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MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL
MACDLX is a two-pass assembler which operates on the DECsystem-10 or
DECsystem-20 and assembles MACRO-11 source code for use on a PDP-11.
With the exception of the variations listed in this manual, MACDLX is
compatible with the MACRO-11 assembly language as described in the
PDP-11 MACRO-11 Assembly Language Reference Manual (DEC-11-OIMRA).
THIS SOFTWARE IS FURNISHED UNDER A LICENSE AND MAY ONLY BE USED
OR COPIED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE TERMS OF SUCH LICENSE.
COPYRIGHT (c) DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION 1976,1977,1978,1984,1986.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 2
1.0 OPERATING PROCEDURES
While MACDLX is designed to be language compatible with the MACRO-11
language, its operating environment necessitates a different style op-
The assembler makes two passes over the source, outputting the binary
and listing files during pass two and appending a symbol or cross
reference/symbol table to the listing file. Memory is dynamically al-
located for large symbol table and macro storage.
1.1 Loading MACDLX
MACDLX is available as a CUSP and is called by typing a command to the
monitor as follows:
1.2 Initial Dialogue
When the assembler is ready to accept the user's command string, it
will prompt with "*". The user must now type his command string on
the same line. MACDLX will ignore any spaces or tabs that are typed.
The general form of the command string is:
Binary outut, listing output = source input(s)
Each input/output specification consists of the group:
1. DEV is any device that is capable of handling the input or
output data file(s) correctly. The device defaults are as
Binary File: System disk
Listing File: Device used for binary file
Source File 1: System disk
Source File 2 to n: Device used for source file 1 or
last source file
User Macro Libraries: System disk if macro library file
is specified first, else device used
by last source file
System Macro Library: System disk
.REQ/.INSERT File: System disk
.LIBRARY File: System disk
Indirect File: System disk
2. FILNAM is the file name of the appropriate file.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 3
3. EXT is the file name extension for that file.
If not specified, the defaults are:
Binary File: .BIN
Listing File: .LST
Source Files: Last source extension, .P11, .PAL, <null>,
Library Files: .MLB, .SML, same as source files
.REQ/.INSERT File: .REQ, .INS
.LIBRARY File: .MLB
Indirect File: .CMD, .CCL
4. [PROJ, PROG] is the project-programmer number assigned for
the disk area to be used. If not specified, the user's local
area is assumed. Once specified, the number pair becomes the
new default assumption for the following input or output
5. Switches are specified by preceding each with a slash char-
acter. Switch arguments are preceded by colons. See Section
1.3 Command String Examples
OBJECT,LIST = SOURCE
Assemble from the user disk area. Binary to disk as file OBJECT.BIN
and listing to disk as file LIST.LST.
BETA.BIN, BETA.LST/CRF/N = BETA.PAL
Assemble file BETA.PAL from the disk. Binary to disk file BETA.OBJ.
Listing, with cross reference table appended, to disk file BETA.LST.
Suppress error messages to the console.
BETA, BETA/CRF/N = BETA
Same results as above.
FOO, FOO/DOC/CPU:45 = FOOBAR/ML, FOO
Assemble file FOO (or FOO.PAL, FOO.MAC, etc) using file FOOBAR (or
FOOBAR.MLB) as a macro library file. Binary to disk file FOO.BIN.
Listing with document sequence numbers to disk file FOO.LST. Use only
permanent symbols that are available on the PDP-11/45 during the as-
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 4
2.0 COMMAND STRING SWITCHES
2.1 /NL and /LI
The command string syntax contains the equivalent of all the MACRO-11
.LIST and .NLIST functions. Many of the source level arguments are of
primary interest at command string level but can be used in the source
to modify default settings.
The command string equivalents of .LIST and .NLIST are /LI and /NL,
respectively. Arguments are specified by preceding them with colons.
Thus, /NL:BEX:CND is the equivalent of .NLIST CND,BEX.
In all cases, command string switches override their source level
equivalents (as well as previous occurrences in the command string or
SWITCH.INI file). Effectively, specification of a function in a com-
mand string will cause all its source level equivalents (and their
complements) to be ignored; i.e., /LI:ME would enable the listing of
macro expansions and cause all ".LIST/.NLIST ME" directives to be ig-
/LI (no arguments) causes everything to be listed, while /NL
suppresses the listing of all but error lines, the symbol table, and
the cross reference tables.
