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4. Control-E: This does an (ERR NIL), which return
NIL to the last ERRSET. (See section on changes to
ERR and ERRSET).
5. Control-Z: This returns the user to the
top-level of LISP, (i.e. either the
READ-EVAL-PRINT loop or the current INITFN).
6. Control-R: This restores the normal system
OBLIST. Another of the above control characters
must be typed after this character is typed. This
will often recover after a GARBAGED OBLIST message.
1 . 5 . 1
EXTENSIONS TO THE STANDARD INPUT/OUTPUT FUNCTIONS
Project-Programmer Numbers for Disk I/O
In all I/O functions (including INPUT and OUTPUT), the use
of a two element list (not a dotted pair) in place of a
device will cause the function to assume DSK: and use the
list as the project-programmer number.
Saving Function Definitions, etc. on Disk Files
(DSKOUT "FILE" "EXPRSLIST")
DSKOUT is an FEXPR and is used to create an entire
output file on disk file DSK: "FILE". It sets the
linelength to LPTLENGTH, and evaluates all of the
expressions in "EXPRSLIST". If an expression on
"EXPRSLIST" is atomic, then that atom is given to
GRINL instead of being evaluated directly. If the
value of FILBAK is non-NIL and the file already
exists, DSKOUT will attempt to rename the file with
an extension of the value of FILBAK. An error
message will be printed on the TTY: if the file
cannot be backed up. FILBAK is initially set to
If FNLIST is a list of your functions, they can be
saved on a disk file, FUNCS.LSP by:
(DSKOUT (FUNCS.LSP) FNLIST (PRINT (QUOTE
and the file FUNCS.LSP will be renamed to FUNCS.LBK
if it already exists.
4 . 1
Reading Files Back In
(DSKIN "LIST OF FILE-NAMES")
READ-EVAL-PRINTs the contents of the given files.
This is the function to use to read files created
(DSKIN (FUNCS.LSP) DTA0: (DATA.LSP))
Reads FUNCS.LSP from DSK: and DATA.LSP from DTA0:.
(DSKIN (667 2) (DSKLOG.LSP))
Reads DSKLOG.LSP from the disk area of [667,2].
4 . 1 . 1
The following functions are for reading directories.
UFDINP is analogous to the function INPUT in that it opens
a file on a specified channel. The channel must be
selected via INC in order to be read. The file is opened
in binary image mode and should not be read by the normal
LISP read functions. All functions are SUBRS and thus
evaluate their arguments.
(UFDINP CHANNEL PPN)
UFDINP opens the directory of PPN on CHANNEL. It
returns the value of CHANNEL as its result. PPN is
either of the form (PROJ PROG) where PROJ and PROG
are both INUMs or NIL. If PPN is NIL the user's
directory is assumed.
*(UFDINP T (QUOTE (2206,1)))
RDFILE returns the next file in the directory that
is open on the current input channel. It return a
file which is either an atom or an atomic dotted
pair. It does an (ERR $EOF$) when it reaches the
end of file.
*(PROG (X) (INC (UFDINP T NIL) NIL)
(SETQ X (ERRSET (RDFILE)))
(INC NIL NIL)
(COND ((CONSP X)(RETURN (CAR X)))
(INIT . LSP)
4 . 1 . 2
DIR returns a list of files from the directory of
PPN. If PPN is NIL, the user's directory is
(DIR (QUOTE (2206 4)))
((INIT . LSP) (FOO .LSP) MYFILE))
4 . 1 . 3
The following functions enable the user to manipulate files
in those directories to which he has legitimate access.
The definition of access privileges is system dependent.
These functions use the RENAME UUO to effect the desired
manipulations. A FILESPEC is defined as follows:
A DEV is either an atom whose last character is a colon, I.E.
DSK: or a a list of the form:
where PROJ and PROG are both numbers. DEV is optional and
if ommitted the user's disk area is assumed.
A FILNAM is either an atom or an atomic dotted pair.
(FILE . EXT)
(*RENAME FILESPEC1 FILESPEC2)
*RENAME is a SUBR that renames FILESPEC1 to
FILESPEC2. It returns T if the rename is
successful and NIL if it fails. If a device is
specified in FILESPEC1 and no device is specified
in FILESPEC2 the device specified in FILESPEC1 is
carried over to FILESPEC2. Thus:
(*RENAME (QUOTE ((2206 4)(FOO . LSP)))
(QUOTE ((FOO . BAK))))
is equivalent to:
(*RENAME (QUOTE ((2206 4)(FOO . LSP)))
(QUOTE ((2206 4)(FOO . BAK))))
If no device is specified in either FILESPEC, the
user's disk area is assumed.
