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The EXECUTE command loads your program into memory, compiling the
source file first if necessary. Then it starts the program.
@EXECUTE (FROM) /switch(es) source/switch(es) object,...
switches are keywords chosen from the list below, indicating
your choice of EXECUTE command options. They have
different effects depending on their position in the
command line: placed before all files in the
command, they act on defaults for all; otherwise
they affect only the nearest preceding file.
Defaults are shown in the list of switches
source is the file specification of the source program.
The filename must be of 6 or fewer characters, and
the file type of 30 fewer characters; you cannot use
a generation number. This argument is not necessary
if you supply an object filespec.
object is the file specification of the object program.
The filename must be of six or fewer characters, and
the file type must be .REL; you cannot use a
generation number. This argument is not necessary
if you supply a source.
Default (if you give neither source nor object
filespecs) - last filespecs and
associated switches you gave in a
Summary of EXECUTE Command Switches (defaults in boldface)
Descriptions of these switches are given below. Although the
system will not reject switches described under any of the
LOAD-class commands, only those switches commonly associated with
EXECUTE are described here.
EXECUTE Command Switches
/10-BLISS compiles the file using the BLISS-10 compiler.
Default for files of type .B10 and .BLI
/36-BLISS compiles the file using the BLISS-36 compiler.
Default for files of type .B36
/68-COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL-68 compiler.
Default for files of type .C68 or .68C
/74-COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL-74 compiler.
Default for files of type .C74 or .74C
/ABORT stops a compile if a fatal error is detected
and returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command
/ALGOL compiles the file using the ALGOL compiler.
Default for files of type .ALG
/BINARY allows generation of an object (binary) file
for each source file given.
/COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL compiler,
either COBOL-68 or COBOL-74, that your
installation has stored in the file
Default for files of type .CBL
/COMPILE forces compilation of the source file even if a
current object file already exists. Use this
switch along with a /LIST or /CREF switch to
obtain listings when you have current object
/CREF same as /CROSS-REFERENCE.
creates a file containing cross-reference
information for each compilation. The file
name is that of the object file; the file type
is .CRF. Use the CREF command to obtain a
listing of the file. (For COBOL files this
switch automatically produces a cross-reference
/DDT loads the DDT debugging program along with your
/DEBUG produces an object file containing debugging
information beyond what is usually inserted
during compilation. (For FORTRAN programs
only, and only if you have not given the
/FAIL compiles the file using the FAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .FAI
indicates nonstandard syntax in a file
/FORTRAN compiles the file using the FORTRAN compiler.
Default in the absence of a standard
source file type and a language
Default for files of type .FOR
passes the specified switches to the compiler
that will process the file(s) to which this
switch applies. You must include the switches
in double quotation marks (" ").
/LIBRARY same as /SEARCH.
/LIST prints a line printer listing of the program in
ASCII format; the name of this listing is the
filename of the object file. The /CREF switch
overrides /LIST when they both apply to the
/MAC same as /MACRO.
/MACHINE-CODE produces a file containing the generated
machine code. The filename is that of the
object file; the file type is .LST. For
/MACRO assembles the file using the MACRO assembler.
Default for files of type .MAC
/MAP produces a loader map and stores it in the file
object.MAP, where object is the name of the
module containing the start address; or (if no
start address) nnnLNK.MAP, where nnn is your
/NOBINARY prevents generation of an object (binary) file.
Use this switch along with /LIST or /CREF to
allow these switches to take effect without
producing a new object file.
/NOCOMPILE prevents compilation if the object file is
current; otherwise it forces compilation.
Cancels the /COMPILE or /RELOCATABLE switch.
/NOCREF same as NOCROSS-REFERENCE.
prevents the creation of a cross-reference
/NODEBUG excludes special debugging information from
your object file.
prevents the flagging of non-standard syntax in
/NOLIBRARY same as /NOSEARCH.
/NOLIST prevents a line printer listing of the program.
/NOMACHINE-CODE prevents generation of a file containing
/NOOPTIMIZE prevents the generation of a globally optimized
object file (for FORTRAN programs only).
/NOSEARCH requires all modules in the object file library
(the file accompanied by this switch in the
command line) to be loaded even if they are not
called by your program. Cancels the /SEARCH
/NOSTAY stops the compiler from being placed in a
background fork. Use when /STAY is set as a
default for the compiler.
/NOSYMBOLS prevents a symbol table from being loaded along
with the object file.
/NOWARNINGS prevents display of warnings for nonfatal
/OPTIMIZE generates a globally optimized object file; one
that runs as quickly as possible. (For FORTRAN
programs only, and only if you do not also give
the /DEBUG switch (see the DEBUG command
/PASCAL compiles the file using the PASCAL compiler.
