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TOPS20.DOC TOPS-20 Version 5.1(5101)
COPYRIGHT (C) 1976,1978,1979,1980,1982,1983 BY DIGITAL EQUIPMENT
CORPORATION, MAYNARD, MASS. THE SOFTWARE DESCRIBED IN THIS DOCUMENT
IS FURNISHED UNDER A LICENSE AND MAY BE USED AND COPIED ONLY IN
ACCORDANCE WITH THE TERMS OF SUCH LICENSE AND WITH THE INCLUSION OF
THE ABOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICE. THIS SOFTWARE OR ANY OTHER COPIES THEREOF
MAY NOT BE PROVIDED OR OTHERWISE MADE AVAILABLE TO ANY OTHER PERSON.
NO TITLE TO AND OWNERSHIP OF THE SOFTWARE IS HEREBY TRANSFERRED.
THE INFORMATION IN THIS DOCUMENT IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE
AND SHOULD NOT BE CONSTRUED AS A COMMITMENT BY DIGITAL EQUIPMENT
DIGITAL ASSUMES NO RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE USE OR RELIABILITY OF ITS
SOFTWARE ON EQUIPMENT WHICH IS NOT SUPPLIED BY DIGITAL.
This release, version 5.1, implements Decnet Phase III and contains
all of the maintenace edits that have been made to TOPS-20 V5.1
through edit 2651 (plus edit 2821) for the Monitor and edit 748 for
the EXEC. See below for a complete list of Utility edit levels. A
new GALAXY release, 4.2, and an updated version of RSX20F,V14-45G, are
If you are upgrading from release 4.0 to 5.1, the APPENDIX may be of
interest. It contains summary and new feature information for release
5.0, and as such, the information therein regarding
distribution-specific items should be ignored.
The V5.1 monitor uses one more page of resident address space than the
V5.0 monitor. The following list illustrates the differences for
2060-MONBIG.EXE. (2060-MONMAX.EXE differences are the same)
approximate resident address space used (octal)
V4.0 -- 201310 words
V5.0- - 213125 words
V5.1 -- 214274 words
The following TOPS-20 documentation has been updated to reflect
KL Model B Installation Guide (update)
* - please see section 12.0 of TOPS20.BWR for more
information regarding this manual.
Monitor Calls Reference Manual (update)
The Arpanet support supplied with this release of Tops-20 uses the NCP
protocol supported on the Arpanet prior to Jan, 1983, and NOT the
new TCP/IP protocol.
ARPANET AND DECNET
In order to build a monitor that will run both Arpanet and Decnet, see
the file ARPANET-DECNET-MONITORS.TXT.
OTHER INFORMATION FOR VERSON 5.1
1. UPDATED UTILITIES
The following utilities have been updated. Most of the updates will
be transparent to the user. However, for some, such as TV, this may
not be the case. See the related source file for the edit history.
The octal edit level reflects what you would see if you used the Exec
"Information Version" command, the decimal value may be used when
referring to SPRs or Autopatch documentation.
ACTGEN 5(7) 5(7)
CHECKD 5(53) 5(43)
CHKPNT 5(166) 5(118)
DLUSER 5(10) 5(8)
EDIT 5(244) 5(164)
LINK 5.1(2030) 5(1048)
MAPPER 5(5) 5(5)
PA1050 5.1(627) 5.1(407)
PLEASE 104(112) 104(74)
PTYCON 5(17) 5(15)
REAPER 5(204) 5(132)
RMS 1.1(60) 1.1(48)
SETSPD 5.1(41) 5.1(33)
SYSJOB 5(20) 5(16)
TV 5.1(1001) 5.1(513)
ULIST 5(10) 5(8)
WATCH 5(14) 5(12)
A new version of GALAXY has been included (4.2) and the user should
read the GALAXY.BWR file. Also, in order to use DUMPER with this
version of GALAXY, it is necessary to make a patch to the DUMPER.EXE
file. This patch is also explained in the GALAXY.BWR file.
Version 5 is a new release of the TOPS-20 operating system and its
associated utilities. However, the number of specific new features in
this release is less than those in TOPS-20 Version 4. Many of the
changes in Version 5 relate to minor enhancements which fix problems
that were discovered in Version 4.
The TOPS-20 documentation has been updated in several places in order
to provide complete information on the new features in Version 5. The
following documents are especially important sources of information
relating to Version 5.
1. TOPS-20 KL Model B Installation Guide (New)
Describes the software conents and procedures for installing
the TOPS-20 installation package on a KL Model B system.
2. TOPS-20 System Manager's Guide (update)
Provides information for the system administrator for the new
and changed features. This update includes information on
the RP07, on the system directories, and on SPEAR.
3. TOPS-20 Operator's Guide (revision)
Provides information for the system operator for the new
devices and procedures. This revision includes information
on the RP07, SPEAR, and RSX-20F changes.
4. TOPS-20 Monitor Calls Reference Manual (revision)
Provides information for the system programmer for the new
and changed JSYSs. The revision includes information on the
extended addressing monitor calls.
