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(an advanced line-oriented text editor)
This document reflects version 12 of the software.
The information in this document is subject to change without notice
and should not be construed as a comitment by Digital Equipment
Corporation. Digital Equipment Corporation assumes no responsibility
for and errors that may appear in this document.
The software described in this document is furnished under a license
and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such
Digital Equipment Corporation assumes no responsibility for the use or
reliability of its software on equipment that is not supplied by
Copyright (C) 1971,1979 by Digital Equipment Corporation
The following are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation:
DIGITAL DECsystem-10 MASSBUS
DEC DECtape OMNIBUS
PDP DIBOL OS/8
DECUS EDUSYSTEM PHA
UNIBUS FLIP CHIP RSTS
COMPUTER LABS FOCAL RSX
COMTEX INDAC TYPESET-8
DDT LAB-8 TYPESET-10
DECCOMM DECsystem-20 TYPESET-11
INTRODUCTION TO SOS 5
TYPOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS 5
COMMAND FORMAT NOTATION 6
PART I SOS SIMPLIFIED
CHAPTER 1 INPUT MODE 7
1.1 ACCESSING SOS 7
1.2 STORING THE FILE: THE END COMMAND - "E" 8
1.3 CORRECTING ERRORS 8
CHAPTER 2 EDIT MODE 10
2.1 ENTERING EDIT MODE 10
2.2 INDICATING LINE NUMBERS 10
2.3 EDIT MODE COMMANDS 11
2.3.1 The Delete Command - "D" 11
2.3.2 The Insert Command - "I" 11
2.3.3 The Replace Command - "R" 12
2.3.4 The Print Command - "P" 12
2.3.5 The Find Command - "F" 12
2.3.6 The Alter Command (Intraline Edit Mode) - "A" 13
2.3.7 The Substitute Command - "S" 15
2.3.8 The Copy Command - "C" 16
2.3.9 The Transfer Command - "T" 16
2.3.10 The Number Command - "N" 16
2.3.11 The Quit Command (Delete the Entire Edit) - "Q" 17
2.3.12 The End Command (Extension) - "E" 17
2.3.13 The Save World Command - "W" 17
2.3.14 The Go Command - "G" 18
CHAPTER 3 READ-ONLY MODE 19
PART II SOS ADVANCED
CHAPTER 4 FILES 20
4.1 BACKUP AND TEMPORARY FILES 20
4.2 STANDARD TEXT FILES 21
CHAPTER 5 LINE NUMBERS, PAGES 22
CHAPTER 6 EDIT MODE COMMANDS 23
6.1 THE MARK COMMAND - "M" 23
6.2 THE DELETE COMMAND -"D" 24
6.3 THE INSERT COMMAND - "I" 25
6.4 THE REPLACE COMMAND - "R" 27
6.5 THE PRINT COMMAND - "P" 27
6.6 THE LIST COMMAND - "L" 29
6.7 THE FIND COMMAND - "F" 29
6.8 THE ALTER COMMAND (INTRALINE EDIT MODE) - "A" 31
6.9 THE EXTEND COMMAND - "X" 35
6.10 THE SUBSTITUTE COMMAND - "S" 36
6.11 THE COPY COMMAND - "C" 38
6.12 THE TRANSFER COMMAND - "T" 39
6.13 THE JOIN COMMAND - "J" 40
6.14 THE NUMBER COMMAND - "N" 40
6.15 THE JUSTIFY COMMAND - "JU" 41
6.16 THE JUSTIFY LEFT COMMAND - "JL" 43
6.17 THE JUSTIFY RIGHT COMMAND - "JR" 43
6.18 THE JUSTIFY CENTER COMMAND - "JC" 43
6.19 THE JUSTIFY WORD COMMAND - "JW" 43
6.20 THE SET COMMAND - "_" 44
6.21 THE GIVE INFORMATION COMMAND - "=" 44
6.22 LINE CONTENTS SPECIFICATION - ALL COMMANDS 45
6.23 THE QUIT COMMAND - "Q" 47
6.24 THE END COMMAND - "E" 47
6.25 THE SAVE WORLD COMMAND - "W" 49
6.26 THE GO COMMAND - "G" 49
CHAPTER 7 READ-ONLY MODE 49
CHAPTER 8 INDIRECT COMMANDS 50
CHAPTER 9 UPPER AND LOWER CASE REPRESENTATION 50
9.1 C128 AND C64 MODES 50
9.2 UPPER AND LOWER CASE 51
9.3 COMBINING MODES AND CASES 51
9.4 MODEL 37 TELETYPE: 37 MODE 53
9.5 ASCERTAINING MODE AND CASE: THE GIVE
INFORMATION COMMAND 53
9.6 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: FIND AND
SUBSTITUTE COMMANDS 54
9.7 SPECIAL "MATCHING" CHARACTERS: FIND AND
SUBSTITUTE COMMANDS 54
APPENDIX A: ERROR MESSAGES 57
APPENDIX B: SUMMARY OF COMMANDS 59
APPENDIX C: DEFAULT VALUES 62
APPENDIX D: ASCII CHARACTER TABLE 63
INTRODUCTION TO SOS
SOS is a line-oriented text editor that operates only on sequenced
files. SOS provides the following features:
1. Simple, but powerful, commands. Each command usually
consists of a single-lettered "verb," followed by a number
or range of numbers indicating the line(s) on which the
command is to perform.
2. An "indirect command" file. The user can put a
frequently-used sequence of commands into a file. When the
file is called, SOS will then perform the commands.
3. The full ASCII character set, including lower-case
4. A search facility. This enables the user to search through
a file with strings of text instead of line numbers.
5. Text-justifying commands.
This manual is divided into two parts: Simplified uses of common
editing commands are presented in Part I, which should be read in its
entirety before any text-editing is attempted. Part II, on the other
hand, describes every command in greater detail, emphasizing more
sophisticated usage. Most of this advanced material is unnecessary
for ordinary editing problems; there are instances, however, in which
these commands can be quite useful.
The following typographic conventions are used throughout the SOS
* In an example, text which is underscored represents
information typed by the user. Text which is not
underscored is produced by SOS or the DECsystem-10 Monitor.
* The (CR) notation appearing after most lines in the examples
represents the carriage return key (RETURN) on the teletype
keyboard. The DECsystem-10 supplies a linefeed with each
* The (LF) notation represents the linefeed key (LINEFEED) on
the teletype keyboard.
* The (FF) notation indicates a formfeed obtained by
depressing CTRL-L (see "^character" below).
* $ is used to indicate the ALTMODE key. Note that SOS only
prints the $ without the circle.
* ^character within a circle represents the control (CTRL) key
and an alphabetic character - e.g., ^U . Note that SOS
does not print the circle. To obtain the control character,
depress the specified alphabetic while holding down the CTRL
key. The DECsystem-10 will print an up-arrow and the
specified character to indicate that it has received a
* A vertical bar represents the condition "or" - e.g.,
LMAR RMAR means either the left or right margin.
COMMAND FORMAT NOTATION
The following notation is used in SOS command formats:
* Command names appear in capital letters; arguments in lower
* There are no spaces between SOS commands names and
* Angle brackets <> enclosing lower-case letters indicate a
string of text consisting of any characters on the teletype
(as long as these characters satisfy the specified
conditions) - e.g., <range> or <filename>.
* Brackets  indicate an option which may be used or omitted
-SOS- Page 6
1.1 ACCESSING SOS
The user can call SOS by typing the following command to the monitor:
SOS then will request the name of a file by printing "FILE="; the
user-supplied name is typed on the same line as this request.
<filename> consists of a 1-6 character alphanumeric "name" (required),
which may be followed by a period and a 1-3 character extension
Alternatively, the user may type the filename directly on the command
line and omit the initial conversation with SOS:
.SOS <filename>(CR) .SOS-<filename>
The following examples are all equivalent ways to call SOS:
Note that ".R SOS EXAMPL(CR)" is illegal.
If there is no disk file with the supplied name, SOS will indicate
that it is prepared to accept input beginning with line 100 by
-SOS- Page 7
FILE NOT FOUND-INPUT. INPUT:
After printing the line number, SOS waits for the user to type a
string of text followed by (CR); SOS then prints the next line
number, incrementing by 100 each time. When there are no more lines
to input, the ALTMODE or ESCAPE key (appreviated $ ) should be used
after the next line number is printed. The printing of sequence
numbers is terminated, and the user is at the SOS command level as
indicated by the asterisk in the left margin.
FILE NOT FOUND-INPUT
00100 THIS IS LINE 1.(CR)
00200 THIS IS LINE 2.(CR)
1.2 STORING THE FILE: THE END COMMAND - "E"
Instead of editing immediately after the file is created, the user may
want to store the file on the disk. To do so, he uses the End command
The file will be stored under the name assigned to it when SOS was
called. SOS then returns the user to monitor mode by printing
The E command is also used at the end of an editing session (see
Section 2.3.12); if the End command is not used, the unedited copy of
the file will be retained, and the edited copy will be lost.
1.3 CORRECTING ERRORS
Typographical errors can be corrected in an input line, provided they
are noticed before (CR) is typed.
1. RUBOUT. To delete individual chatacters, Rubout should be
depressed once for every character being deleted, back to and
including the error. The deleted characters are enclosed in
single backslaches ("\"):
00100 THIS IS TI\I\HE FIRST LINE
In the above example, the user typed RUBOUT once after he typed
the "I" of "TI". "\I" is printed to indicate that SOS deleted
the "I". The next character typed in (other than another
RUBOUT) is accompanied by the second backslash - "\H".