MACDLX has the following arguments in addition to those already avail-
able in MACRO-11:
LVL When NLISTed will cause macro and conditional nesting
level indicators to be suppressed in the listing.
HDR When NLISTed this will cause all header lines to be
suppressed in the listing file. The page and subpage
numbers will not be incremented and no form feed will
LDA When NLISTed will cause all .LIST/.NLIST directives
with arguments to be suppressed in the listing.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 5
2.2 /EN and /DS
As an alternative to the proliferation of directives, MACRO-11 uses
one complementary pair, .ENABL/.DSABL, with arguments. Their command
string equivalents are /EN and /DS. The relationship between command
string and source statement specification, as well as their argument
specification, is the same as in /LI and /NL. MACDLX has following
arguments in addition to those already available in MACRO-11:
ERF Error flags can be selectively suppressed (or enabled)
by specifying ERF, directly followed by the selected
error characters, "/DS:ERFAM" would cause "M" and "A"
errors to be ignored, "/DS:ERF" would cause all errors
to be ignored, and "/EN:ERFX" would cause "X" flags
(JMP'S which could have been BR'S) to be flagged.
TIM Causes instruction timing information (for the
PDP-11/20 only) to be output on the listing.
WRP When enabled long lines will be wrapped around to the
next line on the listing. These extension lines will
be forced to the right hand margin. At the end of the
assembly a "WRAP-AROUND" percentage will be given.
This percentage is the percentage of characters by
which the line must be increased/decreased to fit.
COM Strip comments preceeded by two adjacent semi-colons
from statements within macro definitions.
CRF Selectively cross reference symbols in a block of code.
".ENABL CRF" will enable cross referencing and
".DSABL CRF" will disable cross referencing. The
"/CRF" switch must have been specified in the command
HEX When enabled and the current radix is 16, terms of ex-
pressions which begin with A-F are assumed to be hexa-
decimal numbers rather than symbols. E.g.: with HEX
enabled, MOV #A,R0 loads 12(octal) into R0 (see section
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 6
2.3 Cross Reference Listing
/CRF Append a cross reference table to the listing file.
MACDLX accomplishes this in the following manner:
1. The listing file is generated in the normal way
during pass two.
2. Simultaneously, a temporary file (XXXCRF.TMP, where
XXX is the job number) is created. This contains
encoded CREF information.
3. At the end of pass two, the temporary file is read
and the CREF information is integrated into the
symbol table and listing file. When through, the
temporary file is deleted.
The cross reference table format is as follows:
1. The symbol's name, its table value, unless
.NLIST SYM was specifed. Therefore the symbol
table itself is always pre-empted.
2. All references to the symbol, except that no more
than one reference to a given source line will be
listed. Symbols in generated text always refer to
the previous source line.
3. Symbol definitions are flagged with "#".
4. Destructive references are flagged with a "*".
These are defined to be all symbols encountered in
op-code fields which store into a memory location
or a register. Thus, the first field of a JSR, the
second field of an ADD, but neither of the fields
in a CMP instruction.
5. As many references per listing line as possible,
depending upon the "TTM" mode, are used. This can
be increased by suppressing "SYM".
Symbols can be selectively cross referenced by append-
ing one or more of the following attributes to the
SYM - cref user generated symbols
REG - cref register symbols
MAC - cref macro names
PST - cref permanent symbols and directives
Thus "/CRF:SYM:REG" will cause only user symbols and
register symbols to be cross referenced. The default
condition is equivalent to "/CRF:SYM:MAC".
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 7
2.4 Output Line Sequencing
/SOL Sequence output lines. Listings are normally source
oriented in the following manner:
1. Sequence numbers reflect the source line number.
2. Macro expansion lines have their nesting level, in
parentheses, in the sequence number field.
3. Lines containing nothing but a form feed are not
listed but cause the sequence number to be incre-
4. Page numbers reflect physical input pages (incre-
mented only upon encountering a form feed). Pages
forced by the assembler have a -N to reflect an ex-
tension page. i.e.; if the assembler had encoun-
tered 3 form feeds and was on its third listing
page since the last one, it would be "PAGE 4-2".
