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DIRECT.DOC -- Changes from V6(441) to V7(502)
COPYRIGHT (C) 1972,1974,1977,1979,1981,1986
DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION, MAYNARD, MASS.
THIS SOFTWARE IS FURNISHED UNDER A LICENSE FOR USE ONLY ON A SINGLE
COMPUTER SYSTEM AND MAY BE COPIED ONLY WITH THE INCLUSION OF THE ABOVE
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SOFTWARE ON EQUIPMENT WHICH IS NOT SUPPLIED BY DEC.
DIRECT.DOC -- Changes from V6(441) to V7(502) Page 2
DIRECT version 7 runs on all monitors. It has been tested on
7.02/7.03. DIRECT version 7 fully supersedes all previous versions.
DIRECT version 7 is documented in the system commands manual. See
also the help file DIRECT.HLP.
DIRECT performs a directory listing of any of several media. Most
commonly, it is used to obtain a directory listing of the disk. It
can produce a similar listing of a FAILSAFE, FRS, or BACKUP mag tape.
DIRECT can also analyze a tape for the presence of tape labels (both
in ASCII and SIXBIT) as well as SAVE files. DIRECT can also produce a
listing of DECtapes and of TMPCOR. The directory listing can be
formatted for speed, compactness, completeness (even extreme detail),
or for sorting by SORT.
2.0 EXTERNAL CHANGES
The main reason for DIRECT version 7 is to utilize the new SWIL
library ("Scan-Wild-I/o-Library, which functionally replaces the
version 7 SCAN, WILD, and HELPER modules), as well as to fix some
Following is a list of the "external" or visible-to-the-user changes
in DIRECT version 7.
2.1 Listing Format
The directory output listing format has been "standardized" for all
supported listing device-types. In particular, DECtape and TMPCOR
listings are now formatted just like disk listings, and obey the same
rules (and are controlled by the same set of switches, such as /FAST,
/NORMAL, /WIDTH, etc.).
Two new switches have been added, /DTA and /TMPCOR to force directory
listings of DECtapes and TMPCOR to be formatted as they used to be in
versions of DIRECT previous to version 7. Additionally, the /FDTA
switch was removed (/FAST works).
2.2 /DETAIL listing format
The /DETAIL listing format now includes the new .RBTYP, .RBBSZ,
.RBRSZ, and .RBFFB "file type/format" words, as well as the .RBIDT
BACKUP "incremental date/time" word.
2.3 Magtape buffers
DIRECT version 7 now automatically builds buffers for magtape devices,
DIRECT.DOC -- Changes from V6(441) to V7(502) Page 3
and will expand the buffers as needed in order to read in large
records (DIRECT only checks the first tape record, subsequent
oversized records will report the usual "Block Too Large" I/O error).
Alternatively, the /BLOCKSIZE switch may be used to explicitly specify
the size of buffers for DIRECT to build for the magtape device. If
/BLOCKSIZE is used, then DIRECT will NOT automatically expand buffers
to read the tape.
Due to the addition of the /BLOCKSIZE switch (in the SWIL package),
the /BLOCKS switch in DIRECT has been removed, and replaced with the
2.4 File specification and file expression syntax and semantics
While the command syntax and semantics remain essentially unchanged,
there are a few minor changes evident to the user.
2.4.1 Node names
SWIL allows node names to be included in file specifications (you can
even wildcard the node names), but DIRECT supports only local host
directory listings (use the NFT program for remote network directory
listings), and will issue an error message if you specify any node
other than the local host.
2.4.2 Device names
SWIL allows device names to be wildcarded (e.g., "DSK?:"). By
default, only mounted disk structures are matched to wildcarded device
names. You can specify the /ANYDEVICE switch in conjunction with the
wildcarded device name and SWIL will match against all devices on that
system, including terminals, tapes, etc. To match only disk structure
names, the /DSKONLY switch may be used. Logical names, ersatz device
names, and pathological device names are never matched.
2.4.3 Pathological devices
SWIL fully supports pathological device name definitions.