-SOS- Page 8
2. CTRL-U. To delete the entire input line, strike U while
holding down the CTRL key - ^U . SOS will perform a carriage
return/linefeed, but will not print a new line number; instead
it will wait for input which will be associated with the last
00100 THIS IS TEH ^U
THIS IS LINE 1.(CR)
-SOS- Page 9
2.1 ENTERING EDIT MODE
There are two ways to enter edit mode. During the input sequence, if
an existing file is specified, SOS will recognize the filename, print
an asterisk, and wait for user commands. Any editing, then, is
performed on the named file.
To complete the editing of a new file, on the other hand, the user
should strike the ALTMODE key ( $ ) at the end of the input sequence;
this places him at the SOS command level. He can either store the
file for subsequent editing by using the E command, or else he can
utilize any of the editing commands listed below and in Part II.
FILE NOT FOUND-INPUT
00100 THIS IS LINE 1.(CR)
00200 THIS IS LINE 2.(CR)
2.2 INDICATING LINE NUMBERS
SOS recognizes certain abbreviations which can be employed in commands
requiring line numbers. The Print command is used in the following
examples to illustrate these abbreviations:
1. A colon between two numbers is used to indicate a range of
lines between, and including, the two endpoints.
*P100:200(CR) Print lines 100 through 200
2. A period is used to represent the current line, as determined
by the last command which actually specified a line.
-SOS- Page 10
*P0:(CR) Print line 0 through the current
3. An asterisk represents the last line of the file.
*P0:*(CR) Print all the lines of the file.
*P.:*(CR) Print the current line through the
last line of the file.
2.3 EDIT MODE COMMANDS
2.3.1 The Delete Command - "D"
The D command corrects an error by deleting an entire line or lines.
*D200(CR) Delete line 200.
*D100:200(CR) Delete lines 100 through 200
2.3.2 The Insert Command - "I"
The I command is used to indicate that new lines will be inserted,
beginning at the stated sequence number. The line increment is 100 by
default, unless specifically changed.
*I200(CR) Accept input lines beginning at
line 200, with the default
increment of 100.
The increment is changed as follows:
*I200,50(CR) Accept input lines beginning with
line 200, using the increment of
50. The default increment for
subsequent I commands is 50.
If there already is a line with the specified sequence number, SOS
will determine a different line number for the insert by adding the
line number specified in the command to the current increment. If a
line exists between the line specified by the command and the next
line determined by the increment (e.g., "*I200,50(CR)" and line 210
exists), SOS will choose a line number halfway between these two lines
(i.e., line 205). If any subsequent line being inserted already
exists, or if an existing line in the file falls between two lines
determined by the Insert command, then the insertion process will
terminate and the user will return to SOS command level. The sequence
of line numbers may be terminated at any time using the ALTMODE key,
-SOS- Page 11
which will return the user to command level.
00200 THIS IS INSERTED.
2.3.3 The Replace Command - "R"
The Replace command is a combination of the Delete and Insert
*R200(CR) Delete line 200 and accept input
beginning at that line.
*R200:300,50(CR) Delete lines 200 through 300
inclusive, and accept input to be
inserted in lines 200 through 300,
with an increment of 50.
SOS responds with the number of the first line to be replaced.
2.3.4 The Print Command - "P"
The Print command tells SOS to print specified lines on the user's
*P(CR) Print all the lines of the file.
*P200(CR) Print line 200.
*P100:200(CR) Print lines 100 through 200
*P0:*(CR) Print all the lines of the file.
*P.:*(CR) Print the current line through the
last line of the file.
If SOS is ready to accept a command, striking (LF) will cause the next
line of the file to be printed, while striking $ will cause the
previous line to be printed.
2.3.5 The Find Command - "F"
SOS can locate an arbitrary text string within a file without having
the line number specified:
*F<text> $ (CR) Search for the first occurrence of
the given string of text starting
-SOS- Page 12
with the current line.
Note that immediately after the file is opened for editing, the
"current" line is the beginning of the file.
It is also possible to search through a range of line numbers for the
first occurrence of a given text string:
*F<text> $ 100:350(CR) Search for the first occurrence of
the string of text in lines 100
through 350 inclusive.
If the specified text is located, the line and line number where it
first occurred will be printed. If the specified text does not exist
within the given (or implied) range, SOS will indicate that the search
has failed and return the user to command level:
Giving another F command with no arguments will continue the search in
the stated range and cause SOS to print the next occurrence of the
given text string (line number and content). If there is no other
occurrence, SOS will print %SEARCH FAILS and return to command level.
*FOLD $ 100:500(CR) Search for the first occurrence
00150 THIS IS AN OLD LINE. of OLD in lines 100 through 500
*F(CR) Search for the next occurrence
0200 THERE WAS AN OLD MAN. of OLD after line 150 and
through line 500.
2.3.6 The Alter Command (Intraline Edit Mode) - "A"
It is possible to change or alter the line with the Alter command.
*A200(CR) Alter line 200.
The A command places the user in a special intraline editing mode
which has its own commands (described below). In this mode, the
commands themselves will not appear on a full-duplex teletype,
although any accompanying user-supplied text will.
The intraline edit mode maintains a pointer within the line indicating
the next character in the line that the next command will affect.
1. Moving the Pointer (Space Bar and Rubout)
To advance the pointer one position to the right, strike the space
bar once. The character that is passed over is printed on the
teletype. If the pointer is already at the extreme right of the
line, this command is ignored.
-SOS- Page 13
To move the pointer to the left, use RUBOUT once for each
character being passed over. (Note that this does not delete
anything as it would in input mode.) The character(s) passed over
are printed between single baskslashes (\XX\). (The second
baskslash is printed when the next non-RUBOUT command is given).
If the pointer is already at the extreme left of the line, a
carriage return/linefeed is automatically done. The line number
will be reprinted, and the pointer will again point to the
beginning of the line.
2. The "D" Command (Delete)
To delete the character pointed to, type "D" once for each
character being deleted. The deleted character(s) will be printed
within double backslashes (\\X\\). (The second double backslash
is printed when the next non-D command is given.) The pointer then
will point to the right of the last character deleted. If this
command is preceded by a number, only the last three deleted
characters will be printed and enclosed in double backslashes.
The command is ignored if the pointer is at the extreme right of
3. The "I" Command (Insert)
To insert text immediately before the character indicated by the
pointer, use the I command as follows:
Only the inserted text is printed on the teletype. The pointer
then will be at the character to the right of the inserted
4. Terminating Intraline Editing: (CR) and the Quit Command
When no more editing is necessary, the user should strike (CR).
This causes that portion of the line to the right of the pointer
to be printed and ends the intraline edit mode. SOS then returns
to command level.
The Q command terminates intraline editing mode without making any
of the indicated intraline changes. SOS then returns to command
5. ^U (RESTART)
To reedit a line, type U while holding down the CTRL key - ^U .
The line will be restored to its origional state, and intraline
editing can be resumed as soon as the line number is reprinted.
This is equivalent to typing a Q command during intraline edit
mode and then issuing an Alter command followed by a period (after
the SOS command asterisk):
-SOS- Page 14
6. The "S" Command (Skip)
The S command will move the pointer to the right until the next
occurrence of a specified character:
Every character passed over will be printed. The current
character is automatically passed over and is not compared to the
character specified in the command.
If the character does not occur in the remainder of the line, the
pointer will move to the extreme right.
The following example illustrates intraline edit mode and pointer
movement. Remember that user commands are not printed on the
full-duplex teletype when this mode is utilized.
SX D IW $ (CR) User Input
00200LET\\X\\W=A+B+C SOS Printout
The user wants to alter line 200 ("LET X=A+B+C"). The pointer is
at the first character of the line ("L). After "SX" is typed, the
pointer skips to "X", and SOS then prints "LET" on the teletype.
To delete the "X", the user issues a D command. SOS then prints
"\\X", and moves the pointer to the charater which follows the
deleted character (that is, to the "="). Typing "IW $ " completes
the deletion process by printing another "\\"; "W" is inserted to
the left of the pointer and printed on the teletype. (CR) causes
the rest of the line to be printed and returns the user to command
2.3.7 The Substitute Command - "S"
Sometimes the same string of text occurs frequently in a file, and it
would be time-consuming for the user to perform intraline editing in
every line that the string is found. SOS provides a command that
allows the user to substitute one string of text for another with some
range in the file:
*S<oldtext> $ <newtext> $ 100:350(CR) Substitute the <newtext> for
the <oldtext> in the range
If no range is included in the command,
substitution will be only done for one
-SOS- Page 15
2.3.8 The Copy Command - "C"
To duplicated some line or group of lines within a file, use the Copy
command. This command acts like an Insert command; the line(s)
specified are copied but not printed on the teletype.
*C200,100(CR) Copy the contents of line 100 into
a new line numbered 200.
*C1000,100:500,50(CR) Copy a portion of the file (lines
100 through 500) into a new
location beginning with line 1000.
As each line is copied, the
increment between lines will be 50.
If a specified increment is too large for the specified range, an
error message ("%OUT OF ORDER" OR "%WRAP AROUND") will be printed, and
SOS automatically will indicate that it has chosen a smaller increment
If SOS cannot choose a small enough increment, it will use the given
increment and copy as many lines a possible into the available space.
As a result, only part of the text will be copied and an "%OUT OF
ORDER" error message will be given. To finish copying the rest of the
specified range, edit mode must be terminated with an End command.
During the next editing session, the file must be resequenced and then
the copy can be completed.
2.3.9 The Transfer Command - "T"
The Transfer command moves a set of lines from one part of a file to
another. It is similar to the Copy command, but it also deletes the
original range immediately after the transfer is completed.
*T1000,100:500,50(CR) Copy lines 100 through 500 into the
location beginning with line 1000,
using the increment 50; then
delete lines 100 through 500.
2.3.10 The Number Command - "N"
The Number command alters the numbers of currently existing lines; it
should be used if an "%OUT OF ORDER" or a "%WRAP AROUND" error message
*N50,100:500,1000(CR) Renumber lines 100 through 500,
starting at line 1000, with the
increment of 50.
