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The LOAD command translates the specified source files if
necessary, runs the loader, and loads the generated .REL files
into memory. The appropriate language compiler is determined by
the source file extension or by switches in the command string.
(For more information, see the helpf file for the COMPILE
command, COMPIL. If a .REL file already exists with a more
recent date than that of the source file, compilation is not
performed (unless you request it using the /COMPILE switch).
This command runs the COMPIL program, which interprets the
command before running the appropriate language compiler and
The LOAD command generates a core image but does not begin
executing the program. After the LOAD command, you can START
your program or SAVE the core image for future execution.
Each time the COMPILE, LOAD, EXECUTE, or DEBUG command is
executed, the system remembers the arguments and switches.
Therefore, if you issue one of these commands with no arguments,
the system uses the stored arguments.
The LOAD command accepts several command constructions: the @
construction (indirect commands), the + construction, the =
construction, and the < > construction. For more information
about command constructions, see the help file for COMPILE-class
Where: file-spec is one or more file specifications separated
by commas. A file specification consists of a device
name, a file name with or without an extension, and a
directory name. For more information about file
specifications, see the help file FISPEC.
The following switches modify the command string.
/ALGOL Compiles the file with ALGOL. Assumed for files
with the extension of .ALG.
/BINARY Generates a binary file for each file compiled.
The file extension of the output file is .REL.
This is the default action.
/BLISS Compiles the file with BLISS-10. Assumed for
files with the extension of .B10 and .BLI.
/C68 Runs the specified COBOL compiler.
/COBOL Compiles the file with COBOL. Assumed for files
with the extension of .CBL.
/COMPILE Compiles the file even if a binary file exists
with a newer date and time than the source file.
This switch is used to obtain an extra
compilation (for example, to obtain a listing of
the compilation) because compilation is not
performed if the binary file is newer than the
/CREF Produces a cross-referenced listing file on the
disk for each file compiled, for later
processing by the CREF program. The file
extension of the output file is .CRF. The files
can then be listed with the CREF command.
However, with COBOL files the cross-referenced
listing is always appended to the listing file.
/DDT Loads the program debugger DDT with the program.
/DEBUG: Passes the specified arguments to FORTRAN.
(arg, arg,...) See the TOPS-10/TOPS-20 FORTRAN Language Manual.
/DLIST Produces a .LST file and stores it in your
directory. You can obtain a listing of the file
with the PRINT command.
/F66 Applies FORTRAN-66 rules for DO loops and
/FORDDT Loads the FORTRAN debugger with the program.
/FORTRAN Compiles the file with a FORTRAN compiler.
Assumed for files with the extension of .F4 and
.FOR and all files with nonstandard compiler
extensions. This switch is necessary if the
file has a nonstandard compiler extension and
FORTRAN is not the standard compiler or is not
the current default.
/FUDGE: Creates a disk file containing the names of the
file-spec .REL files produced by the command string. When
you give the FUDGE command, PIP reads this file
to generate a library REL file. (See the FUDGE
command help file, FUDGE, for more information.
The argument to the switch is:
Where: dev: is the device on which to
write the file. If you omit the
device name, DSK: is assumed.
file.ext is the name of the library
file. The file name is required.
If you omit the extension, it is
assumed to be .REL.
[directory] is the directory in
which to place the file. Your
default directory number is assumed
if none is given.
This switch is permanent in that it pertains to
all .REL files generated by the command string.
/GFLOAT Indicates that double-precision numbers are to
be stored in G-floating format. This format has
an extended exponent range. This option is
available on KL10 processors only.
/K?10 Designates the machine on which the program will
execute once it has been loaded. The ? can be
replaced by L or S.
/LIBRARY Loads the files in library search mode. This
mode causes a program in a special library to be
loaded only if one or more of its declared entry
symbols satisfies an undefined global request in
the source file. The default libraries are
always searched. (Refer to the LINK
/LIST Generates a disk listing file for each file
compiled. The file extension of the output file
is .LST. These files can be listed later with
the PRINT command. If the line printer is being
spooled for this job, the files are
automatically printed. If you do not specify
this switch, listing files are not generated.
/LMAP Produces a loader map during the loading process
that contains the local symbols.
/MACRO Assembles the file with MACRO. Assumed for
files with extension of .MAC.
/MACY11 Assembles the file with MACY11. Assumed for
files with an extension of .P11. This switch is
/MAP Produces a loader map during loading. After a
library search of the default libraries, the map
is written in your disk area with either the
file name you specify (for example, /MAP:file)
or with the default file name MAP.MAP. This
switch is an exception to the permanent switch
rule, because although it may be used as a
permanent switch, it causes only one map to be
/NEW Runs the appropriate language compiler from the
experimental system library (device NEW:) area
[1,5]. If the compiler does not exist on device
NEW:, COMPIL tries to obtain it from device
SYS:. (Refer to Restriction.)
/NOBINARY Does not generate binary files. This switch,
when combined with the /CREF or /LIST switch, is
useful when compiling programs only to generate
/NOCOMPILE Does not force a compilation of a source file
whose date is not as recent as the date on the
binary file. Note that this switch is not the
same as the /REL switch, which turns off all
compilation, even if the source file is newer
than the .REL file. /NOCOMPILE is the default
action. Complement to the /COMPILE switch.
/NODEBUG Does not pass previously specified arguments to
/NOLIST Does not generate listing files. This is the
/NOOPTIMIZE Does not optimize the object source code of a
/NOSEARCH Loads all routines of the file whether the
routines are referenced or not. Because this is
the default, this switch turns off library
search mode (/LIBRARY).
/OLD Runs the appropriate language compiler from the
system library of old programs (device OLD:)
that resides on the disk area [1,3]. If the
compiler does not exist on device OLD:, COMPIL
tries to obtain it from device SYS:. (Refer to
/OPTIMIZE Optimizes the object source code of a FORTRAN
/PAL10 Assembles the file with PAL10. Assumed for
files with the .PAL extension.
/PASCAL Compiles the file with Pascal. Assumed for
files with the .PAS extension.
/REL Uses the existing .REL files although a newer
source file might be present.
/SAVE Saves the core image of the loaded program.
/SEARCH Loads the files in library search mode. This
switch is identical to the /LIBRARY switch.
/SELF Runs the appropriate language compiler from
device DSK: instead of from the system library
(device SYS:). This switch is useful if you
keep a private copy of a compiler in your disk
area to test new features. (Refer to
/SNOBOL Compiles the file with SNOBOL. Assumed for
files with an extension of .SNO. This switch is
/SSAVE Saves the core image of the loaded program in a
sharable executable file.
/SYS Runs the appropriate language compiler from the
system library (device SYS:). This is the
Once a language compiler has been specified from a particular
area (for example, /SELF), it cannot be called from a different
area within the same command string. The following is illegal:
However, the following is valid:
Leaves your terminal at monitor level.
Runs the appropriate compiler or language compiler and LINK,
destroying your original core image.
The following example shows how to LOAD and SAVE a program.
The DIRECTORY command shows all the files named TEST.
TEST FOR 1 <055> dd-mmm-yy DSKC: [27,5055]
LOAD the program. The monitor compiles and loads TEST.
Save the loaded program.
A directory shows that the executable format has been saved in
TEST FOR 1 <055> dd-mmm-yy DSKC: [27,5055]
TEST REL 1 <055> dd-mmm-yy
TEST EXE 160 <055> dd-mmm-yy 6(422)
TOTAL OF 162 BLOCKS IN 3 FILES ON DSKC: [27,5055]