When /SOL is specified, listings are output oriented in
the following manner:
1. Listed lines have consecutive numbers, except for
binary extension lines.
2. Page numbers reflect the number of pages listed.
2.5 Source Reproduction
/GNS Generate a new source. This causes the listing file to
take on the appearance of the source file
1. Suppresses the listing of headers, error flags,
summary blocks, and any other output over which the
user otherwise would have no control.
2. Simulates a /NL:SEQ:LOC:BIN:BEX:ME:TOC.
Therefore, by itself, it recreates the source file.
Normal usage would have supplementary switches fol-
lowing it, i.e., /GNS/NL:MD:MC/LI:ME would replace
macros/repeats/irps with their generated code.
/GNS/NL:CND would purge conditionals.
3. If a numeric arg follows the /GNS switch, all
macro/repeat/irp expansion levels greater than the
arg will not be processed or listed, i.e. /GNS:1.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 8
2.6 Symbol Definition
/EQ Equate the following symbols to zero. This is a method
for introducing conditional arguments without creating
special parameter tapes.
"/EQ:SYM1:SYM2" is the equivalent of the source state-
ments "SYM1=0" and "SYM2=0".
2.7 Binary Output Formatting
/I output binary in image mode (one byte per 36 bit word).
This switch must be used to PIP directly to paper tape.
/P pack binary output. This is the default case and the
switch is not needed. The information is packed into
four bytes per word, right justifying the bytes on bits
17, 9, 35, and 27 of the 36-bit word.
To queue the packed binary object file to the paper tape punch, use
the following command:
or if you use the remote station punching program REMPUN, use the fol-
2.8 Page Numbering
/DOC Sequence each listing page. On the extreme right of
the first title line (column 120) a unique SEQ XXXX
number (similiar to those generated by DECDOC) will be
printed for each page generated. If no argument is
specified with the switch, then the SEQ number +1 of
the last assembly will be used. This number is ini-
tially set to 1 when MACDLX is loaded.
/PAGNUM This switch is similiar to the /DOC switch but it con-
trols the page number. Subpage numbers will still be
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 9
2.9 Macro Libraries
/ML Declare that a source file is an ascii macro library
file. The library lookup algorithm is identical to
that of MACRO-11 with the following exception:
1. If the .MCALL'ed macro is not found in any of the
/ML libraries, try the SYSMAC.SML library.
2. If no SYSMAC library is found in the users area,
look for the library under [5,3].
NOTE: If the SYSMAC library is found in the users
area, no attempt will be made to search for the li-
brary in [5,3].
3. If any nested .MCALL's were seen and all .MCALL'ed
macros have not been defined repeat the search al-
4. If the macro is not found in any library flag an
The default /ML library file extensions are ".MLB" then
".SML". A maximum of 5 macro library files can be
specified in a command string.
2.10 CPU Specifications
/CPU This switch will permit the user to selectively tailor
the permanent symbol table being used for this assem-
bly. The form of this switch is /CPU:45:LSI:40 etc.
The currently implemented CPU's are
03 - same as LSI
05 - same as 20
20 - use only symbols available on the 11/20
40 - use only symbols available on the 11/40
45 - use only symbols available on the 11/45
70 - same as 45
LSI - use only symbols available on the LSI
NULL - use only assembler directives
The default is to use all symbols. This switch must
appear in the listing file specification.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 10
2.11 Expanded Statistics
/EX This switch gives the following additional statistical
information at the end of the assembly:
*DISK BLOCKS READ
*DISK BLOCKS WRITTEN
*KILO CORE SECONDS
* not available on DECsystem-20 monitors.
2.12 Pass Selection
/PA:1 Assemble the associated source file during pass 1 only.
/PA:2 Assemble the associated source file during pass 2 only.
These switches apply only to the source file immediate-
ly preceding the switch.
2.13 Card Reader Input
/CDR Simulate card reader input. This is actually indepen-
dent of the physical input device but causes the assem-
bler to ignore all characters on a line after the 72nd.
This functions as /EN:CDR.
