 1600, or
6250 bpi. The default depends on your
installation. You can change the default
with the SET DENSITY command.
/DETAIL Prints all available information about a
file. The information includes:
The full file specification for the file.
The access date.
The time and date of creation.
The access protection code associated with
The data mode that the file is written in.
The estimated length of the file.
The blocks allocated for the file.
The data block in the directory in which the
file is located.
The internal date and time of creation.
The RIB block number.
All numbers that are followed by a decimal
point are decimal values; all other numbers
are octal. The project-programmer number
associated with the file is printed only if
it is not the same as that of the user who
issued the DIRECTORY command.
/DIRECT Provides ASCII-formatted output. This the
default. Complement to /NODIRECT.
/DSKONLY Searches all disk devices.
/DTA Lists the directory in old DECtape form.
/EOTS Stops at the logical end of tape (two
consecutive tape marks) when reading a
magnetic tape. This is the default.
Complement to /NOEOTS.
/ERLOG Enables automatic device error logging.
Complement to /NOERLOG. /ERLOG is the
/FAST Lists short form of directory: file name,
extension, structure name, and directory
name. Abbreviated to /F. Complement to
/NORMAL and /SLOW.
/FILES:n Stops after n files when reading a magnetic
tape. If you specify /FILES but you omit :n,
5 is assumed. When the system reaches the
logical EOT, it will stop reading the tape.
/FIND Looks for the Find Files for the directory
listing rather than the devices. A Find File
is the binary output of a directory listing,
and is created with the /FNDBLD switch.
/FIND looks for the Find File in
SYS:FNDDAT.FDF or .FPF. You can use the
/FNDDAT switch to specify the file name of
the Find File.
/FLSDIR Prints each file's device and directory to
the right of the first line of output for
each directory. Complement to /NOFLSDIR, the
default is /FLSDIR, unless /HDSDIR or /WIDTH
/FNDBLD Creates Find Files from the DIRECTORY output.
A Find File is the binary output from a
DIRECTORY listing. Find Files are useful for
archiving and retrieving files on magnetic
tape. The file name of the Find File is that
specified in the output specification of the
command format. If you do not specify the
output file name, the default is
DSK:FNDDAT.FDF or .FPF. The files can later
be accessed with the /FIND switch. The
complement to /FDNBLD is /NOFDNBLD.
/NOFNDBLD is the default.
/FNDDAT:file Specifies the file name of the Find Files to
be read for the directory listing. A Find
File is the binary output for a directory
listing, and is created with the /FNDBLD
switch. You must use the /FIND switch with
the /FNDDAT switch.
/HDSDIR Prints the device and directory information
of the file as a separate header line,
immediately preceding the directory listing
for each directory. Complementary to
/FLSDIR. The default is /NOHDSDIR, unless
/WIDTH and /NOFLSDIR are specified.
/HELP:arg Prints DIRECTORY help text on your terminal.
/HELP can be abbreviated to /H. Valid
arguments are: TEXT, KEYWORDS, and SWITCHES.
TEXT is the default argument; it prints the
entire DIRECT.HLP file. The KEYWORDS
argument (K) lists and describes all LOGIN
switches which take keyword arguments.
SWITCHES (S) briefly lists all DIRECTORY
switches without explanations. Switches that
have a single-letter abbreviation are
prefixed with an asterisk.
/INDIRECT Creates the output listing file in a format
suitable for use as a command file to be
input to other programs.
/LENGTH:n:m Processes only files whose length is between
n and m blocks.
/LIST Queues the output to device LPT:.
Abbreviated to /L. Refer to the LIST command
for restrictions on this switch.
/MARKS Indicates each tape mark and UFD when reading
a magnetic tape. Complement of /NOMARKS.
/MVOLUME When reading BACKUP and DUMPER magnetic
tapes, asks the user to mount another reel
when the end of tape is encountered in the
middle of a save set. Complement to
/NOMVOLUME, the default is /NOMVOLUME.
/NOAUTHOR Does not print the project-programmer number
of the author of the file. This is the
default. Complement to /AUTHOR.
/NOCHECKSUM Does not compute and print the checksum.
This is the default. Complement of
/NOCOMPARE Prints the normal headers, titles, and error
messages. Complement to /COMPARE, the
default is /NOCOMPARE.
