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Formatting Text Files Using RUNOFF
The RUNOFF program formats text files using commands you insert into a
file. You create the file and insert the RUNOFF commands using one of
the standard TOPS-10 text editors.
where: * is the RUNOFF prompt; file-spec is a file specification with
standard defaults and wildcard features. The normal extension
for a file that RUNOFF processes is .RNO. The processed file
has an extension of .MEM. You can queue this file to a line
printer, or display it on your terminal.
The commands listed below are inserted into the text file to cause
RUNOFF to perform some action. All RUNOFF commands begin with a
period (.). You can abbreviate all commands.
Some commands require either numeric or text arguments. In either
instance, you type the command, one space, and then the argument.
When you have several commands to input, you can list all of them on
one line, separating them with periods. However, if the first command
has a comment or takes text as its argument, you must use a semicolon
to separate the commands. Comments must be preceded by an exclamation
.APPENDIX "text" Starts appendix with "text" as its name.
.AUTOPARAGRAPH Treats leading spaces as new paragraph.
.AUTOTABLE Treats lines without leading spaces as new
.BEGIN BAR Starts a change bar, which appears in the
left hand margin.
.BLANK n Skips n lines.
.BREAK Starts a new output line.
.CENTER n Centers the next line around column n/2.
.CHAPTER "text" Starts chapter with text as name.
.COMMENT Ignores this command.
.CONTROL CHARACTERS Allows control characters to print in the
.DISABLE BAR Ignores change bars.
.DO INDEX "title" Outputs index with rest of line as title.
.ELSE Changes sense of IF/IFNOT.
.ENABLE BAR Allows change bars.
.ENDIF name Ends conditional input.
.END BAR Ends change bar.
.END FOOTNOTE Ends a footnote definition.
.END LIST Ends a list.
.END LITERAL Ends a literal block of text.
.END NOTE Ends a NOTE command.
.END SELECTION Stops selection until single line prefix.
.END SUBPAGE Stops subpage numbering (resumes page).
.FIGURE n Makes space for n-line figure.
.FIGURE DEFERRED n Same as FIGURE except the figure may be on
.FILL Resumes filling and justifying each line.
.FIRST TITLE Includes title on first page.
.FLAGS ALL Enables existing flag characters.
.FLAGS type "ch" Changes flag character of the specified type
.FOOTNOTE n Starts n-line footnote.
.HEADER x Issues "page" in case x, where x is UPPER,
LOWER, or MIXED case.
.HEADER LEVEL n Starts section at level n (1-5); rest is
.IF Starts conditional input if VARIANT name.
.IFNOT name Starts conditional input if not VARIANT name.
.INDENT n Indents next line n spaces.
.INDEX Inserts rest of this line in index.
.JUSTIFY Resumes justifying text.
.LEFT n Starts next line n columns from left margin.
.LEFT MARGIN n Sets left margin.
.LIST n Starts list of items with spacing n.
.LIST ELEMENT Starts of item in a list.
.LITERAL n Starts a literal block of text n lines long.
.LOWER CASE Starts footnotes and text in lower case.
.NO AUTOPARAGRAPH Stops autoparagraph mode.
.NO AUTOTABLE Stops autotable mode.
.NO CONTROL CHARACTERS Does not allow control characters.
.NO FILL Stops fill and justify.
.NO FLAGS ALL Disables existing flag characters except .
.NO FLAGS type Does not use flag characters of the specified
.NO HEADER Suppresses page headers.
.NO JUSTIFY Stops justifying.
.NO NUMBER Stops page numbering.
.NO PAGING Stops splitting into pages.
.NO PERIOD Stops double spacing after period,
exclamation point, semicolon, colon, and
.NO SELECTION Accepts all text as input.
.NO SPACE Suppresses space on this end of line.
.NO SUBTITLE Suppresses subtitles.
.NOTE text Starts indented note with heading "text"
centered. If you omit "text," RUNOFF uses
the heading NOTE.
.NUMBER n Resumes page numbering at page n.
.NUMBER APPENDIX n Sets appendix number to n.
.NUMBER CHAPTER n Sets chapter number to n.
.NUMBER INDEX Sets chapter number to "INDEX".
.NUMBER LEVEL Sets next HEADER LEVEL to a, b, c,...
a, b, c,...