-SOS- Page 16
*N50,100:500(CR) Renumber lines 100 througu 500,
starting at line 50, with an
increment of 50.
*N100(CR) or Resequence the entire file starting
at line 100 with an increment of
2.3.11 The Quit Command (Delete the Entire Edit) - "Q"
Should the user realize that the current editing session is worthless,
the Quit command will return him to the monitor without saving the
edited version of the file:
*Q(CR) No longer ture.
SOS will indicate the exit as follows:
The original file (if there was one) is still intact after the Quit
2.3.12 The End Command (Extension) - "E"
To differentiate an edited file from the origional, the new version
may be filed separately under a different name by using the End
command and the new filename.
This leaves the original file under its original name. SOS then
returns the user to the monitor.
2.3.13 The Save World Command - "W"
The Save World command is the same as the E command except that it
leaves the user in command mode rather than returning him to the
monitor. This is used to save the current version of the file in case
the system crashes, and should be done every fifteen minutes while the
user is in edit mode. If the system does crash, the user will lose
only the editing that was done since the last W command was issued.
It is also possible to use a new name for the edited version with the
W command (just as in the extension of the E command). The new name
-SOS- Page 17
only has to be given once, an any subsequent W commands will recall
the new filename.
2.3.14 The Go Command - "G"
The G command is used after the user issues a program execution
command such as EXECUTE, LOAD, COMPILE, etc., and then edits a file.
A filename that has been given to SOS is saved, so that calling SOS
(".SOS(CR)") again with no filename will immediately put the user in
edit mode for the last file specified.
Once editing is completed, the G command will write the file onto the
disk (like the E command) and will cause the previous program
execution command to be repeated.
The following debugging sequence illustrates G command usage:
.SOS EXAMPL.CBL(CR) SOS assumes input mode and is ready
FILE NOT FOUND - INPUT. to accept lines of text beginning
00100 with line 100 (SOS also "remembers"
. the name EXAMPL.CBL).
nnnnn $ End input and give command to user.
*E(CR) The E command will save the input
EXIT under the filename EXAMPL.CBL.
.EXECUTE EXAMPL.CBL(CR) The user issues the Monitor command
. "EXECUTE EXAMPL.CBL".
. The program did not execute
. correctly; the user must edit the
. source file.
.SOS(CR) SOS "remembers" EXAMPL.CBL, because
EDIT. it was the last filename used, and,
* therefore, assumes edit mode.
*G(CR) The user performs some editing in
. the program. The G command will
. save the file
. as E did and will begin
. compilation, loading, and execution
. of EXAMPL.CBL.
-SOS- Page 18
.SOS(CR) More execution problems.
EDIT. Edit EXAMPL.CBL again.
*G(CR) EXECUTE again.
3.0 READ-ONLY MODE
SOS allows the user to access his file in a "read-only" mode if
"/READONLY" (or "/REA") is included in the input sequence.
This mode permits the user to find information in his file, but does
not allow him to perform any editing.
-SOS- Page 19
4.1 BACKUP AND TEMPORARY FILES
Consider the following situation. After a file is created, it is
stored on the disk under a specified name such as PROG.FOR (See
When the user is editing this file and gives an End, Save World, or Go
command, a backup file (in this case, PROG.BAK) is created. This
backup file contains the origonal version of PROG.FOR, while the newly
edited version will be stored under PROG.FOR.
If the E, W, or G command specifies a filename, no backup file is
created. The orininal copy of the file is still named PROG.FOR; the
edited version will have the new filename as its name.
During the editing process, SOS successively copies a file. In input
mode, if lines are inserted in the correct sequence order, the file
can be written out as needed with no wraparound to the start of the
file. If material is inserted out of order, however, it may be
necessary to wrap around. SOS does this by copying the file over from
the beginning of the file to the location specified in the command.
With subsequent commands, SOS will recopy additional portions of the
When editing an already-existing file, SOS is careful not to make
changes in the old version until the new version is complete. Then
wraparound is required, three files may exist simultaneously: the
original; a partially-edited copy which contains the entire file with
all changes up to the last wrap around ("TMP" file - see below); and
a partial copy of that file up to the current position ("TEM" file).
SOS is always writing this partial copy into a file called
"nnnSOS.TEM" (where "nnn" is the user's job number). If recopying is
necessary, SOS will rename the file "nnnSOS.TMP" and use it as input.
At any time during an edit, SOS will read either the user's original
file or the "nnnSOS.TMP" file. Thus, if an "nnnSOS.TMP" file exists,
it is complete up to the last time SOS had to recopy the partial edit.
When an "E", "G", or "W" command is given, SOS will finish copying the
edit into the "nnnSOS.TEM" file and rename it either the name
specified in the "E", "G", or "W" command, or the original name given
when editing began.
During an edit, SOS prints "EXIT" and returns the user to the monitor
whenever one of the following error messages occurs:
-SOS- Page 20
Error message Explanation
%NO DISK AVAILABLE The disk which the user requested
is not available.
%TEMPORARY EDIT FILE IN USE The file name which SOS assigns to
the temporary file is already being
used. This situation should not
occur. If it does, the user should
issure the Monitor command "DEL
*.TMP,*.TEM(CR)" to delete all
%DEVICE OUTPUT ERROR Output error - no recovery will be
%DEVICE INPUT ERROR Input error - no revovery will be
%INTERNAL CONFUSION SOS has just encountered an
or internal conflict - a systems
%ILLEGAL UUO programmer will be needed.
Although "EXIT" is called and the edit is lost, the original file is
not harmed. If a Save World command had been given prior to any of
these errors, however, the original file would contain all editing
changes performed before the W command was issued.
If the error message, "%ILLEGAL LINE FORMAT" occurs during an edit,
the user probably had a line with a carriage return but no linefeed or
vice versa. Issuing a Replace command will correct the situation.
4.2 STANDARD TEXT FILES
SOS utilizes a Standard Text File, containing Standard Text Lines and
Standard Page Marks. Standard Text Line format is a line number
composed of a string of five seven-bit ASCII digits, left-justified in
a single word with a 1 in bit 35. This line number is followed by a
TAB and the text (147 or fewer ASCII characters, not including the
carriage return/linefeed). Each disk file word is left-justified and
consists of five ASCII characters and a 0 in bit 35. The first
character which follows the line number is a TAB and the last two
characters are (CR)(LF). The characters NULL and DELETE may not
appear in the text. If necessary, the last disk file word for the
line is filled with NULLs to make a complete word.
A Standard Page Mark is a word containing 5 ASCII spaces,
left-justified in a word with a 1 in bit 35, followed by a word
containing the characters (CR),(CR),(FF),NULL,NULL, with a 0 in bit
35. Standard Page Mark usage is discussed in Chapters 5 and 6.
Lines are never broken across physical disk block boundaries, and all
unused words in a disk block are 0.
-SOS- Page 21
If the specified file was created by using an editor that does not
assign line numbers, SOS will assign a number to each line as it reads
the file, beginning with 100 and incrementing by 100.
5.0 LINE NUMBERS, PAGES
Throughout Part I, it was assumed that a file was entirely contained
in one continuous group. This is a feasible way to structure a file;
however, when a file is large, it is advantageous to divide it into
pages. For every command that includes a line number specification,
there is also a page qualification. Thus, a single line (<line>) may
be specified by both the line number and page number as follows:
<line number>/<page number>
The line number must be in the range 0 to 99999; the first page is 1,
and there is essentially no upper limit. A range has the form
<line number>/<page number>:<line number>/<page number>
A range includes all text up to and including the endpoints.
Instead of a number, the symbol "." may be used to denote either the
current line or the current page, depending on whether it appears
before or after the "/". Therefore, "100/." means line number 100 on
the current page and "./2" means the line on page which has the same
number as the current line number. The current line and page are
determined by the last command which was executed (or, generally, by
the last line on which an operation was performed and the page on
which that line appears).
The symbol "*" may be used to specify the last line on the page, but
it may not specify the last page.
Line and page specifications may be further abbreviated as follows:
Abbreviated Specification Full Specification
Addition and subtraction can also be used in line and page
specifications. While the arithmetic is straight forward for pages,
it is not for lines because of varying increments and prior editing
-SOS- Page 22
changes. A count either goes forward ro backward from the indicated
line to include the number of lines specified. Another form of the
range specification extends the ability to use the counting technique.
The starting line is specified in one of the above ways and is
followed by an "!" and the number of lines desired.
Line specifications using arithmetic cannot cross page boundaries,
except those with the "!" which may cross page boundaries if
Special Specification Equivalent Specification
100+2 the second line after line 100
100!3 line 100 and the two subsequent lines
/5-3 /2 or page 2
/.+2 the second page after the current page
/.-1 the previous page
.-1:.+1 three lines, including the current line
last line on current page and first line on
6.0 EDIT MODE COMMANDS
6.1 THE MARK COMMAND - "M"
The M command will insert a page mark into the text, immediately
before the line specified. Note that page mark 1 is always assumed
when input is begun.
*M<line number>/<page number>(CR)
If the line that is specified does not exist, the page mark will be
inserted immediately after the line with the next lower number on that
page. If the line specified is the first on that page, the new page
mark will be placed immediately after the already-existing page mark;
therefore, the page that already existed will not have any
accompanying text. If the page specified in the M command does not
exist, the error message "%NO SUCH PAGE" will be printed and no page
mark will be inserted. Note that the page mark always precedes the
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Inserting a page mark causes renumbering of all subsequent pages. The
current line is set to zero; the current page is considered the one
just created. When the user is inserting text, the command
will place a page mark at the end of the current work, and the next
insertion will go on the next page.
6.2 THE DELETE COMMAND - "D"
The Delete command will delete all the lines of a specified range:
If there are no lines in the specified range, SOS will respond with
the error message "%NO SUCH LINES(S)".
