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RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10
January, 1975

Copyright 1974,  1975,  Digital  Equipment  Corp.,  Maynard,


1.1  The purpose of this release is to correct several  bugs
     and  to  include  many  new features.  The old dialogue
     command scanner has been replaced by SCAN and WILD,  so
     full  wild-card  capabilities  have  been  implemented.
     Text commands can now be abbreviated;   footnotes  have
     been  cleaned  up;   and the indexing capabilities have
     been improved.  Multiple commands can  be  included  in
     one  line and comments may also be included.  All error
     messages have  been  improved  substantially.   Command
     switches    have   been   included   to   ensure   full
     compatability (except in some footnote  handling),  but
     should  not  normally be needed.  New capabilities have
     been added to select documentation from  source  files,
     to control the application and selection of the special
     text flag characters,  to  enter  words  in  the  index
     easily, and to fully capitalize a single word.  Options
     have been added to list the input file sequence numbers
     in  the  output  margin  and to handle underlining on a
     separate  line  for  printers  without   an   underline
     capability.   RUNOFF  now has the ability to number and
     format sections and chapters.  The  user  now  has  the
     capability  of  including conditional commands and text
     and causing different variations of the document to  be
     produced depending upon switches in the command string.

1.2  This version of RUNOFF must be loaded with SCAN version
     7 and WILD version 7.  There are no other dependencies.
     It fully supersedes all previous versions  and  has  no
     known   deficiencies.   This  release  fixes  all  bugs
     reported in SPRs through  10-13,170  (May,  1974),  and
     runs  on  all  monitors.   It  has been tested on 5.05,
     5.06, and 5.07/6.01.  RUNOFF version 10 fully  supports
     the DATE75 convention and the error message standard.

1.3  RUNOFF is documented in the programming  specification,
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 2


2.1  (SPR 10-3950) :  ;  !  and ?   followed  by  space  are
     treated  like  period.   This  means that they normally
     precede a double space.  If this is not  desired,  then
     the  :   ;   .  !  or ?  should be quoted by a _.  This
     behaviour  of  all  five  characters  (:;!.?)  can   be
     suppressed with the command .NOPERIOD and restored with
     the command .PERIOD.

2.2  (SPR 10-4826) All commands  can  be  abbreviated.   The
     full  spelling  will  be  checked.   In  multiple  word
     commands,  each  word  can   be   abbreviated.    Also,
     introduce    unique,    permanent    one-three   letter
     abbreviations for each command.  These are detailed  in
     the   RUNOFF   input   format  help  file,  RUNINP.HLP.
     Warning, except  for  the  permanent  one-three  letter
     abbreviations,  it  is a bad idea to make extensive use
     of the abbreviation facility because the  abbreviations
     are  not  guaranteed unique for future versions.  These
     abbreviations should be used to shorten extremely  long
     commands  (e.g.,  AUTOTAB for AUTOTABLE), but not short
     ones (e.g., JU for JUSTIFY).

2.3  (SPR 10-7122) Add the following synonyms for  commands:

2.4  (SPR 10-5999) Add command .SUBINDEX (with  synonym  .X)
     which  is  the same as .INDEX except that ;  and !  are
     multiple  commands  and   comments   respectively.    >
     separates   sub-index  sections.   When  the  index  is
     printed,  sub-index  sections  are  indented  and   not
     repeated.    Thus,  for  example,  if  three  sub-index
     entries have been made by the commands:
          .X FOO>BAR
          .X FOO>DOG
          .X FOO>CAT
     Then, when the index is printed, FOO will  be  indexed,
     and  under  it  will  be  indexes of BAR, CAT, and DOG.
               BAR . . . . . PAGES
               CAT . . . . . PAGES
               DOG . . . . . PAGES

2.5  (SPR 10-7122) Add a new message to warn of  indents  to
     the left of 0.  the message is "?RNFNIA NEGATIVE INDENT

2.6  Add defensive  code  to  footnote  routine  to  recover
     instead of HALT.

2.7  (SPR 10-4928) .PAGE SIZE now clears current line before
     changing page width and counts as a break.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 3

2.8  (SPR 10-7122) In pause mode, the bell will be  rung  to
     notify  the  user  that  the  paper should be advanced.
     (SPRs 10-4818, 5172, 7122) Finish outputting the buffer
     before  pausing.   (QAR  2493,  2494)  Clear  the  TTY:
     buffer  before  pausing.   If  output  is  to  a  TTY:,
     suppress echo of that terminal's input.

2.9  Blank pages will be suppressed.  They can  be  included
     when needed by giving a .FIGURE command.

2.10 (SPR 10-6102) When printing  the  index,  many  entries
     will  now  occupy  several lines instead of overflowing
     the line width.

2.11 (SPR 10-3018) Footnote within a footnote is illegal.  !
     as  first  character  of  a  line outside a footnote is
     treated as a valid text character.  Add a command, .END
     FOOTNOTE,  which  has  the same effect as "!", i.e., it
     ends a footnote definition.

2.12 (SPRs  10-5896,  7630)   Around   footnotes,   preserve
     indentation,  case lock, justify, margins, spacing, and
     fill.   At  the   start   of   each   footnote,   clear
     indentation, set justify and set fill.  Set spacing and
     margins to the same as the start of the  file  and  the
     page  width.  Initialize the case of the footnote to be
     the same as the case  lock  at  the  time  of  footnote
     definition.   Make commands which affect things such as
     page formatting be illegal in a footnote.  The  message
     is  "ILLEGAL  IN  FOOTNOTE".   Also,  make  .TAB  STOPS
     illegal in a footnote because they are not preserved.

2.13 Indicate core expansion  within  [  and  ]  unless  the
     output  is  to  the  TTY:.   When the index is printed,
     reclaim core.

2.14 (SPR 10-5498) Report file name and the number of output
     pages  at  end  of  each file.  In CCL mode, prefix the
     message with "RUNOFF: ".

2.15 Disregard strange control characters in the input file.
     issue  a warning message "%RNFIIF "^x" IGNORED IN INPUT
     FILE".  This behaviour can be overridden by quoting the
     control  character  or  by use of the commands .CONTROL
     CHARACTERS and .NO CONTROL CHARACTERS or  the  switches

2.16 Suppress the leading and trailing form-feed  except  in
     pause mode or when the output is to the TTY:.

2.17 Clear out any final footnotes at end-of-file.

2.18 Convert command scanner to use  SCAN  and  WILD.   Full
     input   and   output  wild-carding  is  now  supported.
     Various options were made swtiches as follows:
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 4

          L underscore   /UNDERLINE:LINE
          C underscore   /UNDERLINE:CHARACTER
          B underscore   /UNDERLINE:BACKSPACE
          N underscore   /UNDERLINE:NONE or /NOUNDERLINE
          Simulate FF    /SIMULATE
          Pause          /PAUSE
     Also add switches /NOSIMULATE and /NOPAUSE,  which  are
     the  defaults,  for  completeness.  In addition, RUNOFF
     would respond to the monitor command  RUNOFF  if  there
     were one.  It will also support monitor commands of the
          R RUNOFF (command)
     in which one command line is given  to  RUNOFF  and  it
     returns to monitor mode after completing its work.

