There are 5 other files named load.hlp in the archive. Click here to see a list.
The LOAD command loads your program into memory, compiling the source
file first if necessary.
@LOAD (FROM) /switch(es) source/switch(es) object,...
switches are keywords chosen from the list below,
indicating your choice of LOAD command options.
They have different effects depending on their
position in the command line: placed before all
files in the command, they act as defaults for
all; otherwise they affect only the nearest
Defaults are shown in the list of switches
source is the file specification of the source program.
The filename must be of 6 or fewer characters, and
the file type of 3 or fewer characters; you cannot
use a generation number. This argument is not
necessary if you supply an object filespec.
object is the file specification of the object program.
The filename must be of 6 or fewer characters, and
the file type must be .REL; you cannot use a
generation number. This argument is not necessary
if you supply a source filespec.
Default (if you give neither source nor
object filespecs) - last filespecs
and associated switches you gave in a
Summary of LOAD Command Switches (defaults marked by asterisk)
LOAD Command Switches
/10-BLISS compiles the file using the BLISS-10 compiler.
Default for files of type .B10 and .BLI
/36-BLISS compiles the file using the BLISS-36 compiler.
Default for files of type .B36
/68-COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL-68 compiler.
Default for files of type .C68 or .68C
/74-COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL-74 compiler.
Default for files of type .C74 or .74C
/ABORT stops a compile if a fatal error is detected
and returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command
/ALGOL compiles the file using the ALGOL compiler.
Default for files of type .ALG
/BINARY allows generation of an object (binary) file
for each source file given.
/COBOL compiles the file using the COBOL compiler,
either COBOL-68 or COBOL-74, that your
installation has stored in the file
Default for files of type .CBL
/COMPILE forces compilation of the source file even if a
current object file already exists. Use this
switch along with a /LIST or /CREF switch to
obtain listings when you have current object
/CREF same as /CROSS-REFERENCE.
creates a file containing cross-reference
information for each compilation. The file
name is that of the object file; the file type
is .CRF. Use the CREF command to obtain a
listing of the file. (For COBOL files, the
switch automatically produces a cross-reference
listing.) See the TOPS-20 User Utilities Guide
for more information about the CREF program.
/DDT loads the DDT debugging program along with your
/DEBUG produces an object file containing debugging
information beyond that usually provided during
a compilation (for use with FORTRAN programs
only, and only if you have not given the
/FAIL compiles the file using the FAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .FAI
indicates nonstandard syntax in file.
/FORTRAN compiles the file using the FORTRAN compiler.
Default in the absence of a standard source
file type and a language switch
Default for files of type .FOR
passes the specified switches to the compiler
that will process the file(s) to which the
switch applies. You must include the switches
in double quotation marks (" ").
/LIBRARY same as /SEARCH.
/LIST prints a line printer listing of the program in
ASCII format. The name of this listing is the
filename of the object file. The /CREF switch
overrides /LIST when they both apply to the
/MAC same as /MACRO.
/MACHINE-CODE produces a file containing the generated
machine code. The filename is that of the
object file; the file type is .LST. For
/MACRO assembles the file using the MACRO assembler.
Default for files of type .MAC
/MAP produces a loader map and stores it in the file
object.MAP, where object is the name of the
module containing the start address; or (if no
start address) nnnLNK.MAP, where nnn is your
/NOBINARY prevents generation of an object (binary) file.
Use this switch along with /LIST or /CREF to
allow these switches to take effect without
producing a new object file.
/NOCOMPILE prevents compilation if the associated object
file is current; otherwise it forces
compilation. Cancels the /COMPILE or
/NOCREF same as /NOCROSS-REFERENCE.
prevents the creation of a cross-reference
/NODEBUG excludes special debugging information from
your object file.
prevents the flagging of non-standard syntax in
/NOLIBRARY same as /NOSEARCH.
/NOLIST prevents a line printer listing of the program.
/NOMACHINE-CODE prevents generation of a file containing
/NOOPTIMIZE prevents the generation of a globally optimized
object file (for FORTRAN programs only).
/NOSEARCH requires all modules in the object file library
(the file accompanied by this switch in the
command line) to be loaded even if they are not
called by your program. Cancels the /SEARCH
/NOSTAY stops the compiler from being placed in a
background fork. Use when /STAY is set as a
default for the compiler.
/NOSYMBOLS prevents a symbol table from being loaded along
with the object file.
/NOWARNINGS prevents display of warnings for nonfatal
/OPTIMIZE calls for generation of a globally optimized
object file, that is, one that runs as quickly
as possible (for FORTRAN programs only, and
only if you do not also give the /DEBUG
/PASCAL compiles the file using the PASCAL compiler.
Default for files of type .PAS
/RELOCATABLE identifies the input file as an object file
(regardless of its extension) and prevents
compilation of the source file, /RELOCATABLE
switch forcing use of an existing object file
even if the object file is out of date.
Default for files of type .REL
/SAIL compiles the file using the SAIL compiler.