Lines in a range are specified in the usual manner; exceptions are
1. The Delete command does not allow a page specification for the
second line number of a range. All deletions extend,
therefore, over one page only, even if the "!" is used.
*D100/2:200/3(CR) This is an illegal command; SOS
will respond with an appropriate
2. The Delete command will delete a page mark, not the contents of
the given page:
*D/5(CR) Delete page mark 5 (not the
contents of page 5)
The numbers of the succeeding page marks are decreased by one.
Deleting a page mark may result in the creation of a page with
line numbers that are out of sequence. If so, SOS will print
the message "%OUT OF ORDER". In such a case, it is necessary
to renumber the page immediately.
Page mark 1, or any page mark which does not exist, may not be
deleted. If deletion is attempted, the error message "%NO SUCH PAGE"
will be printed.
All lines on a page may be deleted as follows:
*D/:99999(CR) Delete all lines on page 2.
The current line and page will be set to the last line deleted on the
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6.3 THE INSERT COMMAND - "I"
The Insert command, which is used to insert new lines into a fie,
accepts a single line specifier (line number/page number) as its first
argument and begins inserting at that line. The Insert command may
also be used to change the current default increment between lines, in
which case the increment is preceded by a comma.
*I100/2,50(CR) Insert lines starting with line 100
on page 2 and set the current
increment to 50.
*I100/2;50(CR) Insert lines starting with line 100
on page 2. Use the increment of
50. NOTE: The semi-colon
indicates that 50 is a temporary
increment to be used only while
this command is in effect. The
current increment will remain
unchanged and will be used again
for the next command.
*I100/2(CR) Insert lines starting with line 100
on page 2 using the current
increment (since no increment is
specified). NOTE: At the
beginning of edit mode, the current
increment is 100.
After a specified line is actually inserted, SOS will add that line
number to the correct increment to obtain the number of the next line
to be inserted.
If there already is a line with the same number as the specified line
number, the line number of the existing line is added to the correct
increment and insertion begins there. If there already is a line
located between the two line numbers (or at the second line number),
SOS will select a line number that is halfway between the indicated
line number and the next line in the file. For the next insertions,
if a line already exists at the location determined by the increment,
or if it is necessary to pass over a line which already exists, then
insertion mode will terminate and the user will be returned to command
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In the following example, lines 100 and 200 already exist; the
current increment is 100:
00150 THIS IS A LINE(CR) SOS selects line 150 to begin
The user is returned to command
level since line 200 already exists
and must be passed over (200 is
between 150 and 250).
If a line insertion is terminated with an $ , the text preceding the
$ is inserted, and the user is returned to command mode. If nothing
has been inserted and $ is used, an empty line will not be inserted,
although the user will be returned to command level.
The current line number and page become the last line actually
inserted, not the empty line terminated with $ . In addition, after
$ is typed, SOS will remember the line number and page of the next
line to be inserted; these will be used if the I command is given
later with no argument. The increment will be the same as the
increment used in the most recent complete command, including those
commands with the temporary (";") construction.
00100 THIS IS LINE 1.(CR)
00200 THIS IS LINE 2.(CR)
00100 THIS IS LINE 1.
00300 THIS IS LINE 3.(CR)
If a page which does not exist is specified, SOS will respond with
"%NO SUCH PAGE".
If an attempt is made to insert a line which contains more than 147
characters (not including the return/linefeed at the end), SOS will
print "%LINE TOO LONG". The line will not be inserted, and SOS will
return to command mode.
If the next line to be inserted has a line number greater than 99999,
insertion will terminate and the user will be in command mode.
An increment of zero will result in the error message "%ILLEGAL
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6.4 THE REPLACE COMMAND - "R"
The Replace command is the same as the Delete command followed by the
Insert command. Replace accepts a range specifier and an optional
increment, which can be either temporary (";") or an actual (",")
update of the current increment.
The deletion is performed on the specified range, and insertion begins
with the first line indicated by that range. If the first line is not
stated explicitly, the line number of the first line deleted will be
used as the starting point for insertion.
*R/2,50(CR) Replace all lines on page 2 and
insert new lines, beginning with
the first line deleted, using an
increment of 50.
Although the Delete command will delete a page mark and not the
contents of that page, the Replace command will delete all of the
lines on the specified page and then allow insertion.
*D/2(CR) Delete page mark 2
*R/2(CR) Delete all the lines on page 2
Insertion may be terminated by depressing $ after SOS has printed
the next line number. As in the Insert command, if $ is used after
some of the text has been typed, that text will be inserted and
command mode will be reinstated.
6.5 THE PRINT COMMAND - "P"
The Print command will print out the lines specified in a range,
including the line numbers.
If the range includes the boundary between two pages, "PAGE N" also
will be printed to indicate the position of the page mark.
00100 THIS IS A LINE
00200 THIS IS A LINE
00100 THIS IS A LINE
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The second argument, if given, consists of one or more of the
following options, separated by commas.
N Number pages Print page numbers at the bottom of
Suppress line #s Don't print line numbers and page
numbers and suppress the asterisk
indicating that SOS is ready for
the next command.
E Eject Eject at bottom of a page.
W Wait At the bottom, wait for a line.
F Final Copy Equivalent to S, E, and W options
The "bottom of the page" is determined by a page mark or an exceeded
length (the default is 55 lines).
"Wait for a line" means that SOS will wait at the bottom of each page
while the user types an additional line, followed by a carriage
return, or a return only (if no line is added). Typing a "G" only
will suppress the wait option in the remainder of the printout.
Typing a "Q" only will stop the printout and return the user to
command mode. Typing ^O will suppress a printout in progress.
Since SOS is still moving the output to a buffer area, typing another
^O will resume the printout at some later point in the output. If
all output has been passed to the buffer area, the user is returned to
Common abbreviations used with Print are as follows:
*P(CR) Print 16 lines, beginning with the
current position; the same as
*(LF) Print the next line of the file.
* $ Print the previous line of the
*P/.(CR) Print all the lines of the current
page; the same as "P0:*/.(CR)".
The current line number and page are determined by the last line
If there are no lines in the specified range, SOS will print the error
message, "%NO SUCH LINE(S)".
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6.6 THE LIST COMMAND - "L"
It is also possible to have the file, or a part of it, printed out on
the line printer:
If no range is specified, the entire file will be listed. The "S"
option for suppressing line numbers and headings is the same as the S
option used in the Print command. In this case, however, the asterisk
will not be suppressed, and SOS will indicate that it is ready for the
As with Print, the List command determines the current line number and
page by the last line printed. Line printer output will have suitable
page headings of the top of each page. These include the name of the
file, the time and date of the printing, and the page given in the
form "M-N". "M" is the actual SOS page on which this text can be
found; "N" denotes the Nth page of line printer output comprising
6.7 THE FIND COMMAND - "F"
The Find command is used to locate a given string of text within a
stated range (note that the options are discussed separately below).
*F[[<string>] $ [<range>][,<options>]](CR)
SOS will find the first occurrence of the string in the range and
print the line containing that string. If the range includes more
than one page and if the string is found on a page other than the
first one of the range, SOS will print "PAGE N" before the line number
to indicate on which page the line is located. If the string does not
occur in the specified range, SOS will print "%SEARCH FAILS".
To find the first occurrence of a given text on a specific page,
simply precede the page number with a "/" as follows:
*FLINE $ /2(CR) Find and print out the first line
on page 2 containing "LINE".
To locate the same string specified in the last Find command, only use
the range argument.
*F $ /3(CR) Find and print out the first line
on page 3 containing "LINE" (from
the previous Find command).
If no previous Find command was issued, SOS will print "%NO STRING
GIVEN" since no string had been specified.
If the range is omitted, then SOS will begin its search at the line
following the current line and continue through the end of the file.
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*FALWAYS $ (CR) Find the first occurrence of
"ALWAYS" beginning with the line
following the current line through
the end of the file.
To indicate a range beginning with the next line through a specified
location, it is necessary only to specify the second half of the
*FALWAYS $ :/5(CR) Find the first occurrence of
"ALWAYS" in the range from the next
line through the end of page 5
(assuming the current position is
before page 5).
Note that if this particular range specification were used in any
other command (except Substitute), SOS would print the message
When the Find command is given repeatedly, it is not necessary to
specify the text and range when referring to the same text and range
given in the last complete Find command.
*F(CR) Continue to find the text
(specified previously). The search
begins with the line after the last
line that was found; the end of
the range is the endpoint specified
in the last complete Find command.
*F $ (CR) Continue to find the text
(specified previously) through the
end of the file (since no range had
The current line will be set to the last one found. If the error
message "%SEARCH FAILS" is printed, the string cannot be located in
the remaining portion of the range. In this instance the value of the
current location will be unchanged.
If is possible to use an extended form of the Find command to find up
to six strings of text. The carriage return separates the text
*F<string1>(CR) Search for any occurrence of any of
<string2>(CR) the strings (totalling fewer than
. 200 characters) in the range
<stringn> $ <range>(CR)
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The complete Find command format including options, is as follows:
*F[[<string>] $ [<range>][,A ,N][,E][,<number>]](CR)
Find command options are defined below:
A Enter intraline edit mode automatically when the
string is found. This moves the intraline pointer
to the first character of the string. If
intraline editing is complete and "*F(CR)" is
issued, the A option will still be in effect.
(This is the same for the N and E options
N Find just the line numbers of the locations of a
given string. N follows the range specification
and cannot be used with the A option. N will
still be in effect if an "*F(CR)" is issued.
E Do not treat upper and lower case letters as being
equivalent. E follows the range, or A or N if
either is present. E will still be in effect if
an "*F(CR)" is issued.