/NSQ Suppress listing of DECsystem-10/20 style sequence
/N Suppress error messages to the teletype (unless it is
also the listing device).
/E Output binary data on the listing file.
/HELP Type a help message instructing the user to refer to
/H Same as "/HELP".
/CR Same as "/CRF".
/SP,/NOSP These switches are no-op's and are here for MACRO-11
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 11
3.0 ASSEMBLY INFORMATION
3.1 Assembly Statistics
When the assembler has completed a run, it will print the number of
errors detected (hard and soft); the original command string; the
runtime in seconds for pass 1, pass 2 and symbol table/CREF
processing; the runtime ratio; and the core used rounded to the
nearest 1K and memory page.
A document page count, a wrap around percentage and the expanded
statistics will be printed if the /DOC, /EN:WRP and /EX switches res-
pectively were seen.
If the /N switch was specified in the command string, only the errors
detected and default globals generated will be output to the console
3.2 Assembly Listing
The MACDLX assembler produces a side-by-side assembly listing of sym-
bolic source statements, their octal equivalents, assigned addresses,
conditional nesting levels, and error codes. Teletype listing mode
compresses the listing format to accomodate the reduced number of co-
Teletype listing mode is selected by specifying the listing device as
TTY: or a /LI:TTM switch specification. All other combinations will
cause /NL:TTM format. When MACDLX is ready to accept initial teletype
input for each pass, it will print READY on the users teletype.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 12
4.0 ADDITIONAL ASSEMBLER DIRECTIVES
The following directives are available in MACDLX but may not be in any
current MACRO-11 assembler. Caution should be used with these direc-
tives due to their nature and implementation.
4.1 .DUBL Directive
This directive has the form:
.DUBL NUM1, NUM2,...,NUMx
The .DUBL assembler directive may have one or more operands separated
by commas. Each operand is stored in two successive words of the ob-
ject program. Each operand must be a string of digits that will be
interpreted in the current radix. A leading "+" is ignored and a
leading "-" causes the two's complement of the numbers absolute value
to be stored in the two word entry (most significant then least signi-
ficant). Absolute values exceeding 31 bits will be truncated from the
left and flagged with a "T" error.
4.2 .EQUIV Directive
When a macro contains a macro definition the inner macro is not de-
fined until the outer macro is called. If this definition is a
re-definition of the outer macro, the original definition is complete-
ly expanded and the new definition is not used until the next call.
In some applications it is desirable to remember the original so that
it can be reinstated at a later time. The mechanism is the .EQUIV di-
A symbol may be defined as precisely equivalent to any other already
defined symbol (including permanent symbols) as follows:
.EQUIV DEFSYM, ANYSYM
where the symbol ANYSYM is made logically equivalent to DEFSYM.
To "remember" a macro, the procedure is to .EQUIV its name to a tempo-
rary symbol prior to redefinition. The macro can now be redefined and
reinstated at a later time. For example:
.EQUIV SWPMAC, TEMP
.EQUIV TEMP, SWPMAC
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 13
4.3 .ROUND and .TRUNC Directives
Floating point numbers are normally rounded. This is accomplished by
adding the high order excess bit to the low order retained bit. The
particular bits used depend upon whether context calls for one, two or
four word precision. Rounding can be inhibited by the use of the
.TRUNC directive (also .ENABL FPT). Rounding can be re-enabled at any
time through the use of the complementary directive, .ROUND (also
.DSABL FPT). For example:
041105 070244 .FLT2 12.34 ;ROUND-DEFAULT MODE
.TRUNC ;ENTER TRUNCATION MODE
041105 070243 .FLT2 12.34 ;TRUNCATE
041110 172702 .FLT2 12.56 ;CONTINUE TRUNCATION
.ROUND ;RETURN TO ROUND MODE
041110 172703 .FLT2 12.56 ;ROUND
4.4 .PHASE and .DEPHASE Directives
These directives provide a means to assemble a block of code with ad-
dress references that will allow it to execute properly in a memory
area different from where it resides in the binary object module.