2.19 Make default input file specification be DSK:   in  the
     users's  default directory.  The extension will default
     to the first of .RNO, .RNB,  .RNC,  .RND,  .RNE,  .RNH,
     .RNL,  .RNM,  .RNP,  .RNS, and . which are seen for the
     specified  file  name.    The   default   output   file
     specification  is DSK:  in the user's default directory
     with the file name matching the input  file's  and  the
     output  extension  determined by the input extension as
               .RNO      .MEM
               .RNB      .BLB
               .RNC      .CCO
               .RND      .DOC
               .RNE      .ERR
               .RNH      .HLP
               .RNL      .PLM
               .RNM      .MAN
               .RNP      .OPR
               .RNS      .STD
               .         .MEM

2.20 Change the default spacing to be single spacing.   This
     can  be  altered by the /SPACING:n switch.  This switch
     affects the spacing from the start of  the  file  until
     the first .SPACING command.

2.21 (SPR  10-5354,  6102)  Add  a  switch  to  specify  the
     character   used   for  underlining.   This  switch  is
     /UNDERLINE:ooo where ooo is the octal representation of
     the  ascii character to be used.  The value can also be
     given as a quoted ascii  character  (e.g.,  "x").   The
     default is 137 which is _.  In /UNDERLINE:SEPARATE mode
     (see below), the default is -.

2.22 Convert all messages to lower case.   Improve  most  of
     them  in  the  process.  All error messages now specify
     the output page number of the error.  They also include
     the  input  page  and  line within page counts.  If the
     input file is line-sequence numbered, then that  number
     is included.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 5

2.23 (several  SPRs)  Use  line-feed,  vertical   tab,   and
     form-feed as end of line characters instead of carriage
     return.   This  affects  primarily  when  commands  are
     recognized.  Strings of consecutive such characters are
     considered as ending one line  unless  separated  by  a
     carriage   return.   In  .CONTROL  CHARACTER  mode,  if
     vertical tab, form feed, or carriage return are quoted,
     they will be passed as data.

2.24 Allow multiple commands on one line by separating  them
     by  ;.   Comments must be preceded by !  except for the
     comment command which  can  be  either  !   or  ;   for
     compatability.   Disallow junk (unused arguments) after
     all commands with the message "%RNFJEC JUNK AT  END  OF
     COMMAND".   The only commands which cannot have another
     command on the same line  are  .TITLE,  .SUBTITLE,  and
     .INDEX  for  which  all  characters  may be part of the
     text.  .SUBINDEX, however, can have following  multiple
     commands.  In commands which take text strings as text,
     "." and "!" are considered part  of  the  text.   These
     commands can be terminated only by ";" and end of line.
     In any case, following the semi-colon, either  text  or
     another  command (starting with .) may be given.  Thus,
     for example, the following changes the left margin  and
     tab stops in one line:
     .LEFT MARGIN 10 !comment;.TAB STOPS  15,20,30  !comment
     For  convenience,  when  several commands are being run
     together they can be separated by just a "." unless the
     first  command  has  a  comment  or  takes  text as its

2.25 Detect illegal negative arguments  in  all  appropriate
     commands.   These are .NUMBER, .LEFT MARGIN, .TESTPAGE,
     detect  indents  and  paragraphs too far to the left as
     errors.   If  a  left  margin  changes  such  that  the
     paragraph indent causes a negative position, change the
     indent to fit.

2.26 Centered lines will now be kept within the  page  size.
     Thus,  centering  can  not  be used to exceed the right

2.27 (SPR 10-6912) Fix indexing of  items  of  various  case
     combinations  but  the same spelling to work correctly.
     Items  which  are  identical   except   for   case   or
     underlining   will   appear  together  but  distinctly.
     Underlined items come  first  with  upper  case  before
     lower  case being less significant.  In particular, the
     order of identically spelled entries is:
          underlined caps
          underlined lower case
          lower case
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 6

2.28 Include the subpage letter in  error  messages.   Also,
     include it in the index.

2.29 Correct .SUBPAGE logic to allow .PAGE commands  between

2.30 Issue a warning message  if  there  are  more  than  26
     subpages.   The  message is "%RNFSPO SUBPAGE OVERFLOW".
     It is assumed that this is an error and no  attempt  is
     made to correct it.

2.31 (SPR 10-6710) Put out series of pages in the index with
     a  hyphen.   Thus,  if the index includes references on
     page 4, 5, and 6, the entry will be 4-6.

2.32 Add command .AUTOPARAGRAPH  and  switch  /AUTOPARAGRAPH
     which  causes  any  blank line or any line which starts
     with a space to be considered as the  start  of  a  new
     paragraph.   This  allows  normally  typed  text  to be
     justified without any special  commands.   Blank  lines
     are  not  considered  to  start a paragraph if they are
     followed by a command  instead  of  text.   The  switch
     /NOAUTOPARAGRAPH  and command .NOAUTOPARAGRAPH have the
     opposite effect, which is to have paragraphing  invoked
     only  by  commands.   Also add command .AUTOTABLE which
     causes each line  not  starting  with  a  blank  to  be
     indented.   This normally would be used with a previous
     .PARAGRAPH having set a negative indent.   Thus,  input
     which  was  "back-dented" will continue to be.  This is
     cancelled by .NOAUTOTABLE.  Neither mode  is  effective
     in .NOFILL mode.

2.33 Add two new commands to bracket a series of lines which
     are  to  be taken literally.  If n lines are to be used
     as a literal (e.g., an example), then  they  should  be
     preceeded   by  ".LITERAL  n"  and  followed  by  ".END
     LITERAL".  This redundancy guarantees that any lines of
     text  may  be  inserted.   Note  that the "end" in "end
     literal" can not be abbreviated.  If the "n" is omitted
     from  the  .LITERAL  command, then the literal block is
     terminated by a .END LITERAL command and the redundancy
     of  the  count  is  lost.   For this purpose, each line
     feed, vertical tab, and form feed ends one line.   This
     is  similar  to  .NOFILL  except  that blank lines, and
     lines starting with "." are reproduced as in the  input
     file.   If  tabs  are  encountered and no tab stops are
     currently set, e.g.  if the .LITERAL is preceeded by  a
     .TAB  STOPS  with  no  arguments,  then  the  tabs  are
     reproduced  literally  in  the  file.   Otherwise,  the
     specified tab settings are used (i.e., each tab will be
     expanded into the appropriate number of spaces).