<number> "<number>" specifies the number of lines to be
found - 99999 usually will find them all. This
option can be used instead of repeating "*F(CR)"
until the string no longer can be found within the
range specified in the first complete Find
6.8 THE ALTER COMMAND (INTRALINE EDIT MODE) - "A"
The Alter command (referred to by the Find command) is used to make
changes within a line without having to retype the line. The Alter
command accepts a range specifier indicating those lines to be atered.
For each of the lines in the range, SOS prints the line number, and
then enters a special intraline edit mode which has its own commands.
A pointer, maintained within the line, points to the next character in
the line that will be affected by the next command. The special
intraline edit commands do not appear on the user's teletype. Thus,
the line shown on the teletype at the end of the intraline edit is
exactly the same as it is in the file (except for the backslashes and
the characters between them). Any command in this mode may be
preceded by a number which will cause the command to be repeated for
that number of characters. The line number of the next line in the
range will be typed out automatically as soon as intraline editing is
completed on the present line.
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The current line is determined by the last line edited.
If there are no lines in the specified range, SOS will print the error
message "%NO SUCH LINE(S)"
SPACE This will advance the pointer one position to the
right. The character that is passed over is printed
on the teletype. If the pointer is already at the
extreme right of the line, this command is ignored.
RUBOUT This moves the pointer one character to the left.
This does not delete anything as it would ordinarily
in input mode. The characters moved over are
printed between single backslashes (\XXX\). If the
pointer is already at the extreme left of the line,
a (CR)(LF) is automatically performed. The line
number will be reprinted, and the pointer will again
point to the beginning of the line.
C<character> This causes SOS to accept the next character from
the teletype. The character pointed to will be
replaced by the new character, and the pointer will
be moved one character to the right. The character
accepted from the teletype is printed on the line in
place of the one that is deleted. If the pointer is
at the extreme right of the line, the command is
ignored. During this command, any RUBOUT that is
used will be ignored. (LF),(CR), and $ will abort
the remainder of the command.
D This will delete the character pointed to. The
character(s) deleted will be surrounded by double
backslashes (\\XXX\\). The pointer will point to
the right of the last character deleted. If the
command is preceded by a number, only the last three
characters that were deleted will be printed and
enclosed in double backslashes. The command is
ignored if the pointer is at the extreme right of
I<string> $ This will insert the given string into the line
immediately before the chracter to which the pointer
points. The pointer remains pointing to the
character to the right of the inserted string. The
characters being inserted are typed out on the
If RUBOUT is typed before the $ , the last
character that is inserted will be deleted. If more
RUBOUTs are typed than characters inserted, the
characters to the left of the insert are deleted.
-SOS- Page 32
The characters deleted are surrounded by single
backslashes. If enough characters are inserted to
make the line exceed 147 characters, the message
"%LINE TOO LONG" is printed, and SOS will return the
user to command mode without performing any of the
alterations specified for that line.
If a (CR) is typed before the $ , the insert will
be terminated; intraline edit will terminate as in
the (CR) command.
If a (LF) is typed before the $ , a (CR)(LF) is
inserted at that point. This creates a new line
consisting of any subsequently inserted characters
and the rest of the old line to the right of the
pointer. The number of the new line is determined
1. If the I command is preceded by a number, this
number acts like a temporary increment and is
added to the current line number to obtain the
new line number.
2. If the I command is not preceded by a number,
then the new line number is determined by adding
the current increment to the current line
number. The new line is inserted at this number
unless it would be out of order.
3. If the new line would be out of order in (2)
above, the new line number will be halfway
between the current line number and the next
line number. If the next line number is only
one more than the current line number, an "%OUT
OF ORDER" error message will be printed. SOS
will retype the line number and the contents of
the line to the left of the pointer. It is then
possible to insert more characters.
If no errors occur while making the new line, the
pointer will be left pointing to the first character
of the new line, and the current line will be set to
the new line just created.
(CR) If there is no more editing to be done, that portion
of the line to the right of the pointer will be
printed out; intraline editing is completed for
that line and command returns to the user, unless
there are more lines in the Alter command range to
E This has the same effect as the (CR) key, except
that the rest of the line is not printed on the
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Q The Quit command terminates intraline editing
without making any changes in the line presently
being altered. SOS returns to command mode.
^U This restarts intraline editing on the same line.
The line will be restored to its original state, and
intraline editing can be started as soon as the line
number is reprinted.
S<character> The Skip command will accept one character from the
user's teletype (without printing it) and will move
the pointer to the right until the next occurrence
of that character. Every character passed over will
be printed. The character that is currently being
pointed to also will be printed without being
compared to the character specified in the command.
If the character does not occur in the rest of the
line, the pointer will be moved to the extreme right
of the line.
K<character> The Kill command is the same as the Skip command
except that it deletes all the characters passed
over instead of printing them. If there are no
other occurrences of the specified character in a
line, the command will be ignored (rather than the
remainder of the line being deleted). As with the D
command, the last 3 characters deleted are printed
between double backslashes if a number precedes K.
R The Replace command is the same as a Delete command
followed by an Insert (even if a number is included
L The Line command prints the remainder of the line to
the right of the pointer, performs a (CR)(LF),
prints the number of the line, and continues the
intraline editing with the pointer pointing to the
first character of the line.
P This prints the remainder of the line to the right
of the pointer, performs a (CR)(LF), prints the line
number, and moves the pointer to the right; the
characters passed over are printed until the pointer
reaches the same position it had before the command
J This Justify command inserts a (CR)(LF) where the
pointer is currently pointing, and concatenates the
portion of the line to the right of the pointer onto
the beginning of the next line. The current line
number is set to the new line number.
The error message "%LINE TOO LONG" will be given if
the new line that is created contains more than 147
characters. The error message "%NO NEXT LINE" will
-SOS- Page 34
be printed if this line is the last one on the page.
Either of these two errors will cause the J command
to be ignored; the line number and the portion of
the line to the left of the pointer will be typed
W The Word command moves the pointer to the right,
passes over blanks and tabs, then over the first
"word" encountered, and then over subsequent blanks
and tabs (until the next word). Everything that is
passes over is printed.
A "word" is defined as any collection of letters,
numbers, and the separators ".", "%", and "$". The
other separators which delimit a word will cause the
scan to stop after the word and subsequent blanks
and tabs are passed over. (See also Section 6.20 to
X<string> $ The X command moves the pointer over blanks and
tabs, deleting them as it moves, and then deletes
the next "word" and the following blanks and tabs.
After the deletion, a string of text is inserted to
replace the word and subsequent blanks which were
Any other character, used as a command, will be ignored in intraline
6.9 THE EXTEND COMMAND - "X"
The Extend command is another way to enter intraline edit mode.
With this command, however, the pointer is moved immediately to the
extreme right of the line, the characters passed over are printed on
the teletype, and the user is in the intraline insert mode. The
desired text is then typed in followed by (CR).
If a (LF) is typed instead of a (CR), a return, linefeed occurs at
that point. This creates a new line consisting of anything that is
subsequently typed in, since the user is still in insert mode. The
number of the new line is determined by the methods described in
Section 6.8. Note that a (CR) must be used eventually to end the
insertion, unless the sequence of line numbers does not permit another
line. In this case, the user will be returned to SOS command level.
If an $ is typed before the (CR), the user may then issue any of the
intraline edit mode commands.
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<text> $ (CR)
The following form of the command will suppress the type-out of the
Only the characters that the user types for the insertion will be
printed on the teletype.
6.10 THE SUBSTITUTE COMMAND - "S"
The Substitute command will substitute "newstring" for all occurrences
of "oldstring" in the specified range and print every line in which a
substitution has been made. (Note that the options are discussed
*S[<oldstring> $ <newstring>] $ [<range>][<options>](CR)
If the first line with a substitution is not on the first page
specified in the range, or if a subsequent line with a substitution is
not on the same page as a previous line, "PAGE N" will be printed
before the appropriate line.
To substitute the same strings specified in the last S command, omit
the strings and one $ from the command:
*SOLD $ NEW $ 100/1:100/2(CR) Substitute "NEW" for all
occurrences of "OLD" in the
*S $ /3(CR) Change "OLD" to "NEW" (as specified
previously) on page 3.
If the strings are omitted and no previous S command had been given,
SOS will print the error message "%NO STRING GIVEN".
If the entire range is omitted, SOS will assume a range from the line
after the current line through the end of the file. If the first part
of the range is omitted, it is assumed to be the line after the
current line. The current line is set to the last line in which a
substitution took place. If a substitution did not occur, the value
of the current line will not be updated.
It is also possible to perform several substitutions at one time. All
text to be located and changed is specified first, followed by an $
and all the text to be substituted, followed by the range.
The form of this command is:
-SOS- Page 36
<oldstringn> $ <newstring1>(CR)
<newstringn> $ <range>(CR)
If there are fewer "newstrings" than "oldstrings," the last
"newstring" is substituted for the extra "oldstrings." Up to six
oldstring and six newstrings (containing 200 characters in all) may be
used; if either is exceeded, one of the following error messages may
appear: "%TOO MANY STRINGS" or "%STRING TOO LONG".
The complete Substitute command format, including options, is as
*S[<oldstring> $ <newstring>] $ [<range>][,D ,N][,E][,<number>](CR)
Substitute command options are defined below:
D By specifying this option, the user can look at each line
after the substitutions have been made in order th "decide"
if he prefers the new line or the old one. After each line
is printed, SOS will wait for the user to type one of the
RUBOUT The indicated substitutions will not be made; the old
version of the line will be retained. SOS will then print
the next line and, when found, will wait for another "D"
E SOS will return immediately to command mode without
performing the substitutions.
G SOS will use the modified line to replace the original line;
Decide mode will be halted and further substitutions will be
A SOS will enter intraline edit mode with the substititions
already made; the user then can issue one of the following:
^U Restore the original line.