A: .BLKW 200 ;RESERVE 200 (OCTAL) WORDS
B: .PHASE A ;CODE THAT MUST
. ;BE MOVED TO THE
. ;AREA AT "A"
. ;PRIOR TO EXECUTION
C: .PHASE A
. ;MORE CODE THAT
. ;MUST BE MOVED TO
. ;"A" PRIOR TO EXECUTION
Blocks A, B, and C will reside in unique memory locations at load time
but common memory locations at run time. A likely use of this feature
is for overlays. Blocks B and C could be written to disk and at run
time selectively brought into block A for execution.
The complementary directive .DEPHASE brings the load time and the run
time location counters back into synchronization.
D: .DEPHASE ;CODE WILL LOAD
;AND RUN AT "D"
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 14
4.5 .LEVEL Directive
This directive permits the program to control the listing of macro ex-
pansion lines. For example:
will cause only macro expansion lines of nesting level 3 and above to
be listed if macro expansion lines have been enabled to be listed
(.LIST MEB or ME). A .LEVEL value which is negative will cause the
listing of nesting level lines one to the .LEVEL value. .LEVEL with
no argument will cause all expansion lines of all nesting levels to be
This directive is treated as a listing control directive in the same
manner as the .LIST/.NLIST directives with no arguments.
4.6 .PDP10 Directive
This directive is a NOP in MACDLX. It is included only for compati-
bility with previous DECsystem-10 MACRO-11 assembler's.
4.7 .OPDEF Directive
This directive permits one line macro definitions and is of the form:
.OPDEF name dummy args [expansion text]
where "name" is the .OPDEF name, "dummy args" are the dummy args to be
substituted for in the expansion text and "expansion text" is the text
to be expanded and is delimited by brackets "". .OPDEF's are used
.OPDEF JUMP X [BR X]
.OPDEF SET X,Y, [MOV R0,'X'Y]
.OPDEF FALSE [INC R1]
.OPDEF GO X,Y [MOV X,Y]
Each .OPDEF is similar to the following macro definition example. All
features of macro's are available in the .OPDEF syntax (eg.
concatenation, argument generation, etc.).
.MACRO GO X,Y
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 15
4.8 .FIELD, .VFD and .VFDB Directives
The variable field definition directives provide a mechanism for pack-
ing bytes of a user specified length. .VFD and .FIELD pack bytes of
up to 16 bits in length into single/multiple words and .VFDB packs
bytes of up to 8 bits in length into single/multiple bytes. The syn-
tax for the variable field directives is as follows:
.VFD size arg,arg,arg,arg,...,argn
.VFDB size arg,arg,arg,arg,...,argn
where "size" is a decimal value from 1 to 16 (1 to 8 for .VFDB) which
represents the byte length of the args to be packed. The "arg...argn"
represents the argument values to be masked and packed. These values
are masked to the correct byte length and packed from right to left
with unused bits on the left set to zero. For example:
.VFD 3 1,2,3,4,5 will generate the word 054321 and,
.VFDB 2 1,1,1,1 will generate the byte 125.
If the agrument will not fit into the current word or byte, it will be
used as the first argument of the next word or byte. For example:
.VFD 3 7,4,2,7,3,5,1 generates the words 037247 and 000015.
.FIELD 3 7,4,2,7,3,5,1 generates the same as above.
.VFD or .FIELD with a byte size of 16 will default to .WORD and .VFDB
with a byte size of 8 will default to .BYTE.
NOTE: All arguments must be absolute. That is, no global value which
is undefined in this assembly may be used as a variable field defini-
4.9 .REM Directive
This directive takes the form:
LINES OF TEXT
LINES OF TEXT
All lines of text between the matching delimiters (! in the above ex-
ample) are treated as comments. This directive is available in some
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 16
4.10 .REQ and .INSERT Directives
The .REQ and .INSERT directives allow the programmer to insert another
source file within the current source file. When encountered, the
current point in the current source file is "stacked", and the file
specified by the directive is read in. When the end of the
.REQ/.INSERTed file is reached, the old file is "popped" and assembly
is resumed at the line following the directive. A file which is
.REQ/.INSERTed can itself .REQ/.INSERT another file up to a nesting
level of 6.
The syntax of the directives are:
Where "filespec" is any string legal to the outer (TTY) command
scanner. This means that devices, ppn's and assumed extensions are
permitted. The defaults are system disk, the current user's ppn, and
the extensions of .REQ and .INS.