2.34 Initialize the case setting for the file to /CASE:UPPER
     or /CASE:LOWER.  The default is /CASE:UPPER.  Note that
     lower case is never altered, so the  default  means  to
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 7

     leave  the  case  as  typed.  Note that this default is
     changed from that of previous versions of RUNOFF-10.

2.35 (SPR 10-6102) Add /HEADER:x and .HEADER x (where  x  is
     UPPER,  LOWER,  or MIXED) to control the case of "page"
     in the headers.  The default  is  MIXED.   The  command
     .NOHEADER  suppresses the title, subtitle, page number,
     and spacing at the  top  of  each  page.   The  command
     .HEADER   restores   the   running  head.   Files  with
     extension .RNH default to the mode .NOHEADER.

2.36 Add a second .HLP file named  RUNINP  which  summarizes
     the commands which can appear in the input file.

2.37 Implement output wildcarding via the new routine .SCWLD
     in  WILD version 5.  Thus, for each wild card character
     on  the   output   side,   the   value   matching   the
     corresponding  wild  character  from  the input side is
     selected.  "Corresponding" is defined as the n-th  wild
     character     in     the     canonical     format    of
     file.ext[directory].  Thus, the following examples:

     inp spec  inp file    out spec         out file

     *.RNO     FOO.RNO     *.MEM            FOO.MEM
     FOO.RN?   FOO.RND     FOO?.LST         FOOD.LST
     *.RNO     FOO.RNO     XYZ.LST[5,6,*]   XYZ.LST[5,6,FOO]

     In addition, .SCWLD implements the  standard  directory
     defaults    (including    SFDs)   and   the   switches:
     /PROTECTION (which  takes  an  octal  value),  /PARITY,
     /DENSITY, and /PHYSICAL.  The defaults in 2.19 apply.

2.38 Allow the _ construction to work in all contexts except
     literals.   Thus,  _>  ,  _;   , and _!  can be used to
     plant > ;  and !  in subindex lines.  This  also  works
     to  allow  arbitrary  control  characters  to be passed
     through  RUNOFF.   These  control  characters  will  be
     assumed to be non-spacing.

2.39 Add commands .UPPER CASE and .LOWER CASE which have the
     same  effect  as  ^^  and  \\  respectively.   They are
     stronger, however, in that they set  the  default  case
     which is set at the start of chapters.

2.40 (SPR 10-7442) Add "." as the ultimate abbreviation  for
     .BREAK.  In particular, ". ;text" is a new line.

2.41 Add new commands .PAGING and  .NOPAGING  which  control
     whether  RUNOFF  forms  pages  or not.  The default for
     .RNH files is .NOPAGING  because  .HLP  files  normally
     don't have page breaks.  Also, for .RNH set the default
     right margin at 72 instead of the normal 60.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 8

2.42 Add a command, .COMMENT which treats the  rest  of  the
     line as a comment.

2.43 Add an optional second  argument  to  .PARAGRAPH  which
     specifies the vertical paragraph spacing.  Legal values
     are 1-5 and -1 (which is the default of <spacing+1>/2).
     Also add an optional third argument to .PARAGRAPH which
     specifies that an automatic  .TEST  PAGE  be  performed
     before   starting  the  paragraph.   This  argument  is
     multiplied  by  the  spacing   and   used   after   the
     inter-paragraph  spacing.  The initial value of this is
     2, so that paragraphs will not normally have less  than
     two  lines at the bottom of a page.  If this feature is
     not desired, an argument of 0 should  be  given.   This
     will result in no special test.

2.44 Add switch /SEQUENCE to specify that the closest  input
     file  line  and  page  number  should  be listed on the
     output file in columns 1-16  (the  regular  listing  is
     shifted right 16 positions).

2.45 (SPR 10-7442) Allow the .TITLE and  .SUBTITLE  commands
     to  appear  after the .PAGE to which they apply.  Add a
     .FIRST TITLE command which causes the titling to appear
     on  the first page as well.  These commands must be the
     first command on the new page (i.e., before any text).

2.46 Add .NO xxx commands for each .NOxxx command.

2.47 (SPR 10-7442) Add an input selection mechanism to allow
     documentation  to  be  imbedded  in  source files.  The
     commands .SELECT (4 chars) and .NO SELECT control  this
     mode  of  operation.   The switches /SELECT:"(4 chars)"
     and /NOSELECT set the initial behaviour.  If the  input
     file's  extension  is  a known source file (.ALG, .BAS,
     .BLI, .B10, .B11, .FAI, .FOR, .F40, .MAC, .N, .PAL,  or
     .P11),  then  the  default  output  extension  is  .PLM
     (Program Logic  Manual)  and  a  default  selection  is
     chosen  to match the language's commenting conventions.
     The SELECT switch and command  take  a  four  character
     argument string which are the comment character for the
     language,  the  select  character,  the   start   block
     character, and the end block character.  When RUNOFF is
     in SELECTION mode, it ignores all  input  (discards  it
     completely)  unless  it  meets one of the following two
     patterns.  The  first  is  a  line  with  the  sequence
     comment-selection  (typically  ";&"  or "!&"), then the
     rest of the line is taken as input (to line feed).  The
     other  pattern  is  for  a  block  of  documentation as
     follows:  it  consists  of  all  data  from  the  first
     comment  character  on each line through end of line as
     long as these comment lines are within  a  sequence  of
     comment-start  character  (typically ";+" or "!+") line
     and a comment-end character (typically ";-"  or  "!-").
     Thus,   for   example,  the  default  string  for  most
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10           Page 9

     compilers is "!&+-" and for most assemblers is  ";&+-".
     In  order  to  declare ";" or "!", they must be quoted.
     If they are not, then they would be  taken  as  command
     terminators (see 2.24).  Any assembler file can contain
     its documentation as follows:
          ;this is a normal comment
          ;&this is RUNOFF input
               op   arg       ;+this starts a block
               op   arg       ;this continues it
               op   arg
               op   arg       ;more
               op   arg       ;-this ends the block
     which, when processed, would result  in  the  following
     output from RUNOFF:
          this is RUNOFF input  this  starts  a  block  this
          continues it more this ends the block

2.48 Suppress trailing spaces on a line being centered.   In
     centered  lines,  treat  tabs as spaces.  These changes
     allow card input to work.  If the trailing  spaces  are
     really  needed, they can be quoted.  Add commands .LEFT
     and .RIGHT which left and right adjust  a  line.   They
     have  an  optional  argument  which  specifies how many
     columns in from the margin they are to be positioned.