(CR) Leave intraline edit mode and continue substitution.
Q Abort the entire process by retuning SOS to command
-SOS- Page 37
Any other character (e.g., a space or a (CR)) will automatically cause
the new line to replace the old line and substitution to continue.
N This option will suppress the printing of those lines in
which a substitution has been made.
E This option will cause upper and lower case letters to be
treated as non-identical in the "old" string. This should
come after D or N, if either is present, or after the
range. See Chapter 9.
<number> "<number>" specifies the number of lines of a given string
to be substituted - 99999 usually will include them all.
6.11 THE COPY COMMAND - "C"
The Copy command will insert a copy of existing text at a given
location. Its format is:
*C<destination line number>,<source range>[,<inc1>[,<inc2>]](CR)
The Copy command acts as if an Insert command had been done for a
given location, and then as if all of the lines specified by the
source range had been typed in, using the specified increment between
destination line numbers. If the increment is too large, SOS will
print "%OUT OF ORDER" or "%WRAP AROUND", and then choose a smaller
increment, which is indicated as follows:
If, for some reason, SOS cannot choose a small enough increment, it
INC1=ORDER or INC1=WAR
The specified increment will be used, and SOS will copy as many lines
as possible into the available space.
Since all the text to be copied must be contained in core at one time,
copying large blocks of text may result in the error message
"%INSUFFICIENT CORE AVAILABLE". The only solution is to copy several
smaller blocks of text.
If the source lines contain page marks, the renumbering of lines at
the destination using the first increment will cease when the first
page mark is reached; then all lines between the first and last page
marks will be inserted with orininal numbers. Lines after the last
page mark will be inserted with the orininal numbers, unless a second
increment (<inc2>) for the destination line numbers is specified in
If the second increment is too large, SOS will print one of the
following error messages: "%OUT OF ORDER" or "%WRAP AROUND".
-SOS- Page 38
If the second increment is not specified and renumbering is not done,
SOS will print "%OUT OF ORDER".
In both cases, SOS will try to use a different increment, as indicated
If SOS cannot find a suitable increment, it will print
SOS then will use the specified increment (or the original line
numbers if a second increment had not been stated in the command), and
will insert as many lines as possible into the remaining available
The Copy command will enable the user to copy lines from a file other
than the one presently being edited. If the line numbers of this
other file are unknown, then the user will first type:
*C<destination line number>_<source filename>/S(CR)
This will cause SOS to respond with an asterisk (*). "/S" places the
indicated source file in read-only mode. The desired lines are found
by using the Print, List, or Find commands. After the lines have been
SOS will reply
At this point, the rest of the Copy command should be typed.
The current line will be set to the last line copied.
6.12 THE TRANSFER COMMAND - "T"
The Transfer command moves a set of lines from one location in a file
*T<destination line number>,<source range>[,<inc1>[,<inc2>]](CR)
The Transfer command is the same as a Copy command followed by a
Delete command. With the Transfer command (unlike the Copy command) -
1. The source range must be in the file currently being edited.
2. The error message "%ILLEGAL TRANSFER DESTINATION" will be
-SOS- Page 39
printed when the destination is inside the source range, as in
If an "%OUT OF ORDER" error message is printed because of the removal
of a page mark, SOS then will reinsert one page mark and print "PAGE
MARK INSERTED TO PREVENT ORDER ERROR".
If the specified destination is on a page which does not exist, SOS
will insert the text at the end of the file and print "TEXT INSERTED
AT END OF FILE". SOS also will insert a page mark to prevent an "%OUT
OF ORDER" error message.
Note that <inc2> must be used if line numbers other than the orininal
are desired for the last page.
6.13 THE JOIN COMMAND - "J"
The Join command joins two consecutive lines by deleting the carriage
return/linefeed sequence at the end of one line and the line number
and TAB of the next line.
<line> is the first of the pair of lines to be joined. The line
number of the new line that is created will be the same as this first
If there are no errors, the current line is the line that is created.
The lines will not be joined if SOS prints the error message "%LINE
If the line specified as the argument is the last line on the page,
SOS will give the error message "$NO NEXT LINE".
6.14 THE NUMBER COMMAND - "N"
After an "%OUT OF ORDER" message (or at any other time), it is
possible to renumber the file, or portions of it, by using the Number
The first argument is the increment to be used in the renumbered file.
The first line that is renumbered is given this number, unless the
third argument is specified. Each succeeding line will be given a
number that is the sum of the increment and the previously assigned
If renumbering crosses a page mark, the first line on the new page
-SOS- Page 40
will be given the "starting number" - i.e., either the third argument
or the first argument (if the third is omitted). For example,
PAGE 2 115 126 137 150
PAGE 3 900 911 952 999
PAGE 2 10 20 30 40
PAGE 3 10 20 30 40
If the second argument is absent (indicating the range to be
renumbered), the entire file will be renumbered. If there are no
lines in the specified range, SOS will print the error message "%NO
The Number command is useful in renumbering a page before the page
mark is deleted in order to avoid an "%OUT OF ORDER" error message.
If the user deletes the page mark before renumbering, he should issue
the Number command with the "/." range specification, the desired
increment, and starting point, if desired.
*N10,/.(CR) Renumber the current page with an
increment and starting point of 10.
After renumbering, the current number and page will be set to the
number of the last renumbered line. An increment of 0 will result in
the error message "%ILLEGAL COMMAND". If the spedified increment is
so large that it causes some line numbers to be greater than 99999,
the high-order digits of these line numbers will be dropped. SOS will
then print the error message "%WRAP AROUND" along with the page on
which the problem occurred. The page will be out of order and should
be renumbered with a smaller increment.
6.15 THE JUSTIFY COMMAND - "JU"
The JUstify command justifies the text in a specified range by
ignoring all line numbers, returns, and linefeeds:
Line numbers, returns, linefeeds, and blanks are then inserted so that
the line length is the difference between the right (RMAR) and left
(LMAR) margins plus one:
-SOS- Page 41
Inserting any additional characters will result in unjustified text.
Note that the default values of "RMAR" and "LMAR" are 69 and 1
If the right margin is less than the left, SOS will print "%MARGIN
In this case, use the Set command to reset either or both margins.
SOS inserts extra blanks between words, starting from the left or
right on alternate lines, to make the line length "RMAR-LMAR+1".
A word is anything between blanks. (The end of the original line is
considered a blank.) A word that ends with ".", "?", or "!" may be
followed by two blanks; otherwise, only one blank is allowed, and all
other blanks will be ignored.
SOS inserts blanks at the beginning of the new line equivalent to the
value of the left margin minus 1. The new line number is the same as
the number derived by the Number command:
A page mark automatically will be inserted if the next line number
exceeds the maximum line number (MAXLN) whose default is 99999. If
this occurs, the user will be informed.
Paragraphing will cause exceptions to the above procedures. The end
of a paragraph is indicated by one of the following conditions:
1. Tab in the first character position
2. Blank line
3. Page mark
4. Beginning or end of specified range
When one of these conditions is encountered, the line that immediately
precedes the end of the paragraph is not expanded (unless it is the
beginning of the range). The line, however, is placed at the LMAR,
with leading blanks inserted if necessary.
If the paragraph begins with a tab (8 spaces, entered during Insert
mode by CTRL-TAB), the tab is merely inserted into the text.
Otherwise, the paragraph will begin with the paragraph margin (PMAR)
whose default is 1, rather than the LMAR.
-SOS- Page 42
6.16 THE JUSTIFY LEFT COMMAND - "JL"*
The Justify Left command removes leading blanks from lines of a range
and inserts LMAR-1 blanks to move the lines to the left margin.
The first line of a paragraph is treated as in the JUstify command.
No chopping, filling, or renumbering, however, is done.
6.17 THE JUSTIFY RIGHT COMMAND - "JR"*
It is also possible to right justify a range of text:
Enough blanks are inserted at the beginning of the line so that the
right end of the line is at the right margin. If any tabs are
present, the required blanks are inserted to the right of the
rightmost tab in the line.
6.18 THE JUSTIFY CENTER COMMAND - "JC"*
The Justify Center command centers the lines of a range between the
left and right margins:
JC is like the JR command, except that only half as many blanks are
inserted to make the line centered between LMAR and RMAR.
6.19 THE JUSTIFY WORD COMMAND - "JW"
The Justify Word command, like the JUstify command (Section 6.15),
justifies a line of text. In this case, SOS includes as many words as
possible between LMAR and RMAR without adding blanks or hyphenating.
The text, therefore, appears as typewritten text without a justified
The format of the JW command is as follows:
*WARNING: After a line that exceeds RMAR-LMAR+1, SOS will print the
error message "%LINE TOO LONG". The text, when printed, may not be as
expected; the margins should be reset and the command should be
-SOS- Page 43
6.20 THE SET COMMAND - "_"
The Set command sets (or changes) parameters in SOS:
For example, after SOS has been used for a while, the user may want
shorter forms of error messages. By typing
all error messages will be abbreviated to five characters or less (see
Appendix A). This is reversed by typing
Note that SOS begins in _NOVICE mode.
For the intraline edit mode W and X commands, the per cent sign,
dollar sign, and period are considered part of the word. The use
these as separators or delimiters, type
This is reversed by typing "*_NONSEPARATOR(CR)", the default condition
when SOS begain edit mode.
The parameters used in the family of Justify commands (LMAR, RMAR,
PMAR, MAXLN), the increment parameter (INC), and the LENGTH parameter
(Print option) may be assigned new values as follows:
The newly-assigned values are only valid while editing the current
It is possible to change the name of the resultant edited file
6.21 THE GIVE INFORMATION COMMAND - "="
Any time the user is in command mode, he may request the value of a
parameter by using the Give Information command:
Possible Give parameters are:
-SOS- Page 44
*=INC(CR) Print the current increment.