2.4.4 Guide words
SWIL implements several new 'GUIDE' words used in building file
expressions. Following is the list of currently supported guide
1. AND Match if both simple specs match
2. OR Match if either simple spec matches
3. NOT Match if first spec but not second spec
DIRECT.DOC -- Changes from V6(441) to V7(502) Page 4
4. BEGIN Begin matching with secondary file
5. END End matching with secondary file
6. IFAND Match if secondary file exists
7. IFNOT Match if secondary file doesn't exist
8. IFSAME Match if secondary file is the same
9. IFDIFF Match if secondary file is different
10. IFOLDE Match if primary file is older than secondary file
11. IFNEWE Match if primary file is newer
12. IFBIGG Match if primary file is bigger
13. IFSMAL Match if primary file is smaller
For example, "*.* 'IFAND' SYS:" selects all your files (first spec
defaults to "DSK:[-]") which also exist on SYS: (defaults to *.*).
"*.* 'IFSAME' SYS:" operates in a similar manner, but the extant file
on SYS: must also be the same length, logical creation date/time, and
the same I/O mode. "*.* 'IFBIGGER' SYS:" would match any files which
exist on SYS: and are smaller than your counterpart file. The last
five operators are considered "successful" if the secondary file
doesn't exist (i.e., "BLAH.BAR 'IFBIGGER' SYS:" wins if the file
doesn't exist on SYS:).
2.5 /[NO]SBRMSG switch
The /[NO]SBRMSG switch has been added to control the issuance of the
[new-to-version-7] "DRTSBR Skipping BACKUP repeater record" message.
The default is /NOSBRMSG.
3.0 KNOWN BUGS AND DEFICIENCIES
If /SORT on several file specs with distinct directories, the
directories will not be listed (even if concatenated). This is
because of the notion that distinct directories can not be
concatenated (in WILD), and that distinct requests to DIRECT
(separated by commas) are treated separately.
4.0 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS
Compile with JOBDAT, MACTEN, UUOSYM, and SWIL as universals on UNV:,
and load with SWIL library .REL file on REL:. For example:
DIRECT.DOC -- Changes from V6(441) to V7(502) Page 5
5.0 INTERNAL CHANGES
The internal changes to DIRECT are available in the source file
DIRECT.MAC, near the begining of the file under the subtitle "Revision
SORT CAPABILITIES SHOULD BE BUILT IN.
(SPR 10-9943) ADD A SUPER GRAND TOTAL TO COVER AN ENTIRE MAG TAPE.
(SPR 10-14,278) HAVE /DETAIL/SORT FORMAT OUTPUT ON A LINE PER FILE
BASIS, CONDUCIVE TO SORTING.
7.0 SPECIFICATIONS 7.1 Find File Format
DIRECT can write two parallel binary "find files" suitable for a
program to later read in order to find where certain files are kept.
These "find files" can also be read by DIRECT by specifying /FIND in
the command line.
This facility is useful for maintaining online directories of normally
offline files (either disk or BACKUP magtapes). The capabilities
provided with DIRECT version 7 do not provide any means for
identifying (for example) on which reel of a BACKUP saveset a
particular file resides (an RP06 can fill 6 2400' tapes at 1600bpi) or
even the tape REELID. DIRECT's "find" ability is really only
concerned with identifying which offline disk structure(s) has a
The /FNDBLD switch will cause DIRECT to write the "find files"; the
/FIND switch will cause DIRECT to read the "find files"; and the
/FNDDAT switch identifies the "find files" to be used by /FIND.
The first and shorter "find file" contains just filename and extension
information. This file is generated with an extension of .FPF (Find
Pointer File). This file is intended only for quickly finding
possible matches - to really identify a file requires the second
(.FDF) file. Each file entry in the .FPF file is two words long:
00/ File name in SIXBIT
01/ Extension in SIXBIT,,0
The second file contains all the necessary retrieval information for
each file. This file is generated with an extension of .FDF (Find
DIRECT.DOC -- Changes from V6(441) to V7(502) Page 6
Data File). Each file entry in the .FDF file is sixteen words long:
00/ Node name in SIXBIT (reserved for future)
01/ Device/structure name in SIXBIT
02/ UFD (binary)
03/ SFD 1 (SIXBIT)
04/ SFD 2 (SIXBIT)
05/ SFD 3 (SIXBIT)
06/ SFD 4 (SIXBIT)
07/ SFD 5 (SIXBIT)
10/ File name (SIXBIT)
11/ Extension (SIXBIT),,protection and mode (LH .RBPRV)
12/ Word count (binary)
13/ Creation time (universal format)
14/ Access time (universal format)
15/ Version (binary)
16/ 0 (reserved for future)
17/ 0,,Checksum (binary)
[End of DIRECT.DOC]