4 . 1 . 4
(RENAME DEV1 FILNAM1 DEV2 FILNAM2)
RENAME is an FSUBR that renames FILNAM1 to FILNAM2.
The DEV's are optional. If DEV2 is not specified,
DEV1 is assumed. If both DEV's are not specified,
the default is the user's disk area. RENAME
returns T if the renaming is successful and NIL if
*(RENAME DSK: (FOO . LSP)(FOO . BAK))
*(RENAME FOO FIE)
*(RENAME (2206 4)(FOO . LSP)(2206 3)(FOO . LSP))
(DELETE DEV1 FILNAM1 DEV2 FILNAM2 ...)
DELETE is an FSUBR that deletes the files in the
list. The DEV's are optional, and a DEV is
effective over the following FILNAM's until a new
DEV is encountered. DELETE always returns NIL.
The user's disk area is assumed if no DEV has been
*(DELETE FOO (FOO1 . LSP) (2206 4) (OLDFIL . COM))
4 . 1 . 5
(FILBAK FILE NEWEXT)
FILBAK is a SUBR that attempts to rename FILE with
the extension of NEWEXT. FILE can be either a
FILNAM or a FILSPEC. FILBAK returns T if the
renaming was successful and NIL if it fails.
(FILBAK (QUOTE FOO)(QUOTE BAK))
will rename the file FOO to FOO.BAK.
(FILBAK (QUOTE (FOO . LSP))(QUOTE BAK))
will rename the file FOO.LSP to FOO.BAK
(FILBAK (QUOTE ((2206 4) (FOO . LSP)))
will rename the file FOO.LSP[2206,4] to FOO.BAK[2206,4].
MYPPN returns the user's project programmer number
in a form suitable for use by the directory and I/O
(LOOKUP DEV FILNAM)
LOOKUP is a SUBR that determines whether the file
DEV FILNAM exists or not. LOOKUP returns NIL if it
can't find the file and (LIST DEV FILNAM) if the
file does exist. If DEV is NIL, DSK: is assumed
and (LIST FILNAM) is returned.
4 . 1 . 6
(QUEUE QNAM: DEV: FILNAM SWITCHES DEV: FILNAM SWITCHES
QUEUE is an FSUBR that queues files to the
specified device or queue. It is essentially the
same as the monitor command QUEUE, both in syntax
and effect. The main use of this function is to
get output to line printer, paper tape punches,
etc. However, the input queue can also be
specified in order to batch a job.
A queue name QNAM: is an atom of three to six
letters whose last letter is a colon. The first
three letters indicate the general queue (see
below) and the following letters indicate the
LPT =LINE PRINTER QUEUE
PTP =PAPER TAPE PUNCH QUEUE
PLT =PLOTTER QUEUE
CDP =CARD PUNCH QUEUE
INP =JOB BATCH QUEUE
Thus (QUEUE LPT: ...) would queue to the line
printer without specifying a specific line printer
queue. (QUEUE LPT0: ...) would queue to line
printer 0. As in the monitor command, if the queue
name QNAM: is not specified, the default is to
If an INPUT queue is specified, a maximum of two
files is permitted. The second file is taken as
the name of the log file. If it is not specified,
the filename of the first file with an extension of
.LOG is assumed.
4 . 1 . 7
Switches consist of two element lists, the first
element being the switch and the second the value.
In the case of a required non-numeric value (as in
DISP) only the first three letters of the argument
are looked at i.e. PRESERVE and PRE are equivalent.
SWITCH ARGUMENT EXPLANATION QUEUES ALLOWED
COPIES NUMERIC NUMBER OF COPIES LPT,PTP,CDP,PLT
TO BE OUTPUT
FORM NON-NUMERIC FORMS FOR DEVICE LPT,PTP,CDP,PLT
LIMIT NUMERIC OUTPUT LIMIT LPT,PTP,CDP,PLT
DISP 'PRE' PRESERVE FILE ALL
'REN' RENAME FILE OUT OF
DIRECTORY AND DELETE
AFTER SPOOLING ALL
'DEL' DELETE AFTER SPOOLING ALL
CPU NUMERIC MAXIMUM CPU SECS FOR JOB INP ONLY
Defaults are system defined except for DISP which
defaults to PRE so that all files are preserved.
As in the monitor command, switches are in effect
until superseded by another instance of the switch.
Switches may precede the first file or device.