*=.(CR) Print <current line number>/<current page>.
*=LMAR(CR) Print the current value for the left margin.
*=PMAR(CR) Print the current value used for paragraph identation.
*=RMAR(CR) Print the current value for the right margin.
*=MAXLN(CR) Print the maximum line number allowed in the JU
*=BIG(CR) Print the page number of the largest page in the file.
*=ERROR(CR) Print the last error message - in the long form, even
if "_EXPERT" is in effect.
*=STRING(CR) Print the string used by the Find and Substitute
<Find command string(s)>
<Substitute command newstring(s)>
<Substitute command oldstring(s)>
*=CASE(CR) Print whether SEPARATOR (or other words described in
Chapter 9) has been set.
*=NAME(CR) Print the name of the resultant output file.
*=LENGTH(CR) Print the length used for determining the end of the
page in the Print command options.
6.22 LINE CONTENTS SPECIFICATION - ALL COMMANDS
In SOS it is possible to address lines by content, rather than line
numbers. This is done by replacing each <line number> field of any
$ <string> $ (CR)
The rest of the orininal command string continues on the next line.
This may be another " $ <string> $ (CR)" or (CR) alone which
terminates the entire command. For example, to print everything
between a line containing "ONE" and a line containing "TWO", type the
*P $ ONE $ (CR)
: $ TWO $ (CR)
-SOS- Page 45
Note that three carriage returns are required: one for each string of
text and one for terminating the Print command.
If the string between two $ s is null, then the string last used in
this context will be used again. (Strings from the Find and
Substitute commands do NOT qualify.) Normally, the search begins with
the current position and contunues through the end of the file. A
range, however, may be specified as follows:
$ [<string>] $ [<range>][,D ,N][,E][,<number>](CR)
<range> may be specified as a group of line numbers, or the line
contents specification described above may be substituted. In the
latter case, <range> provides the outer boundaries for the search.
<range> may be nested a maximum of three times.
*P $ C $ (CR) Print all the lines between, and
: $ B $ $ D $ (CR) including, the first occurrence of
: $ G $ (CR) C and the first occurrence of B.
(CR) Only use that portion of text
between the first occurrences of D
Where the sample text is:
00300 B _current line
00600 B Search through this area
00700 C for lines C and B.
00800 A Print these 3 lines
Adding either the ",D" or ",N" option will cause the entire line
(",D") or the line number (",N") of the first occurrence of the text
to be printed. SOS then will print an *. If the user types RUBOUT at
this point, SOS will search for the next line containing the text and
then print the line or line number. Typing any other character will
terminate the search for the particular text.
The ",E" option specifies that upper and lower case characters are not
equivalent (see Chapter 9).
<number> indicates a number of times the string occurs. SOS will skip
to the last occurrence of this specification and use that line as the
starting point for its search.
*P $ 1 $ ,D,3(CR) SOS would print all the lines between,
: $ 4 $ (CR) and including, the first occurrence of
(CR) 1 and the first occurrence of 4;
however, 3 in the number field indicates
that SOS should use the third occurrence
-SOS- Page 46
of 1 as its starting point.
Where the sample text is:
1 _starting point
RUBOUT, when used with the ",D" or ",N"
option, may only be repeated "number-1"
6.23 THE QUIT COMMAND - "Q"
Should the user realize that his editing is useless, he may return to
the monitor without saving the edited version of the file by using the
SOS will respond by returning him to the monitor.
WARNING: CTRL-C (^C) should never be used to return to the monitor
while SOS is operating since unnecessary temporary files will be
saved. Use the Quit command.
6.24 THE END COMMAND - "E"
The End command is used to terminate the current edit.
If a filename is not specified, the original copy of the file being
edited will be renamed to <filename>.BAK; then the newly edited
version will be stored under the original filename.
If a name is specified, it will be assenged to the edited version. If
the user specifies a filename which already exists, SOS will ask "FILE
ALREADY EXISTS! DELETE?(Y OR N)" and wait on the same line for a
-SOS- Page 47
Y - Delete old file and substitute new file
N - Do not delete old file
If "N", SOS will respond with "FILE=" and wait for a new name to be
typed; this will be assigned to the edited file.
If "Y" and if the old file cannot be deleted (such as .BAK files), SOS
will respond "FILE WRITE PROTECTED. TRY ANOTHER NAME". An asterisk
will appear on the next line.
When SOS is finished, it will return the user to the monitor:
Instead of using the End command to specify the filename under which
the edited version will be stored, the user, when beginning the
editing session, may specify the new filename as follows:
.SOS<new filename>=<old filename>(CR)
SOS will enter edit mode for <old filename>. "*E(CR)" at the end of
the editing will then cause the edited version to be stored under <new
filename>. The user may also add "/READONLY" or "/REA" to the
command; this will put the <old filename> in read-only mode. Thus,
the file named <old filename> will not be overwritten.
6.25 THE SAVE WORLD COMMAND - "W"
The Save World command
is similar to the End command except that parameters set by the Set
command are not returned to their standard settings (i.e., they remain
as they were before the command), and the user is returned to command
mode rather than to the monitor. This is useful for saving the
current version of the file in case the system crashes, and should be
done every fifteen minutes while in edit mode. Then, if the the
system does crash, only the editing done since the last W command was
issued will be lost.
If a filename is used with this command, the edited version will be
saved under that name. If the W command is issued again during the
save editing session and no filename is specified, then the current
version is saved with the name last given in a previous W command.
If the system crashes and a W command had not be issued recently, the
user may be able to recover his editing by typing the Monitor command
.RENAME<filename not in use>=nnnSOS.TMP(CR)
(where "nnn" is the user's job number).
-SOS- Page 48
This will attach the user to a temporary file which may be the one
that SOS was using before the system died. It is then necessary to
enter edit mode with the new filename. If this is not the correct
file, delete it and try again using another temporary file (e.g.,
nnnSOS.TEM). A system Directory command may be issued to see if there
are any temporary files.
6.26 THE GO COMMAND - "G"
It is possible to edit a program source file with SOS and then to
issue a Monitor command (EXECUTE, LOAD, COMPILE, etc.). SOS can be
reentered after the EXECUTE, LOAD, or COMPILE is done and can
determine the name of the last file edited; thus, typing
next will put the user immediately into edit mode in the last file
specified. Then, once the first DECsystem-10 Monitor command has been
given, and SOS has been entered a second time the Go command (instead
of End) will write the file onto the disk, exit from SOS, and cause
the previous Monitor command to be repeated.
A filename may also be specified with a Go command:
This simply renames the edited version; the name will be saved for
the next Go command. Thus, a G command alone will store a file under
a previously-specified name; a G command which includes a filename
will store the file under that new name.
7.0 READ-ONLY MODE
As indicated earlier, once a file is created it may be called by SOS
in read-only mode by the addition of "/READONLY" or "/REA" when the
file is named in the initial conversation with SOS:
The user will not be allowed to perform any editing in the named file
In read-only mode, only the following commands may be used: Print,
Find, End, Go and List.
-SOS- Page 49
8.0 INDIRECT COMMANDS
If a particular sequence of commands is used frequently, it is
possible to insert these commands in a file. Then SOS can be
instructed to read commands from the file, rather than from the
teletype keyboard. The command
will do this, provided the list of commands is found in the named
file. When SOS sees this command, it will begin taking its commands
from the file. Only the following will be printed out on the user's
1. Error messages
2. Printout from the P command
3. Items found by the F command
4. Substitutions made by the S command
5. Lines altered by the A command
If the user includes the Substitite command with the Decide option in
his file, he must type in the decision character when the Substitute
command is executed (see Section 6.10).
When SOS has executed the last command in the "indirect command" file,
the user will be reutrned to command mode.
When the user is inserting commands into the file, he may have to
enter such characters as $ or a (CR) without the (LF) (see Chapter 9
on SOS character sets).
9.0 UPPER AND LOWER CASE REPRESENTATION
9.1 C128 AND C64 MODES
Model 33 and 35 teletypes employ only upper-case letters and some
special symbols, totaling 64 characters in all. SOS is capable,
however, of using the full ASCII 128-character set. Since edit mode
assumes the 64-character set, it is necessary to specify "C128" mode
in order to represent lower-case letters and the additional ASCII
symbols. This C128 mode is indicated in a Set command:
In C128 mode, a ? preceding any teletype character will give it an
equivalent meaning as indicated in Appendix D ("SOS representation").
-SOS- Page 50
From Appendix D it is obvious that upper-case letters are input the
same in both C64 and C128 modes, except for the ?. In C128 mode, a
single ? has no meaning whatsoever; it is necessary, therefore, to
type ?? in this mode to represent a single ?.
To return to C64 mode, again use a Set command:
In C64 mode, only the characters on the teletype may be input. A
single ? will be echoed during input. In a line printed as the
result of a Print or Find command, however, a double ? will appear.
9.2 UPPER AND LOWER CASES
SOS initially assumes that all characters are upper case. Thus, in
C128 mode it is necessary to precede any character considered lower
case with a ?. The user, then, can intersperse the two cases in his
text in this manner to obtain all alphabetic characters.
When the text primarily is composed of lower-case letters, it is
easier to assume that all characters are lower case. Then, a special
configuration (i.e., the ?) will indicate upper case. The Set command
is used to indicate the dominance of lower case.
To represent upper-case characters, precede each with a ?. To revert
back to the original upper-case mode, type
9.3 COMBINING MODES AND CASES
The following examples illustrate how SOS modes and cases can be
01000 IS THIS A LINE? Inserted in C64 UPPER.
01000 IS THIS A LINE?? Printed in C64 UPPER.
01000 ?I?S ?T?H?I?S ?A ?L?I?N?E?? Printed in C64 LOWER.