2.49 Convert all  messages  to  agree  with  the  new  error
     message  standard.   Thus,  the ?  or % are followed by
     "RNF" and a three letter  message  code.   These  codes

     CJL  Can't Justify Line
     ELD  End Literal Doesn't follow literal
     FIF  Footnote Inside Footnote
     IBO  Input Buffer Overflow
     ICC  Insufficient Core for Command
     IIF  Ignored in Input File
     ILC  ILlegal Command
     JEC  Junk at End of Command
     KCF  K Core - Footnote
     KCI  K Core - Index
     LDE  Literal Doesn't End with end literal
     NEC  Not Enough Core
     NFS  No File Specified
     NIA  Negative Indent Attempted
     NID  No Input Device
     ODE  Output Error
     SPO  SubPage Overflow

     Internally, all error messages have a label of the form
     "E$$"  followed by the three letter code so they can be
     identified easily.  See the end of this document for  a
     listing of all error messages and their meaning.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 10

2.50 Clean  up  the  logic  in  command  scanning  to  allow
     multiple    tabs    and   spaces   between   arguments.
     Consecutive  numeric  arguments  can  be  separated  by
     spaces  or  one  comma.   If  comma, then any number of
     spaces or tabs  can  be  on  either  side  of  it.   In
     multiple  argument commands (.TAB STOPS and .PARAGRAPH)
     allow  null  values  by   consecutive   commas;    null
     arguments   cause   the   previous  value  to  be  left

2.51 Allow  relative   specifications   on   the   commands:
     .PAGE SIZE.  When the argument is preceded by a + or -,
     the  argument is taken as relative.  For .NUMBER, .LEFT
     MARGIN, .RIGHT MARGIN, and .PAGE SIZE, this  raises  or
     lowers  the  previous  setting by the specified amount.
     For .CENTER, it specifies the  number  of  half  spaces
     from  the  center to center on (i.e., if the page width
     is 60, a .CENTER +6 will center on 33).

2.52 Allow a negative  argument  on  the  .BLANK  and  .SKIP
     commands.   This  specifies to move to n lines from the
     bottom of the page.  Thus, a final  footnote  could  be
     set by a command such as ".SKIP -5".

2.53 On a line with tabs, consider any spaces preceeding the
     tabs  on  the  line as quoted, so that they will not be
     expanded during justification.

2.54 Add switch /UNDERLINE:SEPARATE which defines a new mode
     of  underlining  as  follows:   any line which includes
     underlined text will be followed by an extra line which
     has  the  underline character (default -) in it.  Thus,
     for older TTYs and the LP10C and LP10D,  the  underline
     facility is still available.

2.55 When printing the index, use the same spacing which was
     in effect at the time of the .PRINT INDEX command.

2.56 When enterring text into the index, default the  casing
     to   be  capital  first  letter,  lowercase  succeeding
     letters, and no underlining.  Preserve  case  lock  and
     underline lock across the .SUB/INDEX command.

2.57 Preset tab stops to the standard -10 hardware  settings
     of 9,17,25,...

2.58 Add a defer option to the figure command.  If the  user
     specifies  .FIGURE  DEFERRED n, then if the figure does
     not fit, defer  it  to  the  next  page,  but  continue
     filling  text  on this page.  If more than one such are
     seen, the result is cummulative (i.e., enough space  is
     reserved for all the deferred figures).
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 11

2.59 Add the ability to control the  selection  of  and  the
     meaning  of  the  special  flag characters which can be
     imbedded  in  the  text.   The  command  ".NOFLAGS"  or
     ".NOFLAGS  ALL"  will  suppress  the recognition of all
     non-column one flag characters (i.e., all  but  .   and
     !).   The command ".FLAGS" or ".FLAGS ALL" will restore
     the previously active  flag  characters.   The  command
     ".NOFLAG  x"  will  suppress  the  action of the x flag
     character.  The command  ".FLAG  x"  will  restore  the
     action  of  the x flag character.  The command ".FLAG x
     c" will set c as the x flag character and  enable  that
     flag.   To  specify  ";"  or  "!",  it  must be quoted.
     Otherwise, it would be taken as  a  command  terminator
     (see 2.24).  The various values of x are:

     CONTROL   col. 1 command flag (.)
     ENDFOOTNOTE col. 1 end of footnote (!)
     LOWERCASE lower case and unlock (\)
     QUOTE     quoting character (_)
     SPACE     quoted space (#)
     SUBINDEX  separator in subindex command (>)
     UNDERLINE underlining (&)
     UPPERCASE upper case and lock (^)

     All further special flagging characters will be defined
     with  new  words  and  will be initially turned off for
     compatibility.  It is  recommended  to  stay  with  the
     standard  characters  if possible because it will avoid
     later editting confusion.

2.60 Add a new flag character, INDEX, which defaults to ">".
     When this is enabled and it is seen in the regular text
     (not  titles,  .INDEX  commands,  etc.)  including   in
     footnotes, the following word will be enterred into the
     index at this point.  The index  entry  ends  with  the
     first space, new line, or second occurance of the index
     flag character.  Note that this flag  must  immediately
     preceed the word (except for other flag characters) and
     not be set off by spaces.  Thus, for example,
          for >example this >par-3-Foo bar
     would result in index entries  for  "Example"  and  for
     "Par-3-Foo".   Note  that  the  default  case rules for
     index entries applies.

2.61 Add a new flag character, CAPITALIZE, which is normally
     not  enabled but defaults to "<", which works just like
     the index flag except  that  the  next  word  is  fully
     capitalized.   It  is  just  like  "^^" except that the
     original case lock is restored at the end of  the  word
     or  the  next occurance of the capital flag.  It can be
     used in combination with the indexing flag to  enter  a
     fully capitalized word into the index.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 12

2.62 Add  convenience  commands  which  perform  a  set   of
     functions which recur frequently.  ".LIST n" will start
     a text indent with  n  spacing  which  moves  the  left
     margin  9  spaces  to  the  right  for  the first .LIST
     command, and 4  more  spaces  to  the  right  for  each
     subsequent  nested  .LIST command.  The normal fill and
     justify modes remain in effect.  .LS is  an  acceptable
     abbreviation for .LIST.
     .LIST ELEMENT command will start an item  in  the  list
     specified  by  the current .LIST command.  The elements
     are  numbered  sequentially  and  the  number  given  a
     negative  indent so the list text lines up.  The number
     is followed by ".##", so typically the indent  will  be
     -4.   The  list  elements are separated by the standard
     paragraph spacing and test page.
     ".NOTE text" will start a note which is indented.  This
     command blanks 2, then reduces both margins by 15, then
     centers the text on this command (if none,  it  centers
     "NOTE"),  and  then  blanks 1.  It also sets up so that
     the matching .END NOTE will do a blank 2.
     ".END" or ".END NOTE" or ".END LIST"  ("EN"  and  "ELS"
     are   acceptable  abbreviations)  have  the  effect  of
     reverting  the  margins  and  spacing  modes  to  their
     settings  before  the last .LS or .NOTE command.  These
     can be nested up to 5 deep.   Three  new  messages  are
     introduced by this change:

          TFE Too Few End commands
          TNN Too many Nested Notes
          UME UnMatched End command

2.63 Introduce the convenience setup command ".STANDARD  n".
     This  can  be  abbreviated  ".SD  n".  This sets single
     spacing, fill, justify, resets margins,  and  sets  the
     paper size to a width of n.  This command also sets the
     paragraph indent to 0.  #n is normally 60 (the  initial
     setting)  or  70  (in  which  case  the  page length is
     changed to 64 lines).  These are the two  standard  DEC
     page formats for memos and for manuals.

2.64 Introduce  the  switches  /DOWN:n  and  /RIGHT:n.   The
     DOWN:n switch moves the text of each output page down n
     lines on the page.  The /RIGHT:n switch moves the  text
     of each output page to the right n spaces on the page.

2.65 Correct a bug which caused  a  line  with  no  embedded
     spaces  to  provoke an error message to the effect that
     the line could not be  justified.   RUNOFF  now  checks
     only  that  the  number  of  characters in the line fit
     within the stated margins, whether  or  not  there  are
     spaces in the line.

2.66 Add commands which handle automatic chapter and section
     numbering  and  formatting.   There  are  two  forms of
     documents, those which are chapter numbered, and  those
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 13

     which  are  not.   A  document  is  considered  to be a
     chapter  oriented  document  if  there  is  a  .CHAPTER
     command  in  it.   The command ".CHAPTER text" starts a
     new chapter with text as its title.  This command  acts
     as .BREAK.PAGE.BLANK 12.CENTER of the label "CHAPTER n"
     (where  n  is  counted  automatically  by  1),   .BLANK
     2.CENTER  text  .BLANK  3.   It  then  resets the case,
     margins, spacing, and  the  justify/fill  modes.   This
     command also clears out a subtitle and sets the chapter
     name  as  the  title.   The  command   ".HL   n   text"
     automatically  starts the next section at depth n where
     n is in the range 1-5.  The text  becomes  the  heading
     for   this   section.    The   sections   are   counted
     automatically and the number  is  output  in  the  form
     "i.j.k.l.m"  where  trailing 0s are discarded (the same
     format as, for example, the monitor calls manual).   If
     this  is  a  chapter  numbered  document,  the i is the
     chapter number, otherwise it is the number of the .HL 1
     level.  This command acts as .BREAK.TEST PAGE 9.BLANK 3
     followed by the section number then ## then the section
     name  (capitalized  if  .HL1).  If this is a .HL1 or 2,
     then a .BLANK 1  is  simulated,  otherwise,  a  #-#  is
     simulated so that the following contents will appear on
     the same line.  Finally, the case is reset and  justify
     and  fill  are resumed.  A .HL 1 also sets the subtitle
     to the name of the section.  Note  that  this  subtitle
     will   only  be  output  if  a  .SUBTITLE  command  has
     appearred to enable subtitles.   Also,  add  a  command
     ".APPENDIX  text"  which  is  just like .CHAPTER except
     that  it  starts  an  appendix.   Appendix  pages   are
     numbered  with the appendix letter followed by the page
     number.  Also, add a command  ".DO  INDEX  text"  which
     merges  the  above  idea (text is the index title) with
     the  .PRINT  INDEX.   In  particular,  in   a   chapter
     numberred  document, this forces a new page and centers
     text.  The  index  pages  are  numbered  with  "INDEX-"
     followed  by  the page number.  If this command appears
     in a non-chapter document,  then  it  is  identical  to
     .PRINT  INDEX.  Beware when enterring the text portions
     of these commands that a "." will terminate the command
     unless  it  is quoted.  This is not felt to be a normal
     problem  since  section  and  chapter  headers  do  not
     normally contain a dot.

2.67 If the .RIGHT MARGIN command sets  the  margin  to  the
     right  of the page width, up the page width to this new
     value.  This will affect only .CENTER commands from old
     files.   This  will  ensure that the various right side
     protective tests work correctly.

2.68 Add  the  ability  to  have  alternate  versions  of  a
     document  generated  from  one  file.  Text which is to
     appear in all versions should  be  entered  as  before.
     Text  and  commands  which  are  to  appear in only one
     variant  should  be  bracketted  by  .IF   and   .ENDIF
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 14

     commands.   In  particular  the  following commands are
          .IF variable start text to be included if variable
                    is true
          .IFNOT variable  start  text  to  be  excluded  if
                    variable  is  true (i.e., include if the
                    variable is false)
          .ELSE variable start text to be included  only  if
                    the previous text was excluded
          .ENDIF variable end of conditional text
          .VARIABLE    name,flagon,flagoff    declare    the
                    existence  of  a  variable named "name".
                    Flagon and flagoff are single characters
                    to  be  used  to  indicate  included and
                    excluded text when a draft is printed
     If the standard version of output is requested  by  not
     specifying  a  /VARIANT  switch,  all the variables are
     declared to be false.  Variables can be declared to  be
     true  by  listing them as values of the /VARIANT switch
     (e.g.,    /VARIANT:A    for     just     variant     a;
     /VARIANT:A/VARIANT:B  or  /VARIANT:(A,B) for variants A
     and  B  together).   Also,  add  switch  /DRAFT.   This
     specifies  that all conditionals are to be processed in
     both modes so that all versions of the  manual  can  be
     reviewed.    It   implicitly   sets   /SEQUENCE  unless
     /NOSEQUENCE was  specified.   If  sequences  are  being
     output,  then  the  flag  characters from the .VARIABLE
     command are used in the left  margin  to  indicate  all
     conditional text.

2.69 Add options to the .NUMBER command to allow the user to
     specify  the  current  number  of  various  types.   In
     .NUMBER APPENDIX n      sets the appendix
     .NUMBER CHAPTER n       sets the chapter number
     .NUMBER LEVEL a,b,c...  sets the number of the next .HL
                             (section) to a.b.c...
     .NUMBER LIST d,a        sets the list counter at  depth
                             d to value a
     .NUMBER INDEX           sets the chapter to "INDEX"
     .NUMBER PAGE n          sets the page number
     .NUMBER SUBPAGE n       sets the subpage letter
     .NUMBER n               still sets the page number
     Note that these set the number for the next appropriate
     command.   Thus,  they  actually  set the number to one
     less than specified.  Add  .NONUMBER  which  suppresses
     the  page  numbers  from  the  document.   Any  .NUMBER
     command will restore them.