Default for files of type .PAS
/RELOCATABLE identifies the input file as an object file
(regardless of its extension) and prevents
compilation of the source file, forcing use of
an existing object file even if the object file
is out of date.
Default for files of type .REL
/SAIL compiles the file using the SAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .SAI
/SEARCH requires that the object file library (the file
accompanied by this switch in the command line)
be searched for modules called by your program
or by a program subroutine. Only these modules
are loaded, along with modules called from
system libraries, which are always searched.
/SIMULA compiles the file using the SIMULA compiler.
Default for files of type .SIM
/SNOBOL compiles the file using the SNOBOL compiler.
Default for files of type .SNO
/STAY returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command level
so that you can perform other work while the
system continues to execute your program. You
immediately receive the TOPS-20 prompt (@ or
$), and can then issue any user command. Be
careful not to send incorrect data to programs
expecting terminal input. See the CONTINUE
command, Restrictions: Programs Competing for
This switch saves you from having to: issue a
^T to make sure execution has begun; give a ^C
to halt the job; and issue a CONTINUE /STAY
command to remain at command level during
/SYMBOLS loads a symbols table along with the object
file (helpful for debugging a program).
/WARNINGS displays warnings for nonfatal errors.
Compiling New Sources Only
Before executing programs, the system ordinarily compiles
any source (and only those sources) whose write date is more
recent that that of the object file of the same name. You
can override this action with the /COMPILE or /RELOCATABLE
Using Standard File Types
If you specify source files with standard types (.FOR, .MAC,
.CBL, or .ALG) in an EXECUTE command, the system
automatically calls the appropriate compiler when
compilation is necessary. If you specify source files by
filename only, the system searches your connected directory
in the above order for a file of this name and a standard
type. To execute programs from sources that have
nonstandard file types, give a switch to indicate the proper
compiler (/FORTRAN, /MACRO, /COBOL, or /ALGOL). A switch
will take precedence over a standard file type if they
indicate different languages. If no compiler is indicated
with either a switch or a standard file type, the FORTRAN
compiler is used.
Default Switches Not Passed to Compiler
Only switches specified in a LOAD-class command are passed
to the compiler; default switches are not passed. Instead,
the system assumes that the defaults for the compiler are
the same as the defaults for the LOAD-class command.
Commas Between Filespecs
If you give two or more filespecs separated by commas as
arguments to EXECUTE, the loaded programs exist in memory at
the same time and will act as a single program. You can use
this feature to substitute one module for another under
varying conditions or for different applications.
Plus Signs Between Filespecs
If you give two or more filespecs separated by plus signs
(+) as arguments to EXECUTE, they are treated as a single
file by compilers. Their object module is stored under any
filename given as the "object" argument of the command, or
(if none) under the last filename in the group and file type
Indirect Files as Arguments
You can store the arguments (source and object filespecs,
switches) of an EXECUTE command in an indirect file, and
specify them by typing an at sign (@) and its filespec as an
EXECUTE command argument.
Establishing Default Arguments with the SET Command
You can issue the SET DEFAULT COMPILE-SWITCHES command to
set up default global arguments to the EXECUTE command.
Insert this SET command in your COMAND.CMD file to change
your own defaults permanently.
Running LINK Directly
The EXECUTE command automatically runs LINK, the system's
loader program, but if you require control of the loading
process you can run LINK directly. See the TOPS-20 LINK
Wildcards Illegal with EXECUTE
The EXECUTE command does not accept wildcard characters (*
and %) in a file specification.
Effect on Memory
The EXECUTE command clears any unkept forks from memory, loads
the appropriate compiler if necessary, then loads and starts your
COMPILE, LOAD, and DEBUG other LOAD-class commands for
performing related functions
RUN for running executable programs
1. Execute a program, indicating the language with a standard
[LNKXCT CAFN EXECUTION]
END OF EXECUTION
CPU TIME: 0.04 ELAPSED TIME: 0.89
2. Execute a program, indicating the language with a switch.
Specify the /STAY switch to return immediately to TOPS-20
3. Execute two programs, requesting a cross-reference file for
one of them.
@EXECUTE CAFN, TAFN/CREF
[LNKXCT TAFN EXECUTION]
END OF EXECUTION
CPU TIME: 0.04 ELAPSED TIME: 0.15
4. Combine two source programs into a single object program, and
run this program.
[LNKXCT TAFN EXECUTION]
END OF EXECUTION
CPU TIME: 0.04 ELAPSED TIME: 0.16
5. Execute an ALGOL program, ensuring that the compilation
includes required modules only; request a map.
@EXECUTE /COMPILE/MAP CALEND/ALGOL, ALGMOD.LBR/SEARCH