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.LM 0;.RM 72
.hl 1 INTRODUCTION
SOS provides a powerful macro capability to the experienced user.
Macros expand into text which can be some or part of a command, or
even multiple commands. A facility is also available to repeat a given
macro n times, or until it fails, and also to allow variable parameters
to be included in the macro definition.
The key to understanding and using SOS macros is to remember that
they are purely a text substitution facility.
.hl 1 SYNTAX
SOS uses the special characters < and > to denote a macro name. By default
< and > are treated as regular characters wherever they are encountered.
However, to use macros SOS must recognize < and > as special characters.
To enable this use the switch /MACRO. To disable special treatment of
macros and <>, specify the switch /NOMACRO.
.hl 2 Simple macros
.hl 3 Expansion
A macro name consists of a letter followed by up to five more letters
and digits (i.e., a standard variable name). It is specified in the command
line (anywhere) by enclosing its name inside angle brackets. For example,
if the macro CMD contained the string "P.-5!10" and was expanded at
command level by <CMD> then the command "P.-5!10" would be performed.
Again, a macro can expand into a part of a command, or several commands.
It also can be expanded when one is in INSERT mode. For example, assume
macro R1 contained "100" and R2 contained "500" then the string P<R1>:<R2>
would expand into "P100:500". Also, macros can invoke other macros. Assuming
the above definitions of R1 and R2, and the macro RANGE is defined to be
<R1>:<R2> then the string P<RANGE> would also expand into "P100:500".
.hl 3 Definition
A macro is defined with the define switch, which has the format
.bl 1;where NAME is the name of the macro, and TEXT is the string of
characters associated with the macro name. The text argument of the macro
is terminated with the carriage return. However, the carriage return is
not included in the macro definition. Multiline macros may be defined
by delimiting the text (which contains multiple lines) by a delimiter
of the users choice. Single and double quotes (' and ") are commonly
used. Also, to include a quote inside a multiline macro definition
quote it. For example, the command
.bl 1;*/DEFINE:STRING:"Here is a
.br;M*multiline macro ""with an embedded"" quoted string
.bl 1;would define STRING to be the text specified, without the delimiting
quotes, and the text "with an embedded" including the quotes.
Also, note that SOS prompts for multiline macros with the prompt
M*, and also that the macro includes a CRLF following the text quoted
.hl 2 Macros with arguments
.hl 3 Expansion
Macros that take arguments are named and specified like a simple macro,
with the addition of an argument list specified inside parentheses
separated by commas inside the angle brackets. For example, expansion
of the macro NAME with two arguments P and 100/5 would be
<NAME(P,100/5)>. "P" and "100/5" are text strings and used by the
definition of the NAME macro. For example, if NAME was defined to be
"<1><2>" then when the macro was expanded, the first dummy argument
<1> would be replaced with the users first argument "P" and <2> would be
replaced with the users second argument "100/5" producing the string
.hl 3 Definition
Macros with arguments are defined in the same way simple macros are,
except wherever the text of the first argument is desired to be
inserted, <1> is used. Subsequent arguments are specified by
<2>, <3>,, etc. Also, there is no reason why the definition cannot
use argument one several times.
.hl 1 OTHER MACRO FEATURES
.hl 2 LDEFINE switch
The /LDEFINE switch defines a macro to be the text corresponding to
evaluated range of a legal range specifier following. The general form
of /LDEFINE is
.bl 1;where NAME is the macro name to be defined, and RANGE is any legal
range specifier. For example, if .-5 was line 1500 page 7, then
/LDEFINE:LOC:.-5 would define LOC to be "01500/7". Also, if *-5/.+10
was line 6000 page 17, then /LDEFINE:SOURCE:.-5:*-5/.+10 would
define SOURCE to be "01500/7:06000/17". This switch is useful to
evaluate and remember mnenomic line ranges.
.hl 2 MACRO repeat
Any macro may be repeatly expanded by including a repeat count
separated from the name by a comma and preceding the closing angle bracket.
This will expand the text of the macro n times. For example, if
/DEFINE:STR:ABC was given, then the expansion <STR,3> would generate
ABCABCABC. Note that the carriage return is not part of the macro
therefore, the text is not separated by carriage returns. Consider
the command /DEFINE:DLINE:D. was given, then the expansion <DLINE,2>
would generate D.D. which would produce a command error. The intent
probably was to generate D. <carriage return> D. <carriage return>.
In order to do this the macro DLINE would have to be defined to
include the carriage return in its definition. This can be done with
the multiline define feature and quoting described above.
Another alternative to specifying a repeat count is to specify ",*", in
which case the macro is expanded indefinitely until it fails. (See
section on ERROR HANDLING)
.hl 2 SEARCH string predefined macros
There is a powerful pattern matching capability that can be used with
SOS Find and Search commands (the _^E syntax). When any F or S command
is done that contains _^E match strings, a macro is defined corresponding
to each match string found. Thus, like on an output substitute string
_^E2M returns the second input match string, the macro name <2M> is defined
to also be this string. This definition takes place even for the
match strings on a F command, even though _^E2M is not allowed as
no output specification is given for a F command. For example,
consider the task of writing out to a file whose name is the name
of a subroutine, the body of the FORTRAN subroutine. Assume the subroutine
is on a page by itself. Then the sequence of commands
.bl 1;#####FSUBROUTINE _^E*_^EA($
.bl 1;would output the current page (/.) to the file whose name
was matched by the pattern _^E*_^EA (i.e., the subroutine name).
.HL 2 ERROR HANDLING
When SOS gets any sort of command or syntax error it terminates the
repeat count for the current macro, and pops up a macro level, if the
macro was nested. If it pops up to the top level, control is returned
to the user at command level. For example
.bl 1;when expanded <DFIRST,*> will continue deleting the first
line on the current page and advance the pointer to the next page
until SOS gets an error. In this case it will probably be %NSP (%No
such page) when .=/.+1 advances past the end of file.
Then, since the macro is not nested, control will return to the user
at command level.
.hl 2 OUTPUT of MACROS
There exist several ways to output and/or save macros from one editing
session to the next.
.HL 3 =DEFINE command
This command outputs to the terminal the names and text of all
user defined macros.
.hl 3 ! command
This command evaluates the string following the ! (including any
macros encountered) and types the result out. For example, the command
"!Hi there" would simply type out "Hi there" (a useful flow control
feature in complex macros or command files). Consider a more complex
case with the macro STUFF defined to be "This is first arg:<1>, and this
is second arg:<2>", then "!Watch <STUFF(ABC,123)>" would type out
"Watch This is first arg:ABC, and this is second arg:123".
.hl 3 OM:file command
This command is similar to the O: command, except it does not take
a range of lines. Instead, all the currently defined macros are
output in a disk file, in such a way that they can be read in
as an indirect command file to define them all again.