2.70 Add command .NOSUBTITLE.  Any  .SUBTITLE  command  will
     restore   the   subtitle.    The   .NOSUBTITLE  command
     suppresses  subtitles  and  is  primarily   useful   to
     suppress the automatic subtitles generated by the .HL 1
     commands.  Also, clean up the header logic so  that  if
     there  is  no  subtitle, the line it would appear on is
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 15

     eliminated.  If both the title is missing and .NONUMBER
     has  been specified, then the line containing them will
     also be omitted.  Eliminate the blank line  before  the
     title.   The  effect  of  these changes is to make more
     lines fit on the page:
          if title & subtitle           1 more line
          if no subtitle                2 more lines
          if neither                    3 more lines
     If compatibility with old documents is  desired,  start
     with  a  .PAGE  SIZE  n where n is 58-the number of new
     lines shown above.  Add  a  new  switch,  /LINES  which
     specifies  the  initial  page  length.   Also add a new
     switch, /WIDTH which specifies the initial page width.

2.71 Add a new capability, to create  input  to  TYPESET-10.
     Three  formats of typesetting device are available, the
     TXT driven 6-points, the  CAT,  and  the  line  printer
     driven  at  a  1:1  ratio.   This  is  invoked  by  the
     following switches:
          /TYPESET:CAT   copy to CAT
          /TYPESET:LPT   copy to LPT:
          /TYPESET:TXT   copy to TXT
     Except when outputting  for  the  LPT,  all  horizontal
     spacing  is  multiplied  by  36/page width.  Characters
     which  are  not  normally  available  are  turned  into
     macros,  so  they  can  be defined in the TXT6 setup to
     produce the correct results.  All RUNOFF formatting  is
     simulated.   All  page  controls are turned into macros
     which will be implemented in  TYPESET  at  some  future
     time.   The  footnotes are issued at the next break and
     are set off  from  the  main-line  text  by  a  row  of
     hyphens.   They  are  issued  in  a reduced point size.
     Chapter and section headers are  issued  as  macros  to
     allow   special  fonts  to  be  used.   Underlining  is
     converted to italics.  Also  add  a  command,  .TYPESET
     which  allows direct input to TYPESET-10.  This command
     suppresses the implied space at end of line so  it  can
     be  given in the middle of a word.  It is filled with a
     series of one or more of the following objects:
     [t-10 command]          TYPESET-10 command
     <comment>               comment string
     "string"                arbitrary  string  (quotes  get
                             stripped;  quote is represented
                             as a double quote)
     /char                   TYPESET-10 command
     +char                   PI character
     SPACE                   space to output here
     BOLD, ITALICS, SMALLCAP, SLANT switch to this font;  if
                             followed  by something, regular
                             face will be restored at end of
                             this  command;   if  at  end of
                             command, face sticks until next
     REGULAR                 switch to regular face
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 16

2.72 Add the user ability to extract only  portions  of  the
     output.   This  can  be  done  by specifying either the
     input or output ranges to be  included.   If  both  are
     specified,  then  both  constraints  must  be satisfied
     simultaneously.  The input and  output  ranges  can  be
     given  as  several  ranges,  in which case, each of the
     ranges will be produced (in the document  order).   The
     new switches are /IRANGE to specify the input range and
     /ORANGE to specify the output  range.   Each  takes  as
     arguments the following:
          "a/b:c/d" page b line a through page d line c
          "/b:/d"   page b line 1 through page d last line
          "a/b"     page b line a through the end
          "/b"      page b line 1 through  the  end  of  the
          ":c/d"    start through page d line c
          ":/d"     start through page d last line
          "a/b:c"   page b lines a through c
     The page numbers ("b" and "d") can be a simple  decimal
     number   for   non-chapter   documents  or  a  compound
     chapter-page  number  if  chapter  document.   Compound
     numbers  are  two  decimal  numbers separated by "-" in
     which the first number  is  the  chapter  number.   The
     chapter   number   field   can  also  be  a  string  of
     alphabetics (usually one) which is the  appendix.   The
     chapter  number  field can also be "index" to represent
     the index.  Page and line numbers can also  be  "^"  to
     mean top (1) or "*" to mean bottom (infinity).  If more
     than one range is needed,  they  can  be  separated  by
     commas and the set enclosed in parentheses.

2.73 Clear  any  hanging  indent   on   commands   such   as
     .PARAGRAPH, .PAGE, and .HL.

2.74 Detect illegal commands  inside  a  footnote.   Mostly,
     these  are  ones  which  affect the paging behaviour of
     RUNOFF.  However, there is  one  restriction,  the  tab
     stops can not be changed inside a footnote.

2.75 (SPR 10-13004)  If  there  is  a  string  of  the  flag
     characters  which  control case (^ and \), use the last
     one.   Also,  make  a  single  ^  force  a  lower  case
     character to upper case.

2.76 When underlining, include the  underline  under  spaces
     which are quoted by "_".

2.77 Speed up output slightly by removing the extra carriage
     returns  (leave  just  line  feeds)  on the blank lines
     introduced by .SKIP and similar commands.

2.78 Clean up the processing of .NOFILL when the input  line
     is  longer than the output.  Also clean up the handling
     of .NOFILL .JUSTIFY to in fact work.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 17

2.79 Add a new capability to produce change bars.   This  is
     enabled  by the command .ENABLE BAR and can be disabled
     again by .DISABLE BAR if needed.  These should probably
     only be given at page breaks.  Whenever change bars are
     enabled, the left edge of the printed page  is  shifted
     right  three  columns  to  make  room for the potential
     change bar.  The range of a change bar is bracketted by
     .BEGIN BAR and .END BAR.  The default change bar is the
     ASCII vertical bar (174).  This can be changed  by  the
     switch  /BAR:ch  where  ch  is either octal or a single
     character in quotes.  If the terminal does not  support
     174, the most common alternate is 134 (backslash) which
     can be obtained by just saying /BAR.   If  change  bars
     are  to be suppressed, the switch /BAR:0 or /NOBAR will
     do this.

2.80 Add  command   .NO SPACE   which   is   equivalent   to
     concatenating  two  lines  together  without  the space
     which RUNOFF normally assumes for  the  carriage-return
     line-feed.   This  is  useful  when  a  command must be
     inserted where there is not blank in a line  (e.g.,  an
     .IF or bar command).

