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The DEBUG command loads your program into memory along with a
debugging program, compiling the source file first if necessary. Then
it starts the debugging program.
@DEBUG (FROM) /switch(es) source/switch(es) object,...
switches are keywords chosen from the list below,
indicating your choice of DEBUG command options.
They have different effects depending on their
position in the command line: placed before all
files in the command, they act as defaults for
all; otherwise, they affect only the nearest
Defaults are shown in the list of switches
source is the file specification of the source program.
The filename must be of 6 or fewer characters, and
the file type of 3 or fewer characters; you cannot
use a generation number. This argument is not
necessary if you supply an object filespec.
object is the file specification of the object program.
The filename must be of six or fewer characters,
and the file type must be .REL; you cannot use a
generation number. This argument is not necessary
if you supply a source filespec.
Default (if you give neither source nor
object filespecs) - last filespecs
and associated switches you gave in a
Summary of DEBUG Command Switches (defaults in boldface)
DEBUG Command Switches
/10-BLISS compiles the file using the BLISS-10 compiler.
Default for files of type .B10 and .BLI
/36-BLISS compiles the file using the BLISS-36 compiler.
Default for files of type .B36
/68-COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL-68 compiler.
Default for files of type .C68
/74-COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL-74 compiler.
Default for files of type .C74
/ABORT stops a compile if a fatal error is detected and
returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command level.
/ALGOL compiles the file using the ALGOL compiler.
Default for files of type .ALG
/BINARY allows generation of an object (binary) file for
each source file given.
/COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL compiler,
either COBOL-68 or COBOL-74, that your
installation has stored in the file
Default for files of type .CBL
/COMPILE forces compilation of the source file even if a
current object file already exists. Use this
switch along with a /LIST or /CREF switch to
obtain listings when you have current object
/CREF same as /CROSS-REFERENCE.
creates a file containing cross-reference
information for each compilation. The filename
is that of the object file; the file type is
.CRF. Use the CREF command to obtain a listing
of the file. (For COBOL files, this switch
automatically produces a cross-reference
listing.) See the TOPS-20 User Utilities Guide
for more information about the CREF program.
/DDT loads the DDT debugging program along with your
/DEBUG produces an object file containing debugging
information beyond what is usually inserted
during compilation. (For FORTRAN programs only,
and only if you have not given the /OPTIMIZE
/FAIL compiles the file using the FAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .FAI
indicates nonstandard syntax in file.
/FORTRAN compiles the file using the FORTRAN compiler.
Default in the absence of a standard source
file type and a language switch
Default for files of type .FOR
passes the specified switches to the compiler
that will process the file(s) to which this
switch applies. You must include the switches
in double quotation marks (" ").
/LIBRARY same as /SEARCH.
/LIST prints a line printer listing of the program in
ASCII format; the name of this listing is the
filename of the object file. The /CREF switch
overrides /LIST when they both apply to the same
/MAC same as /MACRO.
/MACHINE-CODE produces a file containing the generated machine
code. The filename is that of the object file;
the file type is .LST. For high level
/MACRO assembles the files using the MACRO assembler.
Default for files of type .MAC
/MAP produces a loader map and stores it in the file
object.MAP, where object is the name of the
module containing the start address; or (if no
start address) nnnLNK.MAP, where nnn is your job
/NOBINARY prevents generation of an object (binary) file.
Use this switch along with /LIST or /CREF to
allow these switches to take effect without
producing a new object file.
/NOCOMPILE prevents compilation if the associated object
file is current; otherwise it forces
compilation. Cancels the /COMPILE or
/NOCREF same as /NOCROSS-REFERENCE.
prevents the creation of a cross-reference file.
/NODEBUG excludes special debugging information from your
object file. (For FORTRAN programs only.)
prevents a line printer listing of a
/NOLIBRARY same as /NOSEARCH.
/NOLIST prevents a line printer listing of the program.
/NOMACHINE-CODE prevents generation of a file containing machine
/NOOPTIMIZE prevents the generation of a globally optimized
object file (for FORTRAN programs only).
/NOSEARCH requires all modules in the object file library
(the file accompanied by this switch in the
command line) to be loaded even if they are not
called by your program. Cancels the /SEARCH
/NOSTAY stops the compiler from being placed in a
background fork. Use when /STAY is set as a
default for the compiler.
/NOSYMBOLS prevents a symbol table from being loaded along
with the object file.
/NOWARNINGS prevents display of warnings for nonfatal
/OPTIMIZE calls for generation of a globally optimized
object file, that is, one that runs as quickly
as possible. (For FORTRAN programs only, and
only if you do not also give the /DEBUG switch).
/PASCAL compiles the file using the PASCAL compiler.
Default for files of type .PAS
/RELOCATABLE identifies the input file as an object file
(regardless of its extension) and prevents
compilation of the source file, forcing use of
an existing object file even if the object file
is out of date.
Default for files of type .REL
/SAIL compiles the file using the SAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .SAI
/SEARCH requires that the object file library (the file
accompanied by this switch in the command line)
be searched for modules called by your program
or by a program subroutine. Only these modules
are loaded, along with modules called from the
system libraries, which are always searched.