/NODETAIL Does not print the words in the LOOKUP block.
This is the default. Complement to /DETAIL.
/NODIRECT Does not print the normal ASCII listing.
Complement to /DIRECT, the default is
/NOEOTS Does not stop at the logical end of tape when
reading a magnetic tape. Complement to
/NOERLOG Does not enable automatic device error
logging. /ERLOG is the compliment to
/NOERLOG, and the default.
/NOFIND Does not look for Find Files for the output.
Complement to /FIND, the default is /NOFIND.
/NOFLSDIR Does not print each file's device and
directory to the right of the first line for
each directory listed. Complement to
/FLSDIR; the default is /FLSDIR, unless
/HDSDIR or /WIDTH is specified.
/NOFNDBLD Does not make a Find File from the output.
Complement to /FNDBLD; the default is
/NOHDSDIR Does not print the device and directory as a
header for each directory listed. Complement
to /HDSDIR, the default is /NOHDSDIR, unless
/WIDTH is specified.
/NOINDIRECT Does not format the output listing so that it
can be used as input to a program.
Complement to /INDIRECT, the default is
/NOMARKS Does not indicate each tape mark and UFD when
reading a magnetic tape. This is the
default. Complement to /MARKS.
/NOMVOLUME When using BACKUP or DUMPER, does not ask the
user to mount another magnetic tape when the
end of tape comes in the middle of a save
set. Complement to /MVOLUME, the default is
/NOPRDEVICE Does not print the device name. Complement
/NOPRDIRECTORY Does not print the directory. Complement to
/NOPRVERSION Suppresses printing the version number of the
files. The normal listing prints the version
number only if it is not zero. Complement to
/NORETRY Disables automatic error retry when reading a
file. Generates error messages for soft
errors. Complement to /RETRY, the default is
/NOREWIND Does not rewind the tape before and after
reading a magnetic tape. Complement to
/NORMAL Prints the normal directory list. This list
includes the file name, extension, length in
blocks written, protection, creation date,
structure name, nonzero version numbers, and
directory name. Complement to /FAST and
/SLOW. This is the default. Use this switch
to override a /FAST or /SLOW in your
/NOSORT Does not produce a file suitable for sorting.
This is the default. Complement to /SORT.
/NOSUMMARY Does not use summary mode. This is the
default. Complement to /SUMMARY.
/NOTITLE Does not print page headers. This is the
default for output to the terminal.
Complement to /TITLE.
/NOUNITS Does not list the name of the actual disk
unit; instead, just lists the structure name.
This is the default. Complement to /UNITS.
/OKNONE Suppresses the error message if no files
match the wildcard construction.
/OPTION:name Reads your option file (DSK:SWITCH.INI[,]) to
determine your specified switch defaults for
DIRECT. The name appearing as the value of
the switch is the pointer to the line to read
in the file. For example, if the file
contains the line:
then you reference this line by typing the
Refer to Appendix B for additional
/PARITY:ODD Specifies the parity to be used when reading
/PARITY:EVEN a magnetic tape. The default is :ODD.
/PHYSICAL Ignores logical names. For more information
on logical names, see the help file LOGNAM.
/PRDEVICE Prints the name of the device for each file.
/PRDIRECTORY Prints the name of the directory for each
/PROTECTION:nnn Gives the output file the protection nnn
(octal). For more information about
protection codes, see the help file PCODES.
/PRVERSION Prints the version of each file. If you do
not specify this switch, the default is to
print the version only if it is not zero.
The complement is /NOPRVERSION.
/RETRY Enables automatic error retry when reading a
file. Complement to /NORETRY, the default is
/REWIND Rewinds the magnetic tape before and after
reading it. This is the default. Complement
/RUN:file-spec Runs the specified program when this command
/RUNOFFSET:n Runs the program specified with /RUN with an
offset of n. If you omit the switch, the
default is 0; if you omit the value, the
default is 1.
/SINCE:date-time Lists only those files created after the
specified date and time. The default is
January 1, 1964. For more information on
date-time arguments, see the help file
/SLOW Prints a full listing that includes the file
name, extension, length in blocks written,
protection, access date, creation time and
date, structure name, and directory name.