DEV's are either an atom whose last character is a
colon or a ppn specification. A device affects
only the files following it. It is superseded by
another device. If no device is specified, DSK: is
4 . 1 . 8
*(QUEUE LPT: DSK: FOO (FOO . LSP))
Prints the files FOO and FOO.LSP on the line
*(QUEUE LPT: (FOO . LSP)(COPIES 2))
Prints two copies of FOO.LSP on the line printer.
*(QUEUE INP: (FOO . CTL))
Queues a job using FOO.CTL as its command file,
leaving a LOG file in FOO.LOG.
*(QUEUE INP: (FOO . CTL)(FOO . LOG))
Same as above.
4 . 1 . 9
Recovery From QMANGR Errors
The QUEUE function must swap the LISP high segment for the
QMANGR high segment. It then transfers control to the
QMANGR high segment. In most cases, if QMANGR finds an
error, it simply prints an error message. In a few cases,
however, it returns control to the monitor. The REE
command will restore the appropriate high segment and
processing will continue. Note that in this instance, the
system does not wait for control characters.
A .START command to the monitor will also restore the
user's high segment. However, this is not recommended as
the reallocation procedure will be entered.
4 . 1 . 10
READP returns T if a character can be input and NIL
otherwise. READP does not input a character.
UNTYI "unreads" a character (such as a character
input by a TYI or a READCH), so that the next call
to READ, TYI, etc., will pick up the UNTYI'ed
character as the next character to be read, and
returns the ASCII code for that character. Note:
In the LISP READ routine, an atom may be terminated
either by a break character (a character which must
be interpreted by READ as well as serving to
terminate the atom, such as "(", ")", "[", and ".")
or a separator character (a character used only to
separate atoms, etc., but not in itself meaningful,
such as carriage return or blank). In order to
save a break character for later interpretation,
the LISP READ routines use a one-charaacter buffer.
UNTYI simply stores its argument in this buffer;
thus there are two problems in using UNTYI. First,
if UNTYI is used several times in succession with
no intervening READ's, TYI's, etc.,then only the
most recent character is actually "unread"--all
others are lost. Second, if there is a break
character in the one-character buffer when an UNTYI
is performed, the break character will be lost.
The following example illustrates how the next
character may be examined without affecting the
*(DE PEEKC () (UNTYI (TYI)))
*(PROG () (CLRBFI) (PEEKC) (RETURN (TYI))
ERRCH changes the bell character that causes an
(ERR (QUOTE ERRORX)). N is the ASCII
representation of the character. ERRCH returns the
4 . 5 . 1
ASCII representation of the old character. Note
that if the new character is not a break character
to the monitor, it will not be processed until it
is read in the normal course of reading.
4 . 5 . 2
Reading without Interning
RDNAM functions in the same manner as READ except
that it does not intern the atoms that it reads.
Thus an atom read by RDNAM and an atom read by READ
are **NOT** EQ.
*(PROG () (CLRBFI) (RETURN (EQ (RDNAM) (READ))))
4 . 9
Data Type Predicates
The value of CONSP is X iff X is not an atom.
CONSP is equivalent to:
(LAMBDA (X) (COND ((NOT (ATOM X)) X)))
Examples: (CONSP T) = NIL
(CONSP 1.23) = NIL
(CONSP (QUOTE (X Y Z))) = (X Y Z)
(CONSP (CDR (QUOTE (X)))) = NIL
The value of STRINGP is T iff X is a string.
The value of PATOM is T iff X is an atom or X is a
pointer outside of free storage.
The value of LITATOM is T iff X is a literal atom,
i.e., an atom but not a number.
6 . 1
Predicates that Return Useful Non-NIL Values
(MEMBER X Y)
MEMBER is the same as the old MEMBER except that it
returns the tail of Y starting at the position
where X is found.
(MEMBER (QUOTE (C D)) (QUOTE ((A B)(C D)E)))
= ((C D) E)
(MEMBER (QUOTE C) (QUOTE C))) = NIL
(MEMB X Y)
(MEMQ X Y)
MEMQ is the same as the old MEMQ except that it
returns the tail of Y starting at the position
where X is found.
(MEMQ (QUOTE (C D)) (QUOTE ((A B)(C D)E))) = NIL
(MEMB (QUOTE A) (QUOTE (Q A B))) = (A B)
(TAILP X Y)
The value of TAILP is X iff X is a list and a tail
of Y, i.e., X is EQ to some number of CDRs & 0 of
(AND X1 X2 ... Xn) = Xn if all Xi are non-NIL
= NIL otherwise
(OR X1 X2 ... Xn) = The first non-NIL argument
= NIL if all Xi are NIL
As with the old AND and OR these functions only
evaluate as many of their arguments as necessary to
determine the answer (e.g. AND stops evaluation
after the first NIL argument).