Default for files of type .SAI
/SEARCH requires that the object file library (the file
accompanied by this switch in the command line)
be searched for modules called by your program
or by a program subroutine. Only these modules
are loaded, along with modules called from the
system libraries, which are always searched.
/SIMULA compiles the file using the SIMULA compiler.
Default for files of type .SIM
/SNOBOL compiles the file using the SNOBOL compiler.
Default for files of type .SNO
/STAY returns your terminal to TOPS-20 command level
so that you can perform other work while the
system continues to load your program. You
immediately receive the TOPS-20 prompt (@ or
$), and can then issue any user command. Be
careful not to send incorrect data to programs
expecting terminal input. (Refer to the
CONTINUE command, Restrictions: Programs
Competing for Terminal Input. This switch
saves you from having to: issue a ^T to make
sure loading has begun; give a ^C to halt the
job; and issue a CONTINUE /STAY command to
remain at command level during loading.
/SYMBOLS loads a symbol table along with the object file
(helpful for debugging a program).
/WARNINGS displays warnings for nonfatal errors.
Compiling New Sources Only
Before loading programs, the system ordinarily compiles any
specified source (and only those sources) whose write date
is more recent than that of the object file of the same
name. You can override this action with the /COMPILE or
Using Standard File Types
If you specify source files with standard types (.FOR, .MAC,
for example) in a LOAD command, the system automatically
calls the appropriate compiler when compilation is
necessary. If you specify source files by filename only,
the system searches your connected directory for a file of
this name and a standard type. To load programs from
sources that have nonstandard file types, give a switch to
indicate the proper compiler (/FORTRAN, /MACRO, /COBOL, or
/ALGOL). A switch will take precedence over a standard file
type if they indicate different languages. If no compiler
is indicated with either a switch or a standard file type,
the FORTRAN compiler is used.
Default Switches Not Passed to Compiler
Only switches specified in a LOAD-class command are passed
to the compiler; default switches are not passed. Instead,
the system assumes that the defaults for the compiler are
the same as the defaults for the LOAD-class command.
Commas Between Filespecs
If you give two or more filespecs separated by commas as
arguments to LOAD, the loaded programs exist in memory at
the same time and will operate as a single program. You can
use this feature to substitute one module for another under
varying conditions or for different applications.
Plus Signs Between Filespecs
If you give two or more source filespecs separated by plus
signs (+) as arguments to LOAD, they are compiled together
as if they were a single file. Their object module is
stored under any filename given as the "object" argument of
the command, or (if none) under the last filename in the
group and file type .REL.
Indirect Files as Arguments
You can store arguments (source and object filespecs,
switches) of a LOAD command in an indirect file, and specify
them by typing an at sign (@) and its filespec as a LOAD
Establishing Default Arguments with the SET Command
You can issue the SET DEFAULT COMPILE-SWITCHES command to
set up default global arguments to the LOAD command. Insert
this SET command in your COMAND.CMD file to change your own
Running Link Directly
The LOAD command automatically runs LINK, the system's
linking loader, but if you require more control of the
loading process you can run LINK directly. See the TOPS-20
LINK Reference Manual.
Using GET Instead of LOAD
If you have used the SAVE command to save your programs in
executable format, you can use the GET command instead of
LOAD to place them in memory. This is a faster and less
expensive means of loading programs into memory.
Wildcards Illegal with LOAD
The LOAD command does not accept wildcard characters (* and
%) in a file specification.
Warning - Generation Numbers, Long Filespecs
You must not give generation numbers when specifying source or
object files; the system automatically uses the highest
generation. Also, most compilers require filenames of 6 or fewer
characters and file types of 3 or fewer characters.
COMPILE, EXECUTE, and DEBUG other LOAD-class
commands for performing
SAVE for saving the loaded
program in an .EXE file
START for starting the loaded
SET DEFAULT COMPILE-SWITCHES for establishing
default switches for
INFORMATION DEFAULTS COMPILE-SWITCHES for examining default
for LOAD-class commands
1. Load an object file into memory.
2. Load the same program, allowing the system to update the
object file if necessary.
3. Load a MACRO program and request a loader map or memory map.
(Notice the filename of this map.)
FT.MAP.1 6-APR-85 15:23:17
4. Load a COBOL program, forcing a new compilation that includes
only the required modules. Request a map.
@LOAD /MAP TEST1/COMPILE, COBLIB/SEARCH
COBOL: DBL [TEST1.CBL]
5. Compile a program. Then load it, requesting a
cross-reference listing this time. Finally, save the program
in executable format.
COBOL: DBL [TEST1.CBL]
COBOL: DBL [TEST1.CBL]
6. Combine two FORTRAN sources into an object program under a
new name. Start this program.
@LOAD LSTSQ+ABRR REGRES
7. Create an indirect file, and use it to load several modules
at once. Request cross-reference files, then give the CREF
command to turn these into listings.
00100 HJRAD/COMPILE, FORLIB/SEARCH
00200 HJVTT/COMPILE, FORLIB/SEARCH
@LOAD /CREF @SERVTT.CMD