.NUMBER LIST d, c Sets list counter depth d to c.
.NUMBER PAGE n Resumes page numbering at page n.
.NUMBER SUBPAGE ch Sets subpage number to ch (A-Z).
.PAGE Starts new page.
.PAGE SIZE n,m Sets page size to n lines by m columns
.PAPER SIZE n,m Sets paper size to n lines by m columns.
.PAGING Resumes breaking into pages.
.PARAGRAPH n, v, t Starts a new paragraph, indented n spaces,
starting v blank lines below the previous
paragraph, and having t as the TEST PAGE
.PERIOD Double spaces after period, exclamation
point, semicolon, colon, and question mark.
.PRINT INDEX Starts printing index.
.RIGHT n Right adjusts next line n columns left of the
.RIGHT MARGIN n Sets right margin to n.
.SELECTION string Sets selection string.
.SKIP n Skips n*spacing lines.
.SPACING n Sets spacing (default=1).
.STANDARD n Sets standard setup of width n.
.SUBINDEX Indexes with "#" used to delimit sub-indices.
.SUBPAGE Starts subpage numbering.
.SUBTITLE or .SUBTTL Uses rest of line as subtitle.
While inputting your text, you have the option of including special
characters to alter the case and mode operations. You type these
characters immediately before the word or group of words you want to
arrange. Just like RUNOFF commands, these special characters do not
appear in your output after running RUNOFF. Special text characters
Underscore (_) Takes next character as text.
Circumflex (^) Uppercases next character.
Back-slash (\) Lowercases next character.
Number sign (#) Treats as an expandable space.
Ampersand (&) Underlines next character.
Less-than (<) Capitalizes the following word.
Greater-than (>) Indexes the following word.
Exclamation point (!) Ends footnote or begins comment.
Period (.) Treats what follows as a RUNOFF command.
Semicolon (;) Used to separate multiple commands.
The RUNOFF program:
Destroys your core image.
Places your terminal at user level.
1. Use the .LIST and .LIST ELEMENT commands to create a list.
.LE;Page numbers on every page except the first,
.LE;Spacing 1 between lines,
.LE;Fill and justify,
.LE;Tab stops 9,17,25,33,41,49,57,65,
.LE;Left margin 0,
.LE;Right margin 60,
.LE;Page size - Width 60 characters, Length 58 lines.
Your output would look like the following:
1. Page numbers on every page except the first,
2. Spacing 1 between lines,
3. Fill and justify,
4. Tab stops 9,17,25,33,41,49,57,65,
5. Left margin 0,
6. Right margin 60,
7. Page size - Width 60 characters, Length 58 lines.
2. To get header levels in your text, you can insert commands in
your text as follows:
.CHAPTER EXAMPLE 5
.HL 1 FIRST LEVEL OF SECTION 1
The command .<HEADER <LEVEL starts a section at the level
specified and takes the following text as the header.##The
n can be in the range from 1 to 5.
.HL 1 SECOND LEVEL OF SECTION 1
The sections are incremented by 1, and the number is
output in the form i.j.k.l.m.##If this is a chapter
oriented document, the i is the chapter number;#otherwise, the
i is the number of the .<HI 1 level.
.HL 1 THIRD LEVEL OF SECTION 1
This command acts as
.<BREAK .<TEST <PAGE 9;.<BLANK 3
followed by the section number.##<HEADER <LEVEL<S 1 AND 2
end with a .<BREAK.##<HEADER <LEVEL<S 3, 4, AND 5 end with
a space dash space combination (_#-_#).
Your output would look like:
1.1 FIRST LEVEL OF SECTION 1
The command .HEADER LEVEL starts a section at the level specified and
takes the following text as the header. The n can be in the range
from 1 to 5.
1.2 SECOND LEVEL OF SECTION 1
The sections are incremented by 1, and the number is output in the
form i.j.k.l.m. If this is a chapter oriented document, the i is the
chapter number; otherwise, the i is the number of the .HL 1 level.
1.3 THIRD LEVEL OF SECTION 1
This command acts as
.BREAK .TEST PAGE 9;.BLANK 3
followed by the section number. HEADER LEVELs 1 and 2 end with a
.BREAK. HEADER LEVELS 3, 4, and 5 end with a space dash space