6 . 3
NEW NUMERIC FUNCTIONS
Minimum and Maximum
(*MIN X Y) = Minimum of X and Y
(MIN X1 X2 ... Xn) = Minimum of X1, X2, ... , Xn
(*MAX X Y) = Maximum of X and Y
(MAX X1 X2 ... Xn) = Maximum of X1, X2, ... , Xn
INUMP returns X iff X is an INUM. It returns NIL
NUMTYPE returns FIXNUM if the number X is a fixed
point number and FLONUM if it is a floating point
7 . 1
Miscellaneous Useful Functions
UNBOUND returns the un-interned atom UNBOUND which
the system places in the CDR of an atom's SPECIAL
(VALUE) cell to indicate that the atom currently
has no assigned value even though it has a SPECIAL
(VALUE) cell on its property list.
Re-initializes LISP to read the user's INIT.LSP
file when it returns to the top level, e.g. by a
Control-G or a START, or a REENTER. SYSCLR also
resets the garbage collection time indicator to 0
and the CONSes performed indicator to 0. It also
performs an EXCISE.
INITFL is an FSUBR that sets up the file list for
the user's INIT file. FILELST may consist of more
than one file. However, if there is more than one
file in the list, the files following the first one
must be found or an error will be generated. The
first file in the list is optional. The INIT file
is initially INIT.LSP. INITFL returns the old file
list as its result.
*(INITFL (INIT1 . LSP) (MYFILE . LSP) FOO)
((INIT . LSP))
8 . 2
The following two functions can catastrophically destroy
the garbage collector by creating a circle in the free list
if they are used to return to the free list any words which
are still in use. Do not use these functions unless you
are certain what you are doing. (They are only useful in
rare cases where a small amount of working storage is
needed by a routine which is called quite often.)
FREE returns the word X to the free storage list
and returns NIL.
FREELIST returns all of the words on the top level
of the list X to the free storage list and returns
NIL. FREELIST terminates on a NULL check.
8 . 3 . 1
New Symbol Table Functions
The functions in this section are similar to the currently
existing symbol table functions except that they either
strip off (for storing) or add on the atom relocation.
This allows MACRO code to use the atom relocation register
S to refer to free storage and thus allow expansion of
binary program space without destroying LOADed code. They
operate in exactly the same manner as their older
counterparts. An error is generated if the arguments or
returning value is not a true cons cell.
(*RPUTSYM SYM VAL)
*RPUTSYM puts (VAL - atom relocation) in the symbol
table under SYM.
(RPUTSYM X1 X2 ...)
RPUTSYM functions in the same manner as PUTSYM,
i.e. if Xn is an atom, then Xn is placed in the
symbol table with Xn less the relocation as its
value. Otherwise (EVAL (CADR XN)) is placed in the
symbol table as the value of (CAR XN).
*GETSYM gets the value of the symbol X, adds on the
relocation and returns the cell pointed to as its
(GETSYM P S1 S2 ...)
GETSYM searches the symbol table for the symbol Sn
and places the relocated value on the property list
of Sn under property P.
8 . 3 . 2
CONTIGUOUS BLOCKS OF STORAGE
A new data type, BLOCK, has been added to UCILSP. A BLOCK
consist of a block of contiguous storage locations in
Binary Program Space. BLOCKs are similar to arrays in that
they may contain pointers that are protected from garbage
collection, or their contents may be ignored by the garbage
collector. They differ, however, in the means of access.
BLOCKs are accessed by a pointer into Binary Program Space
and all of the functions which will act on a cons cell will
work equally well on an element of a block (except for
printing). BLOCKs can be used for setting up lists that
are also tables, as in setting up multiple OBLISTs. NOTE
BENE: the value returned by the BLOCK functions is a true
address, not a LISP number.
(GTBLK LENGTH GC)
GTBLK is a SUBR that returns a zeroed BLOCK of
LENGTH words. If GC is NIL, then the contents of
the BLOCK are ignored by the garbage collector. If
GC is non-NIL then the contents are treated as
pointers and the cells pointed to will not be
(BLKLST LIST LENGTH)
BLKLST is a SUBR that returns a pointer type BLOCK
of LENGTH words. It chains the words in the BLOCK
such that the CDR of each word is the succeeding
word. The top level of LIST is then mapped into
the CAR's of the block. If LENGTH is NIL, then the
length of the list is used. If (LENGTH LIST) is
less than LENGTH, then the CAR's of the remaindef
of the BLOCK are set to NIL. If (LENGTH LIST) is
greater than LENGTH, the list is truncated.
11 . 1