01000 IS THIS A LINE?? Printed in C128 UPPER.
-SOS- Page 51
01000 ?I?S ?T?H?I?S ?A ?L?I?N?E?? Printed in C128 LOWER.
00100 WHO ARE YOU? Inserted in C64 LOWER.
00100 ?W?H?O ?A?R?E ?Y?O?U?? Printed in C64 UPPER.
00100 WHO ARE YOU?? Printed in C64 LOWER.
00100 ?W?H?O ?A?R?E ?Y?O?U?? Printed in C128 UPPER.
00100 WHO ARE YOU?? Printed in C128 LOWER.
02000 IS N?<Q?? Inserted in C128 UPPER.
02000 IS N?<Q?? Printed in C128 UPPER.
02000 ?I?S ?N?<?Q?? Printed in C128 LOWER.
02000 IS N?<Q?? Printed in C64 UPPER.
02000 ?I?S ?N?<?Q?? Printed in C64 LOWER.
03000 is this the end?? Inserted in C128 LOWER.
03000 ?I?S ?T?H?I?S ?T?H?E ?E?N?D?? Printed in C128 UPPER.
03000 IS THIS THE END?? Printed in C128 LOWER.
03000 ?I?S ?T?H?I?S ?T?H?E ?E?N?D?? Printed in C64 UPPER.
03000 IS THIS THE END?? Printed in C64 LOWER.
-SOS- Page 52
9.4 MODEL 37 TELETYPE: 37 MODE
The Model 37 teletype has the full ASCII 128-character set; it can,
therefore, input these characters directly to SOS. To type lower-case
letters on terminals such as the Model 37, it is necessary to issue
the system command
.TTY LC(CR) or >SET TTY LC(CR)
Then, to allow SOS to output lower-case characters to this teletype,
the user types
This is reversed by another Set command ("*_M33(CR)") which will
essentially make the Model 37 teletype act as if it were either a
Model 33 or 35 - i.e., 2-character equivalents must be used as
described in Section 9.1.
9.5 ASCERTAINING MODE AND CASE: THE GIVE INFORMATION COMMAND
If there is any doubt as to which case and mode are employed, issue a
"Give information" command.
For C64 mode, SOS will print
For C128 mode, SOS will print
For C64 mode on a Model 37 teletype, SOS will print
MODEL 37 C64 UPPER
MODEL 37 C64 LOWER
For C128 mode on a Model 37 teletype, SOS will print
MODEL 37 UPPER
-SOS- Page 53
MODEL 37 LOWER
9.6 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: FIND AND SUBSTITUTE COMMANDS
For a Find command<string>, upper and lower-case characters will be
considered the same unless the E option is used. For the Substitute
command, upper and lower-case will be considered equivalent in
9.7 SPECIAL "MATCHING" CHARACTERS: FIND AND SUBSTITUTE COMMANDS
If C128 mode has been specified or if a Model 37 teletype is used,
there are a few special characters which "match" some other character
in the Find and Substitute command<strings>.
?: Matches a SEPARATOR which is any character
other than a letter, a number, a ".", a "%",
or a "$". See Section 6.20 on Separators.
?/ Matches any character.
?% The subsequent character matches any
character which it would not normally match.
A?%BC will be matched by AAC, ACC, ADC, etc.,
but not by ABC (or abc unless the "E" option
is specified with Find or Substitute).
Combinations of the above 3 codes include:
?%?: Matches any letter, number, etc. -
i.e., not a SEPARATOR.
?%?/ Matches only the beginning or end of a
line. For example, ?%?/OLD finds only those
occurrences of "OLD" at the beginning of a
?7 Quotes the next character. When used with
another special character, ?7 will find that
character and not its match:
?7?% Searches for the actual occurrence of
*Line 1: 2-character representation
Line 2: Stanford representation
-SOS- Page 54
?7?7 Searches for ?7.
?%?7?% Matches any character except ?%.
?) Indicates "any number of" the particular
character that follows it. For example,
A?)BC Matches AC, ABC, ABBC, etc. In case of
ambiguity, the shortest string is found. For
the above example, A?)BC will find AC rather
?)?%?7?% Matches any number of characters
which are not ?%'s.
Two other special characters may be used in the <newstring> of the
Substitute command when one of the special constructions discussed
above has been specified in <oldstring>.:
?* Specifies that a match which occurs by using
one of the above special constructions is to
be used for a later substitution.
?*1?* A stand-in for whatever was actually
matched first by a special construction.
?*2?* is for the second match, etc.
For example, suppose all occurrences of OLD
are to be replaces by NEW, but COLD, FOLD,
etc., also exist in the file. OLD can be
given for the oldstring, but how can the
SEPARATORs be replaced? The "?*"
construction is used as follows:
*S?:OLD?: $ ?*1?*NEW?*2?* $ <range>(CR)
?" In more complicated specifications, ?" will
replace successive recurrences of the ?*
construction when they appear in the same
order that they were matched.
For example, as the file is scanned for the
<oldstring>, the matches with the special
constructions are actually numbered and
stored on the disk. (The first is 1, etc.)
Then, when the <newstring> is being
substituted, these numbered matches can be
named for use with ?*1?*, ?*2?*, etc. - if
they occur in order, ?" can be substituted
The constructions make it possible to isolate unknown portions of text
by manipulating what comes immediately before and after. NOTE:
-SOS- Page 55
Certain strings which can be formed with the above characters are
illegal and will produce the message "%ILLEGAL SEARCH STRING".
Since the strings are not checked when the command is issued, the
message will only be given when an attempt is made to match the
special construction. If ?%?), or ?7 is not followed by another
character, or if ?% is followed by ?), SOS will print "%ILLEGAL SEARCH
Because some of these special searches invlove recursion or require
the use of table space inside SOS, it is possible to get the error
message, "%SEARCH STRING TOO COMPLEX". If this occurs, try a simpler
Exchange two arguments of a function:
function (A,B) => function (B,A)
where A and B may be any string not including the left or right
parenthesis or a comma.
*Sfunction(?)?/,?)?/) $ function(?*2?*,?*1?*) $ <range>(CR)
Change all READ (3,#)list to READ (5,#) list
*SREAD?)?%(3, $ READ?"(5, $ <range>(CR)
NOTE: This will not match "READ(4,#) A(3,5)" but will match
-SOS- Page 56
DDE %DEVICE OUTPUT ERROR
DIE %DEVICE INPUT ERROR
DNA %DISK NOT AVAILABLE
FNF %FILE NOT FOUND
ICN %INTERNAL CONFUSION
ILC %ILLEGAL COMMAND
ILFMT %ILLEGAL LINE FORMAT
ILR %ILLEGAL REPLACEMENT ON INSERT
ILUUO %ILLEGAL UUO
IRS %ILLEGAL REPLACEMENT STRING
ISS %ILLEGAL SEARCH STRING
ITD %ILLEGAL TRANSFER DESTINATION
LTL %LINE TOO LONG
NEC %INSUFFICIENT CORE AVAILABLE
NLN %NO SUCH LINE(S)
NNN %NO NEXT LINE
NSG %NO STRING GIVEN
NSP %NO SUCH PAGE
ORDER %OUT OF ORDER
STC %STRING TOO COMPLEX
STL %STRING TOO LONG
UNA %DEVICE NOT AVAILABLE
TMS %TOO MANY STRINGS
WAR %WRAP AROUNG
-SOS- Page 57
SRF %SEARCH FAILS
CMERR %INDIRECT READ ERROR
CMEND %INDIRECT END-OF-FILE
MAR %MARGIN ERROR
-SOS- Page 58
SUMMARY OF COMMANDS
Next Character - SPACE
Last Character - RUBOUT
Change - C<character>
Delete - D
Insert - I<string> $
End Alter Mode - (CR)
End Alter Mode - E (without printout)
Quit - Q
Start Over - ^U
Skip - S<character>
Kill - K<character>
Replace - R
Line - L
Print - P
Justify - J
Word - W
Delete Word and Insert Text - X<string> $
*C<destination line number>,<source range>[,<inc1>[<inc2>]](CR)
*C<destination line number>_<source filename>/S(CR)
<text>[ $ (LF)](CR)
*F[[<string>] $ [<range>][,A ,N][,E][,<number>]](CR)
*=INC BIG CASE ERROR STRING . LMAR PMAR RMAR MAXLN LENGTH NAME(CR)
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LINE CONTENTS SPECIFICATION - ALL COMMANDS
line number field =
$ <string> $ (CR)
*M<line number>/<page number>(CR)
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INC LMAR PMAR RMAR MAXLN LENGTH
*S[<oldstring> $ <newstring>] $ [<range>][,D ,N][,E][,<number>](CR)
*T<destination line number>,<source range>[,<inc1>[,<inc2>]](CR)
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If certain <parameter>s are not assigned values by the Set command,
they will assume a default value:
Also, the following <parameter>s are "modes" in which SOS begins:
These can be reversed by using the Set command with the following
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ASCII CHARACTER TABLE
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL A
?! ?" ?# ?$ ?% ?& ?' C
BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB
?+ ?, ?- ?. ?/ ?0 ?1 ?2
CAN EM SS ESC FS GS RS VS
?9 ?6 ?4 ?= ?< ?> ?7 ?8
04 SP ! " # $ % & '
05 ( ) * + , - . /
06 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
07 8 9 : ; < = > ?
10 @ A B C D E F G
11 H I J K L M N O
12 P Q R S T U V W
13 X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
14 a b c d e f g
?@ ?A ?B ?C ?D ?E ?F ?G
15 h i j k l m n o
?H ?I ?J ?K ?L ?M ?N ?O
16 p q r s t u v w
?P ?Q ?R ?S ?T ?U ?V ?W
17 x y z RUB
?X ?Y ?Z ?[ ?: ?] ?3
A 128-character code
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B Stanford character
C 2-character equivalent