2.81 Add  switches  /NUMBER  to   enable   page   numberring
     (default),  /PAGING  to  enable  splitting  into  pages
     (default),  /PERIOD  to  initialize  to  .PERIOD   mode
     (default)   and   complementary   switches   /NONUMBER,
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 18


3.1  Since previous versions  of  RUNOFF  did  little  error
     checking,  this  version  will frequently detect latent
     errors in old RUNOFF files.  In particular, files which
     indented  to  the left of the left margin such that the
     left edge of the page is exceeded will now produce  the
     warning RNFNIA.

3.2  Since previous  versions  of  RUNOFF  allowed  junk  to
     follow  the  valid arguments of a command, this version
     will frequently produce the warning RNFJEC.

3.3  Since this version fits more lines to a page  if  there
     is  no  subtitle  the  page  breaks  occur at different
     places.  In addition,  since  .PARAGRAPH  now  does  an
     implied  .TEST  PAGE,  page  breaks  occur at different

3.4  WILD does not fully support the notation "+" as meaning
     file  concatenation.   As  a result, this should not be
     used  with  RUNOFF  since  it  will  produce  undesired
     results.  Similarly, commands of the form:
        *RS = R, S
     will place R onto RS and then S  onto  RS,  superseding
     the  R.  The command processor is designed to work best
     on a string such as:
        * = R, S
     in which each input file name will  be  copied  to  the
     output file name in turn.

3.5  Avoid using the unguaranteed abbreviations to get short
     commands since they may stop working in future versions
     as additional commands are defined.  Instead, adopt the
     guaranteed  one-three  letter abbreviations.  Thus, for
     example,  it  is  ok  to  abbreviate  AUTOPARAGRAPH  as
     STOP since the abbreviation is still long, but it is  a
     poor idea to abbreviate JUSTIFY as JU;  better would be
     to use the guaranteed abbreviation of J.


     RUNOFF  is  now  assembled  with  the  UNIVERSAL  files
     JOBDAT,  C, and SCNMAC which are assumed to be on UNV:.
     It is loaded with SCAN, HELPER,  and  WILD,  which  are
     assumed to be on REL:.  The command is simply:
          .LOAD RUNOFF
     and these files are fetched automatically by SEARCH and
     .REQUEST  pseudo-ops to MACRO.  Replace RUNOFF.SAV with
     RUNOFF.SHR on  SYS:.   Add  the  files  RUNOFF.HLP  and
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 19

     RUNINP.HLP to HLP:.  Other related files include RUNOFF
     and RUNINP .RNH files which produce  these  .HLP  files
     when  processed  through  RUNOFF version 10.  Since the
     commands which  automatically  format  the  output  are
     based   primarily   on  the  DEC  documentation  format
     conventions, they are included here  in  a  file  named
     RNFDOC.RNS  which  is  a  preliminary,  and  incomplete

     1.  Default case is UPPER, used to be LOWER.   Can  use
     /CASE:LOWER for compatibility.
     2.  Default spacing is  1,  used  to  be  2.   Can  use
     /SPACING:2 for compatibility.
     3.  Number of lines per page is  changed  (see  section
     2.70) for details.
     4.   Control  characters  are  discarded,  used  to  be
     accepted.  Can use /CONTROL for compatibility.
     5.  Default underline character is  changed.   Can  use
     /UNDERLINE:ch for compatibility.
     6.  The word "PAGE" is no longer in  upper  case.   Can
     use /HEADER:UPPER for compatibility.
     7.  Double space is inserted after more than just  ".".
     No specific compatibility switch.

     All the above switches can be placed in SWITCH.INI,  as
     can all other switches.


5.1  Change to use TWOSEG macro.

5.2  Run through PGMFMT to tidy up the listing.  Change  the
     names  of  the  characters  and  flags for consistency.
     Move some of the flags to core to keep the flag AC  for
     hi-speed ones.  Eliminate unnecessary flags.  Rearrange
     most subroutines to bring the listing into  a  rational
     order.   Add  a  REVISION  HISTORY section to track all
     changes.  Clean up the  listings  to  produce  a  clean
     program  logic  manual  using  the  .SELECTION feature.
     Standardize the names of command subroutines.

5.3  Fix error messages to print the first 30 characters  of
     the command in error by saving the command in a special

5.4  Copy .RBVER from the input file to the output file.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 20

5.5  Estimate the size of the output file  (.RBEST)  as  the
     same as the input file.

5.6  Change the internal end-of-file code to -1 to  simplify
     the  tests  on it.  Add a macro so the JUMPLs appear in
     the CREF.

5.7  Add flag LCHPVT on the  character  AC  to  keep  quoted
     characters  from  matching  any  of the logic.  Add the
     internal code C.QUTI to store  the  quote  in  internal

5.8  Add defensive code to all buffers to  prevent  overflow
     with  the  resulting  error  message  "?   INPUT BUFFER


     There are many suggestions including several SPRs which
     have included code in the form of SOUP .COR files.  Not
     all of these have yet been implemented.  Some of  these
     suggestions are listed here:

6.1  (SPR 10-6215) Allow the user to specify multiple copies
     of the output (/COPIES:n).

6.2  (SPR 10-6215) Turn RUNOFF into  an  MTST  simulator  by
     adding  a  command  .INSERT which prompts the user with
     the rest of this command and then takes input from  the
     terminal.   The  insert  text  should probably continue
     until ^Z is input.  Perhaps there should be  an  option
     to  input  just one line.  There should be an option to
     exclude commands for input.

6.3  Add  a  command  .OUTLINE  which  causes  the   section
     numbering logic to build an outline instead of numbered

6.4  Implement hyphenation as an option.  Also recognize "-"
     as  a  legitimate  break  within  a  word.   Add a flag
     character which allows a line break but does not appear
     in the output text.

6.5  (SPR  10-4522)  Automatically  generate  a   table   of
     contents   and   allow   cross-page  and  cross-section
     references symbolically.

6.6  Add a KWIC facility to automatically  include  specific
     or most words in the index.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 21

6.7  Add a mode to automatically capitalize the  first  word
     of each sentence.

6.8  Options should be added to take  advantage  of  special
     terminals  (such  as  red/black  shift) and to generate
     bold-face by overprinting.

6.9  Add an option to list commands (on right?)  to  aid  in
     reviewing  drafts.  Perhaps teach RUNOFF to eat its own
     output.  Also, error messages should be included in the

6.10 Add a picture  building  option  for  things  like  the
     FOROTS  design  spec,  the  LOKUUO  specification,  and

6.11 (SPR 10-4164) Add a mechanism to tab to  the  right  of
     the right margin.