/SIMULA compiles the file using the SIMULA compiler.
Default for files of type .SIM
/SNOBOL compiles the file using the SNOBOL compiler.
Default for files of type .SNO
/STAY returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command level
so that you can perform other work while the
system continues executing the DEBUG command.
You immediately receive the TOPS-20 prompt (@ or
$) and can then issue any user command. Be
careful not to send incorrect data to programs
expecting terminal input. (Refer to the
CONTINUE command, Restrictions: Programs
competing for terminal input.)
This switch saves you from having to: issue a
^T to make sure the debugger has begun; give a
^C to halt debugging; and issue a CONTINUE /STAY
command to remain at command level during
/SYMBOLS loads a symbol table along with the object file;
helpful for debugging a program.
/WARNINGS displays warnings for nonfatal errors.
Compiling New Sources Only
Before debugging programs, the system ordinarily compiles
any source (and only those sources) whose write date is more
recent than that of the object file of the same name. You
can override this action with the /COMPILE or /RELOCATABLE
switch. Note that the DDT debugging program is used when
/RELOCATABLE prevents a new compilation.
Default Switches Not Passed to Compiler
Only switches specified in a LOAD-class command are passed
to the compiler; default switches are not passed. Instead,
the system assumes that the defaults for the compiler are
the same as the defaults for the LOAD-class command.
Using Standard File Types
If you specify source files with standard types (.FOR, .MAC,
.CBL, or .ALG) in a DEBUG command, the system automatically
calls the appropriate compiler when compilation is
necessary. If you specify source files by filename only,
the system searches your connected directory in the above
order for a file of this name and a standard type. To debug
programs from sources that have nonstandard file types, give
a switch to indicate the proper compiler (/FORTRAN, /MACRO,
/COBOL, or /ALGOL). A switch will take precedence over a
standard file type if they indicate different languages. If
no compiler is indicated with either a switch or a standard
file type, the FORTRAN compiler is used.
Name of Debugging Program Loaded by DEBUG
Ordinarily the DEBUG command causes the appropriate
debugging program to be loaded along with your program
(FORDDT with FORTRAN programs. COBDDT with COBOL programs,
DDT with MACRO and ALGOL programs). Use the /DDT switch to
specify that DDT be used.
Commas Between Filespecs
If you give two or more filespecs separated by commas as
arguments to DEBUG, the loaded programs exist in memory at
the same time and will act as a single program. You can use
this feature to substitute one module for another under
varying conditions or for different applications.
Plus Signs Between Filespecs
If you give two or more filespecs separated by plus signs
(+) as arguments to DEBUG, they are treated as a single file
by compilers. Their object module is stored under any
filename given as the "object" argument of the command, or
(if none) under the last filename in the group and file type
Indirect Files as Arguments
You can store the arguments (source and object filespecs,
switches) of a DEBUG command in an indirect file, and
specify them by typing an at sign (@) and its filespec as a
DEBUG command argument.
Establishing Default Arguments with the SET Command
You can issue the SET DEFAULT COMPILE-SWITCHES command to
set up default global arguments to the DEBUG command.
Insert this SET command in your COMAND.CMD file to change
your own defaults permanently.
Including all FORTRAN Debugging Information
If you are debugging a FORTRAN program and you wish to
examine line numbers or DO loops, or use statement tracing
or array dimension checking, give the /DEBUG and /COMPILE
switches with the DEBUG command to include the necessary
Running LINK Directly
The DEBUG command automatically runs LINK, the system's
loader program, but if you require control of the loading
process you can run LINK directly. See the TOPS-20 LINK
Wildcards Illegal with DEBUG
The DEBUG command does not accept wildcard characters (* and
%) in a file specification.
Effect on Memory
The DEBUG command clears any unkept forks from memory, loads the
appropriate compiler if necessary, then loads your program and a
compatible debugging program.
COMPILE, LOAD, and EXECUTE other LOAD-class commands for
performing related functions
DDT for loading and starting the DDT
debugging program, or for starting
the debugging program you have
1. Debug a FORTRAN program.
[LNKDEB FOR DDT Execution]
STARTING FORTRAN DDT
2. Debug a FORTRAN program using the /COMPILE switch to force
compilation and the /DEBUG switch to generate additional
@DEBUG /COMPILE /DEBUG FORT.FOR
[LNKDEB FORDDT Execution]
STARTING FORTRAN DDT
3. Using incompatible switches, try to debug a program. (The
system ignores one of them and continues.)
%ERROR IS GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION NOT SUPPORTED WITH
/DEBUG - /OPT IGNORED
[LNKDEB FORDDT Execution]
STARTING FORTRAN DDT
4. Get a time-ordered list of TEST1 files in your directory.
Debug an old version of it.
TEST1.CBL.2 5-Jan-85 13:10:57
.LST.1 6-Jan-85 14:22:00
.REL.1 6-Dec-84 10:08:17
Total of 3 files
[LNKDEB DDT Execution]