5. TOPS-20 Commands Reference Manual (update)
Provides changes to he TOPS-20 EXEC. This update includes
information on the extended-addressing switches.
6. TOPS-20 User's Guide (update)
Describes the usage of the system from a user's point of
view. This update includes miscellaneous improvements.
7. TOPS-20 Operator Command Language Reference Manual (update)
Provides reference material for the system operator for OPR,
CTRL-E, and PTYCON commands. This update includes changes to
the CTRL-E and PTYCON commands.
8. TOPS-20 LINK Reference Manual (revision)
Provides information on LINK Version 5 features including
9. TOPS-10/20 SPEAR manual (new)
Provides information on the system error reporting program,
10. TOPS-20 DECnet-20 Programmer;s Guide and Operations manual
Includes installation usage, and checkout procedures for
DECnet-20 Version 2.1. This update includes informatio on
the SETHOST program.
NEW FEATURES IN Version 5
Some specific new features in Version 5 are as follows:
1. Extended-addressing support
There were some facilities in Version 4 that allowed programmers to
make limited use of the hardware facilities of extended addressing.
These software facilities were not formally supported, and could only
be enabled by patching the distributed TOPS-20 monitor.
Version 5 contains a full implementation of extended-addressing
support. These facilities are available currently only to the Macro
programmer. Future language support for these facilities is planned.
The facilities that were available in Version 4 have been expanded and
are now a fully supported portion of the monitor. These facilities
allow programmers to create and manipulate multi-section address
spaces. Please consult the TOPS-20 Monitor Calls Reference Manual,
Monitor Calls User's Guide, and System Reference Manual for more
information relating to the monitor support for extended-addressing.
There have been some additional enhancements made in several programs
which give the user greater control over the use of multi-section
programs. These features are contained in the following products:
A new switch has been added to the DDT command. The syntax
where "n" is the number of the extended section that DDT is
to be loaded into by the EXEC. This feature allows easier
debugging of programs which are running in a non-zero
A new switch has also been added to the GET and MERGE
commands which is similar in function to the switch
described above. Its syntax is:
In addition, the EXEC can now save multi-section programs in
their entirety, or any portion
Refer to the TOPS-20 COmmands Reference Manual Update for
information on the /USE-SECTION: switch.
The LINK program has also been enhanced so that it can now
link multi-section programs. Please consult the LINK
Reference Manual update for further information.
2. Homogeneous Network Command Terminals
Version 5 includes support for homogeneous command terminals through
the use of a new SETHOST feature. This feature is implemented through
the use of a program called SETHOST which enables a time-sharing user
to establish a logical DECnet link to another computer system which is
physically connected to the user's primary system. All terminal
interactions which this user initiates will subsequently be processed
by the "linked-to" system. This allows a user whose terminal is
physically connected to one system to be able to log in, issue
commands, and run programs on a second system exactly as if the
terminal was physically connected to that second system. There is an
escape character which allows the connection to be broken and
interaction with the primary system re-established.
Refer to the DECnet-20 Programmer's Guide and Operations Manual for
documentation on the SETHOST program.
3. RP07 Disk Drive
The RP07 disk drive is a single spindle, 705 megabyte (unformatted),
fixed media, Winchester technolgy, disk with Massbus interface. It
will now be fully supported for use with TOPS-20 Version 5. The
primary features of this device are:
1. Internal microdiagnostics
2. rotational position sensing
3. 1.92MB/sec peak transfer rate
4. average seek time of 23 ms.
5. defect skipping
6. static dual-port capability
7. formatted capacity of 216376 pages (499 MByte)
Unlike the RP20 disk, an RP07 can be used as the public structure
(PS:). However, an RP06 drive is still required in order to contain
the front-end file system.
Refer to the TOPS-20 System Manager's Guide and the TOPS-20 Operator's
Guide for information on the RP07.
4. SPEAR support
SPEAR is an error reporting and analysis mechanism which is being
released and supported with Version 5. SPEAR replaces the program
SYSERR which was included with TOPS-20 Version 4. There have been
many changes within TOPS-20 in order to actually support the
functionality of SPEAR, but all of these changes are transparent to
the user. There is, however, a change in the directory in which the
ERROR.SYS file resides.
Refer to the SPEAR Manual for complete information on the use of this
5. Movement of disk packs
TOPS-20 will support the automatic recognition of disk pack movement
between drives in Version 5. This implies that a disk pack which is
mounted on a particular drive can be moved to another drive without
requiring the pack to be formally DISMOUNTed and MOUNTed again on the
second drive. The monitor will automatically recognize that the disk
pack has been moved, and will adjust its internal data base so that
all access to the pack will be redirected to the new drive.
6. "Read unrestricted" file mode
A new file access mode has been implemented in Version 5. This mode
is called "read unrestricted" mode and implies that the file can be
opened regardless of its current access by other users of the file.