6.12 Add the ability to handle multiple columns and to carry
     table headings across page breaks.

6.13 Add a mechanism  for  formatting  examples  which  does
     standardized indenting and uses the .LITERAL logic.

6.14 If the words in the index entry are too long, go  to  a
     second line and indent 4 spaces.

6.15 In .STANDARD 70 mode, place the index in two columns.

6.16 Add the ability to read  from  another  file  including
     repeatedly selecting consecutive portions of the file.

6.17 Add an option (default on .RNH) to output tabs.

6.18 Modify FILCOM to produce  a  RUNOFF  input  file  which
     indicates changes from a previous version.  Use this to
     implement change bars, etc., in a reliable form.  Also,
     add option to output only those pages with change bars.

6.19 Give full control over the format and content  of  page
     headers and trailers.

6.20 Implement a multiple column  facility.   Include  table
     headers at the top of pages having continuations of the

6.21 Introduce footnotes which  can  be  referenced  several
     times  on  a  page  and  appear  only  on  pages  where

6.22 Add a switch (default if /DRAFT?) which indicates pages
     with a row of ***** instead of a form feed.  This would
     conserve paper.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 22

6.23 Expand notion of  tab  to  allow  right  justified  and
     center justified columns.

6.24 Add an option to preserve the input but just  clean  up
     line  breaks  and  capitalizations.  This would be nice
     both for normal files and especially for PLMs that  are
     imbedded in source files.

6.25 Adopt a standard  (controllable)  identification  which
     separates   footnotes  from  the  preceeding  text  and
     indents and numbers them  according  to  some  standard

6.26 (QAR 2479) Add /UNDERLINE:PROOF to flag caps and always
     double space.  Don't affect the page numbering by this.

6.27 (QAR 2632) Use comma not hyphen for index entries which
     range over only two pages.

6.28 (QAR 2632) Handle overflows on .HL2.

6.29 (QAR 2632) In .NOSELECT mode, when .SELECTION has  been
     set, notice a .SELECT following the comment character.

6.30 (QAR 2496) Add a mode (KEEP)  of  .NOFILL  which  keeps
     blank  lines.   This  mode  would  continue  each  time
     .nofill was set.

6.31 (QAR 2497) Add switches to set the physical and default
     logical  page  lengths.  Add a switch to allow printing
     accross the line printer page fold.

6.32 (QAR 2498) Add a capability to store text to be  output
     later.  In particular, allow .FIGURE DEFER to have text

6.33 (QAR  2500)  To  aid  conversion  for  SOS  users,  add

6.34 (QAR  2728)  Add  a  superscripting  and   subscripting

6.35 (QAR 2728) Add a macro facility.

6.36 Expand the TYPESET-10 facility to generate commands for
     the following RUNOFF commands:  B-n, ELT, ES, FG DEFER,
     HD, LE (use /G instead of /N), LT, NHD, NNM, NPA,  NST,
     NM, PA, PS, PX, SPG, ST, T, and X.

6.37 Do a larger .TP for HL2 than for HL3.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 23

                 Summary of Error Messages

     The string of input between spaces (and end of line) is
     greater  than  the  separation  between  left and right
     margins and therefore does not fit in the  output  even
     before any attempt to expand spaces.

     This  variable  command  is  attempting  to  declare  a
     variable   which   has  already  been  declared.   This
     declaration will be ignored.

     This end footnote command appears at  a  place  in  the
     file  which  is  not  immediately  following a footnote
     command and the corresponding footnote data.

     This end literal command appears at a place in the file
     which  is  not  immediately following a literal command
     and  the  corresponding  literal  text.   It   probably
     reflects  that  the  count  on  the  literal command is

     Only a maximum of 20 variables can be  declared.   This
     command  is  attempting  to declare the 21-st variable.
     This and all  further  variable  declarations  will  be
     ignored, although the message will not be repeated.

     This  command  is  attempting  to  start   a   footnote
     definition only it occurs within a footnote definition,
     which is  illegal.   It  probably  indicates  that  the
     previous footnote definition was never terminated.

     A string of characters has been input which is so  long
     between  spaces  (or the right margin is so large) that
     it has overflowed  the  internal  line  buffer  storage

     This command is illegal within a footnote.

     Control characters are  not  normally  allowed  in  the
     input  file.   This  character  was  input and is being
     ignored.  If it should be input, then declare ".CONTROL
     CHARACTERS" in order to make it legal.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 24

     This command is illegal for some reason.  Most  reasons
     are  that  a  key  word  was  not recognized or that an
     argument was out of range.

     The command, after all its arguments,  still  has  some
     other characters which are not blanks or comments.

     Core was expanded because of  growth  in  the  footnote
     storage area.  If this repeats indefinitely it probably
     indicates that the footnote was improperly terminated.

     Core was  expanded  because  of  growth  in  the  index
     storage  area.  In a well indexed document this message
     should be output occasionally as processing progresses.

     After a counted literal, the next line is  not  an  end
     literal  command.   This  probably  indicates  that the
     count is wrong.

     Core has been expanded to the limit of what the monitor
     is  allowed  to  assign to this job.  The processing is
     aborted at this point.

     The user has specified some switches or an output file,
     but has not specified an input file.

     The sum of the indent and the left margin is less  than
     zero, meaning that the line should start to the left of
     the left edge of the paper.  Either the left margin has
     been  misset  or the indent is wrong.  The indent might
     be implicit in a  paragraph  or  table  request.   This
     message  is output only once until the next left margin
     or SD command.

     This message indicates  how  many  additional  negative
     indents were discovered since the last NIA message.

     The user has failed to specify either an  input  device
     or file.

     The output file has an I/O error whose  octal  code  is
     included in the message.
RUNOFF.DOC -- Changes from version 7B to 10          Page 25

     While incrementing the subpage counter, it  got  larger
     than  26.  This probably indicates that the end subpage
     command is missing.

     When the end of the input was reached  there  were  not
     the  same  number  of  end  (or  end  list or end note)
     commands as there had  been  list  and  note  commands.
     This probably indicates that an end command is missing.

     The   user   has   specified   so   many   input   file
     specifications  that  RUNOFF  could  not  fit them into
     core.   The  command  should  be  split  into   several

     The user has specified too many IRANGE or ORANGE  pairs
     to  fit  in the storage space assigned (20 pairs each).
     Fewer ranges should be specified.

     The  user  has  specified  too  many  VARIANTS  in  the
     command.   Only  20  variants  can  be specified in one

     More than 6 nested notes and lists has  occured.   This
     probably  indicates  that  one  or more end commands is

     On an if, ifnot, else, or endif command a variable  was
     referenced   which  was  not  declared  in  a  variable
     command.  This usually indicates a spelling error or  a
     missing variable command.

     More end  commands  have  occured  than  list  or  note

     In a VARIANT  switch,  the  value  was  null  or  zero.
     Variants always have names.

[End of RNF10.DOC]