4.11 .LIBRARY Directive
The .LIBRARY directive specifies a macro library to be searched when
the .MCALL directive is issued. The file specified is placed in the
/ML library list (see section 2.9). The syntax of the directive is:
The "filespec" string syntax is identical to that of the .REQ/.INSERT
directives (see section 4.10). The default extension is .MLB.
4.12 .ASCIC Directive
The .ASCIC directive is identical to the .ASCII directive with the ex-
ception that the first byte of the string is the count of the char-
acters in the string. The count byte (first byte) is not included in
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 17
5.0 ADDITIONAL MACDLX FEATURES
This section outlines additional features available in MACDLX that
have not been covered by previous sections.
5.1 MACRO Argument Generation
A mechanism is provided to substitute a symbolic name (or characters)
if an argument in a macro call is preceeded by two backslashes. The
argument expression is treated as a .RAD50 number and the represented
3 character symbol (leading spaces will be ignored) is substituted in
the macro expansion. For example:
.MACRO FOO N
FOO N ;GENERATES BR .+N
FOO \N ;GENERATES BR .+32
FOO \\N ;GENERATES BR .+Z
No trailing spaces are generated. A zero value is represented as one
5.2 Conditional Assembly Arguments
Six additional conditional assembly conditions are available in
MACDLX. They are:
.IF EN ARG -assemble if ARG is enabled.
.IF DS ARG -assemble if ARG is disabled.
.IF LI ARG -assemble if ARG is listed.
.IF NL ARG -assemble if ARG is not listed.
.IF P1 -assemble if pass 1.
.IF P2 -assemble if pass 2.
In the above cases where an argument is required, it must be a valid
EN/DS or LI/NL argument.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 18
5.3 RAD50 Term Capability
An additional up-arrow unary operator "^R" is provided in MACDLX. The
form of the operator is:
^RABC ;GENERATE THE .RAD50 VALUE FOR "ABC"
^R<ABC> ;SAME AS ABOVE
This operator will permit RAD50 values of up to 3 characters to be
used as terms in expressions. If more than 3 characters are speci-
fied, an error will be flagged.
5.4 Byte Swapped Term Capabilities
Two additional up-arrow unary operators, "^S" and "^H", are available
in MACDLX. "^H" will evaluate the following term as a 16-bit value,
swap the high and low bytes, and zero the high byte of the result.
^H400 ;WILL GENERATE 000001
^H601 ;WILL GENERATE 000001
"^S" will evaluate the following term and swap the high and low bytes.
^S2077 ;WILL GENERATE 037404
^S601 ;WILL GENERATE 100401
5.5 Exclusive Or Expression Capability
An additional binary expression operator is provided in MACDLX. The
binary operator "@" will preform a logical XOR of the right and left
half's of the expression. For example:
TAG@77 ;XOR's TAG and 77
The same rules that apply for the binary operators *-+/&! also apply
for XOR "@".
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 19
5.6 Logical Shift Operator
An additional binary operator "_" (underscore or left arrow) is recog-
nized in expression evaluation. "A_B" is evaluated as the value of
"A" shifted left "B" bits. If "B" is negative, "A" is shifted right.
Both "A" and "B" may be any valid term, including a bracked expres-
A common use for this operator is in defining symbolic values for bit
masks. For example, "READY=1_7" defines the READY bit mask as a 1 in
5.7 Hexadecimal Numbers
Hexadecimal numbers, using the digits 0-9 and letters A-F, may be used
via extensions of the existing radix control functions. .RADIX ac-
cepts 16 as a valid operand to set the current default radix to hexa-
decimal. A temporary radix control unary operator "^X" is also in-
When using hexadeccimal as the default radix it is necessary to prefix
numbers beginning with A-F by a 0, otherwise they would be treated as
normal user symbols. Use of .ENABL HEX eliminates this need at the
cost of making symbols beginning with A-F, and used as terms, inacces-
sible (see section 2.2).
