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PUSH command

The PUSH command creates a new level of TOPS-20 inferior  to  the  one
from which you give the PUSH command.




     A New Level of TOPS-20

          The PUSH command creates an inferior level  of  the  TOPS-20
          command  processor  (EXEC).   The system's SYSTEM:COMAND.CMD
          file and your login directory's COMAND.CMD file are executed
          again,  you have a fresh copy of memory and can begin giving
          commands as if you had just logged  in.   However,  job-wide
          parameters (for example, connected and accessed directories,
          logical name definitions, most  parameters  altered  by  SET
          commands)  are  unaffected  by  the  PUSH command and retain
          their values.


     Creating a Different Copy of an EXEC

          You can use the PUSH command to create an inferior level  of
          an  EXEC  of  your  choice.  Normally, PUSH creates the EXEC
          defined by the system logical name, DEFAULT-EXEC:.  Use  the
          DEFINE  command to define a job logical name, DEFAULT-EXEC:,
          with the name of the EXEC you want to create each  time  you

          Note  that  many  TOPS-20  programs  have  their  own   PUSH
          commands.   However,  only  the  EXEC  and OPR PUSH commands
          refer to the job's definition of DEFAULT-EXEC:.


          You can use the PUSH command to run two programs at once  or
          to do other work that requires more than one copy of memory.
          Simply  use  the  CONTINUE  /STAY  or  CONTINUE  /BACKGROUND
          command to continue execution of your current program before
          using PUSH.  After PUSH  you  can  run  another  program  or
          otherwise  alter  memory  without  affecting  memory for the
          first program.  See Example 2.  But see also Warning, below.

     Use of Multiforking Instead of PUSH

          The PUSH command allows you to run several programs at  once
          by  running  the  programs  at  different  EXEC levels.  The
          EXEC's multiforking  feature  allows  you  to  run  multiple
          programs at the same EXEC level.  Working from a single EXEC
          makes multiprogramming easier to monitor  and  manage.   For
          information  on  multiforking  see  the  KEEP command or the
          TOPS-20 User's Guide.


     Number of Successive PUSH commands

          You can give as many pairs  of  PUSH  and  POP  commands  as
          necessary  to complete your task.  Although there is a limit
          to the number of times you  can  give  PUSH  without  giving
          intervening   POP  commands,  this  limit  is  large  enough
          (approximately 24, although smaller  for  a  heavily  loaded
          system) not to interfere with most applications.  There is a
          smaller limit (usually 5) on the number of  EXECs  that  can
          give Queue-class commands.

          Use the INFORMATION SUPERIORS  command  to  learn  how  many
          superior EXEC levels you have created.

     Invalid Definition of DEFAULT-EXEC:

          If you define DEFAULT-EXEC:  with the name of a  nonexistent
          EXEC,  (if,  for  example, you make a spelling error in your
          DEFINE  command),  the  PUSH  command  ignores   the   job's
          definition of DEFAULT-EXEC:  and creates the EXEC defined by
          the system definition.

     Withheld Log-out Capability

          You can usually log out from a lower level of  TOPS-20  than
          the   one  to  which  you  logged  in.   By  doing  so,  you
          simultaneously conclude all processes of your job.  However,
          if  a program  (such as, PTYCON)  has initialized a level of
          the TOPS-20  command  processor  but  has  withheld  log-out
          capability  from it, you must use the POP command, followed,
          if necessary, by a program command to exit from the  program
          and  return to a higher level of TOPS-20, before you can log


     Competition Between Processes

          If you  have  two  programs  running  at  once  after  using
          CONTINUE  /STAY  or  CONTINUE  /BACKGROUND and PUSH commands
          (see Hints, above) they may try to access the same files  at
          the  same  time.   Or,  TOPS-20  commands given at the lower
          level may be intercepted by a program running at the  higher
          level.   For  a  discussion  of these possibilities, see the
          Restrictions section of the CONTINUE command description.

Effect on Memory and Terminal

     The PUSH command preserves your present memory, gives you a fresh
     copy of memory, and leaves your terminal at a new TOPS-20 command

Related Commands

     CONTINUE /STAY           for beginning  execution  of  a  program
                              before giving the PUSH command

     INFORMATION SUPERIORS    for displaying the  number  of  superior
                              EXEC levels.

     POP                      for returning to  a  previous  level  of


     1.  Give the PUSH command.


          TOPS-20 Command processor 7(28)

     2.  Run a program, and give a CTRL/C to return to TOPS-20 command
         level.    Give  a  CONTINUE  /STAY  command  to  resume  this
         program's execution, and then a PUSH command for a  new  copy
         of  the TOPS-20 command language.  Repeat this process twice;
         now you have three programs running at once.  In  the  lowest
         (fourth)  level  of  your  job, begin editing a file.  (Note:
         when running more than one program in this way, be sure  that
         they  do  not  use  the  same compiler or the same data base;
         otherwise, competition among them could  cause  unpredictable
         situations to develop.)

         @RUN TESTF1
         @CONTINUE /STAY
          TOPS-20 Command processor 7(28)
         @RUN DMN
         @CONTINUE /STAY
          TOPS-20 Command processor 7(28)
         @RUN PRODUK
         @CONTINUE /STAY

          TOPS-20 Command processor 7(28)

     3.  Define  logical  name  DEFAULT-EXEC:   with  the  name  of  a
         specialized EXEC.  Then, run that EXEC with the PUSH command.


          TOPS-20 Command processor 7(6530)