Equivalent to /S. Complement to /FAST and
/NORMAL. (Disk and magnetic tape only.)
/SORT Lists the file structure name and directory
name for each file. The file structure name
is output for every file if you do not
specify a file structure name in the command
string or if you specify generic DSK:. The
wildcard construction is used in the
directory name. TABs are space-filled to
maintain a constant number of characters in
any given line. Project-programmer numbers
include leading zeros; the date is in ANSI
format: 19721009 for Oct 9, 1972. Use this
switch to prepare a file to be sorted by the
SORT program. (See the COBOL documentation.)
Complement to /NOSORT.
/SUMMARY Prints only the summary line that indicates
the total number of blocks and files. A
/FAST/SUMMARY prints a /FAST listing followed
by the summary.
/TITLE Causes a heading to be output on each page
consisting of a label for each column, date,
time, and page number. Standard output to
the line printer has this heading.
Complement to /NOTITLE.
/TMPCOR Lists the directory in old TMPCOR format.
/UNITS Lists the name of the actual disk unit on
which the files are stored instead of the
file structure name. Complement to /NOUNITS.
/WIDTH:n Prints several entries on a single line to
make the output appear in columns. The
default for n is the terminal carriage width.
For more information on the /WIDTH switch,
see the help file SETTTY.
/WORDS Prints the length of the file in words
instead of blocks. Complement to /BLOCKS.
/WRITTEN Prints the written length of the file rather
than the allocated length. This is the
default. Complement to /ALLOCATED.
Leaves your terminal at monitor level.
Destroys your core image.
1. List all files on DSKB:.
FILE DAT 220 <055> dd-mmm-yy 31(225) DSKB: [27,5055]
SWITCH INI 10 <057> dd-mmm-yy
PROG MAC 5 <055> dd-mmm-yy
2. List all files with extension .MAC in all file structures in
your job's search list.
PROG MAC 5 <057> dd-mmm-yy 31(225) DSKB:[27,5055]
FILE MAC 1 <055> dd-mmm-yy 30(201) DSKC:[27,5055]
3. List the directory entry for the file TEST.F4 in user area
TEST F4 6 <055> dd-mmm-yy 31(225) DSKC:[27,4072]
4. List all files in sub-file directory WIZZER.SFD in the [7,2]
area on BLKT:.
ATTA TST 1 <055> dd-mmm-yy BLKT:[7,2,WIZZER]
NEW ALG 4 <055> dd-mmm-yy
ALGOL DOC 20 <055> dd-mmm-yy
5. Show the switches to the DIRECT command.
DIRECT switches are:
ACCESS, ACCOUN, *ALLOC, AUTHOR, CHECKS, COMPAR, DETAIL,
DIRECT, DTA, EOTS, ERLOG, *FAST, FILES, FIND,
FLSDIR, FNDBLD, FNDDAT, HDSDIR, *INDIR, *LIST, MARKS,
MVOLUM, *NORMA, PRDEVI, PRDIRE, PRVERS, RETRY, REWIND,
SBRMSG, *SLOW, SORT, SUMMAR, TITLES, TMPCOR, UNITS,
*WIDTH, WORDS, WRITTE
Standard switches are:
ABEFOR, ALLOCA, ANYDEV, APPEND, ASCII, ASINCE, BEFORE,
BINARY, BLOCKS, BYTESI, BUFFER, CONTIG, DATAMO, DELETE,
DENSIT, DSKONL, ERNONE, ERPROT, ERSUPE, ERUID, ESTIMA,
EXIT, FIXED, FRAMES, *HELP, IMAGE, IOMODE, LENGTH,
LIB, MACY11, MECY11, MESSAG, NEW, NOOPTI, OKNONE,
OKPROT, OKSUPE, OKUID, OPTION, PARITY, PBEFOR, PHYSIC,
PRINT, PROTEC, PSINCE, QUERY, RECSIZ, RECFOR, RUN,
RUNCOR, RUNOFF, SCERRO, SCWILD, SINCE, STRS, SUBMIT,
SYS, TELL, TMPFIL, VARIAB, VERSIO
6. Create an output listing file in a format suitable for input
to other programs.
Total of 10 files