This mode is indicated by setting the bit OF%RDU in the OPENF
operation. Please consult the Monitor Calls Reference Manual for more
7. Archiving enhancements
The archiving system has been enhanced through the implementation of a
number of new commands and directory functions. These changes relate
primarily to the introductio of an expiration date for each file,
either online or offline. A general discussion of file archiving and
migration can be found in the System Manager's Guide update.
The following is a summary list of the new archiving features:
1. BUILD command
2. SET FILE EXPIRED
3. SET FILE ON(OFF)LINE-EXPIRATION-DATE
4. SET FILE RESIST
5. SET DIRECTORY ON(OFF)LINE-EXPIRATION-DEFAULT
Please consult the TOPS-20 Commands Reference update for details of
the use of these commands.
8. Program data vector
Version 5 supports the creation and manipulation of "program data
vectors". These vectors contain information relating to the
characteristics of the program (for example, starting and continuation
address, etc). These vectors are manipulated through the use of a new
JSYS called PDVOP%. Refer to the Monitor Calls Reference Manual for
details of this feature.
9. Miscellaneous EXEC enhancements
There are several miscellaneous commands that have been added to the
EXEC in Version 5. Please refer to the TOPS-20 Commands Reference
Manual update for full details of these new commands.
10.0 SYSTEM MESSAGE LEVELS
There are various advisory messages sent by the system to all
terminals. These are divided into two categories: less important
(level 0) and more important (level 1). With TOPS-20, Version 5, the
system administrator can control the type of messages sent to all user
The following messages are level 0:
o Swapping space low.
o SPT space low.
o PS: space low.
The following messages are level 1:
o Shutdown messages for a shutdown more than 5 minutes away.
o PS: automatic expunge.
The following messages are always sent:
o Initial shutdown message and automatic shutdown announcements
for shutdown 5 minutes or less away.
The system administrator can decide to allow only level 0 messages,
only level 1 messages, both level 0 and level 1 messages, or neither
level 0 or level 1 messages to be sent to all user terminals. System
messages of all levels are always sent to the Operator's CTY.
Under TOPS-20, Version 5, message level control is available only
through the SMON% JSYS.
10.1 Why Suppress Any System Messages
System messages are a very important part of the monitor's attempt to
provide system status information to users and to the operators.
However, system messages can be distracting and annoying for users,
especially when the user is not directly affected.
Level 0 system messages do not usually deliver any significant
information to users. A message that swapping space is low may
indicate to the proficient user a reason for degraded response time,
but may only confuse and intimidate the general user population.
Level 1 messages, on the other hand, provide meaningful information
for all users. Knowing that system shutdown is scheduled in two hours
may allow users to make important scheduling decisions, while warnings
of automatic expunge on the public structure will allow users to
quickly undelete important files.
With TOPS-20, Version 5, the system administrator can decide whether
the minor annoyance of interruption by system messages outweighs the
importance of the message.
10.2 Controlling System Messages
Two new functions have been defined for the SMON% JSYS:
o .SFMS0 (function code 24) for system message level 0
o .SFMS1 (function code 25) for system message level 1.
In addition, flags for these functions have been defined. Flag SF%MS0
indicates message level 0 turned on; that is, user terminals will
receive all level 0 system messages. Flag SF%MS1 indicates message
level 1 turned on; that is, user terminals will receive all level 1
To set or clear system message levels, use a short MACRO-20 routine or
DDT. As with other SMON% functions, WHEEL or OPERATOR privileges must
A separate SMON% call must be issued for each function setting
desired. To use the SMON% JSYS, AC1 must contain the desired function
code, and AC2 must contain the new value for the specified function.
Refer to the TOPS-20 Monitor Calls Reference Manual for more
information on using the SMON% JSYS.
10.3 Determining The Current Settings For System Message Levels
The current settings for system message levels can be tested with the
TMON% JSYS. The function codes are the same. As with SMON%, the
TMON% JSYS requires a function code in AC1. The current value of the
function specified in AC1 is returned in AC2.
Refer to the TOPS-20 Monitor Calls Reference Manual for more
information on using the TMON% JSYS.
PACKAGING FOR TOPS-20 VERSION 5
There are some minor differences in the packaging of Version 5 in
comparison to the packaging of Version 4. Specifically, the following
packaging changes have been made:
1. The Version 5 Installation tape contains all supported
TOPS-20 monitors. That is, there is no separate ARPA monitor
tape as there was in Version 4.
2. The <NEW-SYSTEM> and <NEW-SUBSYS> directories have NOT been
duplicated on the Version 5 Installation and Distribution
tapes, as was the case with Release 4. These directories do
NOT appear on the Version 5 Distribution tape; they are only
on the Installation tape.
3. There is a new saveset on the Version 5 Installation tape
called <GALAXY-SUBSYS>. This directory contains all the
GALAXY components, both in UNV and EXE format. The GALAXY
sources remain in a separate saveset on the Distribution
tape. Note that the GALAXY included on this tape will be the
Version 4 GALAXY (i.e., field-image).