5.8 "Z" Errors
The "Z" error capability has been enhanced to flag as soft errors all
directives and arithmetic operations that are not compatible with the
Macro-11 assembler. The "Z" error flagging is now turned off and can
be turned on by using the command string switch /EN:ERFZ (see section
All lines that cause "Z" errors will be assembled correctly and the
error will be counted as a soft error.
5.9 Unsupported Features
MACDLX curently does not support macros with keyword arguments.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 20
6.0 INDIRECT COMMAND INTERFACE
When assembling systems involving large numbers of programs it is time
consuming to type all commands individually. It is desirable to pre-
pare the assembly commands ahead of time and put them in a file.
Then, using the indirect command interface, MACDLX can take its com-
mand string from the prepared file instead of the keyboard.
Stated simply, the commands you would normally type to MACDLX are
placed in a file. You then tell MACDLX to read its commands from the
given file by specifying the "@" character followed by the file name
and a carriage return or the file name followed by the "@" character
and a carriage return.
For example, assume you wanted to assemble and make CREF listings of
files A through D. A command file named PAUL.CMD would contain:
A,A/CRF = A.MAC
B,B/CRF = B.M11
C,C/CRF = C.M11
D,D/CRF = D.MAC
In response to the prompt from MACDLX you would then type:
@PAUL <carriage return> or
PAUL@ <carriage return>
MACDLX will respond with its identification then at the start of pass
2, if the /N switch was not given, the program title name (up to the
first six alpha/numeric characters) from the .TITLE directive and the
last source file name processed (enclosed in brackets "") for each
command line processed. For example:
MACDLX: A [A.MAC] -if .TITLE A was in the source file
MACDLX: B [B.M11] -if .TITLE B was in the source file
The only restrction is that indirect command files may not be nested.
That is, an indirect file command may not appear in an indirect file.
The default file extensions for the command file are ".CMD" then
".CCL". All text in the indirect file that follows a semi-colon ";"
will be ignored by the command line processor.
When all command lines in the command file have been processed, MACDLX
will print the document pages generated if the /DOC was present in all
command lines and exit to the monitor.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 21
7.0 SWITCH.INI PROCESSING
The user can create a file on his disk area into which he can place
switches for MACDLX. The purpose of this file is to allow the user to
automatically override the system default switches for individual pro-
grams by allowing him to specify his own defaults.
This file which must be called DSK:SWITCH.INI and must reside in the
disk area under the user's UFD. The form of the file is a line for
each program. The form is:
where /SWITCH is any valid MACDLX switch. Only one line for MACDLX
can exist in the file; however, this line can be continued on the
next line by placing a hyphen as the last non-blank non-comment char-
acter before the carriage return-line feed sequence.
When MACDLX is called, it searches for a file called SWITCH.INI. If
such a file is not found, no action is taken by MACDLX. If the file
is found but a line for MACDLX is not found, no action is again taken.
When a line exists for MACDLX, the switches in that line are used.
The user can override a particular switch in the file by issuing a
command string containing a complement of the switch in the file. In
other words, the switches in SWITCH.INI supply defaults for switches
not specified by the user but are ignored if the user explicitly spec-
ified a switch.
8.0 BATCH CONSIDERATIONS
The "ERRORS DETECTED" flag character is the question mark "?". The
"SOFT ERROR" flag character is the percent "%". Further information
on the use of these characters can be found in the DECsystem-10 MPB
Users Guide under the .ERROR explanation.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 22
9.0 HELPFUL OPERATING HINTS
The use of the following programming techniques will increase the
speed and efficiency of the assembly:
1. Do not disable the default register definitions. The default
registers are located in a seperate symbol table which is
scanned before any other user symbols. Default registers may
be defined but no action will be taken unless the new value
differs from the defaulted value.
2. Selective use of the /CRF switch. If you are only interested
in cross-referencing user symbols and register names, then
use the appropriate attribute(s) for the switch. See section
2.3 for further information.
3. Use of the /CPU switch to selectively tailor your permanent
symbol table. This will reduce the size of the table thus
decreasing the time spent searching thru unused symbols. See
section 2.10 for further information.
4. Organize your macro libraries in such a manner that all nest-
ed .MCALLed macro names have their definitions already de-
fined or appear later in the macro library file. This will
reduce the time spent re-opening and re-scanning of the macro
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 23
The following directives are currently implemented in MACDLX. Those
marked with an asterisk are incompatible with Macro-11 and will be
flagged if "Z" errors are enabled.
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 24
PERMANENT SYMBOL TABLE
SYMBOL CPU AVAILIBILITY SYMBOL CPU AVAILABILITY
ABSD 45,70 BVC ALL
ABSF 45,70 BVS ALL
ADC ALL CALL ALL
ADCB ALL CCC ALL
ADD ALL CFCC 45,70
ADDD 45,70 CLC ALL
ADDF 45,70 CLN ALL
ASH 40,45,70 CLR ALL
ASHC 40,45,70 CLRB ALL
ASL ALL CLRD 45,70
ASLB ALL CLRF 45,70
ASR ALL CLV ALL
ASRB ALL CLZ ALL
BCC ALL CMP ALL
BCS ALL CMPB ALL
BEQ ALL CMPD 45,70
BGE ALL CMPF 45,70
BGT ALL CNZ ALL
BHI ALL COM ALL
BHIS ALL COMB ALL
BIC ALL DEC ALL
BICB ALL DECB ALL
BIS ALL DIV 40,45,70
BISB ALL DIVD 45,70
BIT ALL DIVF 45,70
BITB ALL EMT ALL
BLE ALL FADD 40
BLO ALL FDIV 40
BLOS ALL FMUL 40
BLT ALL FSUB 40
BMI ALL HALT ALL
BNE ALL INC ALL
BPL ALL INCB ALL
BPT ALL IOT ALL
BR ALL JMP ALL
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 25
JSR ALL ROR ALL
LDCDF 45,70 RORB ALL
LDCFD 45,70 RTI ALL
LDCID 45,70 RTS ALL
LDCIF 45,70 RTT 40,45,70
LDCLD 45,70 SBC ALL
LDCLF 45,70 SBCB ALL
LDD 45,70 SCC ALL
LDEXP 45,70 SEC ALL
LDF 45,70 SEN ALL
LDFPS 45,70 SETD 45,70
LDSC 45,70 SETF 45,70
LDUB 45,70 SETI 45,70
MARK 40,45,70 SETL 45,70
MFPD 45,70 SEV ALL
MFPS LSI,03 SOB 40,45,70
MODD 45,70 SPL 45,70
MODF 45,70 STA0 45,70
MOV ALL STB0 45,70
MOVB ALL STCDF 45,70
MTPD 45,70 STCDI 45,70
MTPI 40,45,70 STCDL 45,70
MTPS LSI,03 STCFD 45,70
MUL 40,45 STCFI 45,70
MULD 45,70 STCFL 45,70
MULF 45,70 STD 45,70
NEG ALL STEXP 45,70
NEGB ALL STFPS 45,70
NEGD 45,70 STQ0 45,70
NEGF 45,70 STST 45,70
NOP ALL SUB ALL
RESET ALL SUBD 45,70
RETURN ALL SUBF 45,70
ROL ALL SWAB ALL
ROLB ALL SXT 40,45,70
MACDLX ASSEMBLER REFERENCE MANUAL PAGE 26
COMMAND STRING SWITCH SUMMARY
/LI Simulate .LIST directive
/NL Simulate .NLIST directive
/EN Simulate .ENABL directive
/DS Simulate .DSABL directive
/CRF Append cross reference table to listing file
/CR Append cross reference table to listing file
/N Suppress error messages and expanded summary to the teletype
/I Output binary in image mode
/P Output binary in packed mode (default)
/CDR Simulate card reader input
/SOL Sequence output lines
/GNS Generate new source
/NSQ Suppress DECsystem-10 style sequence numbers
/EQ Equate symbols to zero
/CPU Tailor symbol table to CPU type
/ML Declare a source file to be a macro library
/PAGNUM Set the starting listing page number
/DOC Enable and/or set a listing document sequence number
/E Enable binary output to the listing file
/EX Print expanded statistics
/PA Process source file for specified pass
/SP No-op for MACRO-11 compatability
/NOSP No-op for MACRO-11 compatability
/HELP Print a help message
/H Print a help message
[END OF MACDLX.MAN] [PJB]