Trailing-Edge - PDP-10 Archives - decuslib10-10 - 43,50517/rpgint.doc
There is 1 other file named rpgint.doc in the archive. Click here to see a list.

              DECsystem-10 RPGII Internal Documentation

                          Date: 8 March 1977
                             Revision: 2

Copyright (C) 1976, 1977
Cerritos Community College District and Robert Currier

This software is furnished under license for  use  only  on  a  single
computer system and may be copied only with the inclusion of the above
copyright notice.  This software, or any other copies thereof, may not
be provided or otherwise made available to any other person except for
use on such system and to one  who  agrees  to  these  license  terms.
Title  to and ownership of the software shall at all times remain with
Cerritos Community College District and Robert Currier.

The information in this software is subject to change  without  notice
and  should  not  be  construed  as  a  commitment  by either Cerritos
Community College District or Robert Currier.
RPGII Internal Documentation                                    Page 2

                          Table of Contents



                1.1     COMPONENTS OF RPG II .................... 1-1


                2.1     CONTENTS OF SRC ......................... 2-2
                2.2     CONTENTS OF LST ......................... 2-2
                2.3     CONTENTS OF BIN ......................... 2-2
                2.4     CONTENTS OF ERA ......................... 2-2
                2.5     CONTENTS OF GEN ......................... 2-3
                2.5.1      Operators ............................ 2-3
                2.5.2      Operands, Other than Literal ......... 2-3
                2.5.3      Operands, Literal .................... 2-3
                2.6     CONTENTS OF CPY ......................... 2-3
                2.7     CONTENTS OF CAL ......................... 2-4
                2.8     CONTENTS OF AS1, AS2, AS3 ............... 2-4
                2.8.1      Addresses ............................ 2-4
                2.8.2      Address Increments ................... 2-4
                2.8.3      Instructions ......................... 2-5
                2.8.4      Byte Pointers ........................ 2-5
                2.8.5      XWD .................................. 2-6
                2.8.6      Constants ............................ 2-6
                2.8.7      Miscellaneous ........................ 2-6
                2.8.8      Instruction Codes .................... 2-7


                3.1     FILTAB - THE FILE TABLE ................. 3-1
                3.2     DATAB - THE DATA ITEM TABLE ............. 3-3
                3.3     IDTTAB - THE INDICATOR CHAIN TABLE ...... 3-6
                3.4     PROTAB - THE TAG TABLE .................. 3-7
                3.5     LITAB - THE LITERAL TABLE ............... 3-7
                3.6     VALTAB - THE VALUE TABLE ................ 3-8
                3.7     NAMTAB - THE NAME TABLE ................. 3-8
                3.8     EXTAB - THE EXTERNAL NAME TABLE ......... 3-8


                4.1     COMPONENTS OF RPGLIB .................... 4-1
                4.2     INPUT/OUTPUT IN RPGLIB .................. 4-2
                4.2.1      RPGIO ................................ 4-2
                4.2.2      CBLIO ................................ 4-2


                5.1     CHNTAB - THE CHANNEL TABLE .............. 5-1
                5.2     OTFTAB - THE OBJECT TIME FILE TABLE ..... 5-2
                5.3     FTBTAB - THE CBLIO FILE TABLE ........... 5-3
                5.4     ICHTAB - THE INPUT CHAIN TABLE .......... 5-6
RPGII Internal Documentation                                    Page 3

                5.5     OCHTAB - THE OUTPUT CHAIN TABLE ......... 5-8
                5.6     ARRTAB - THE ARRAY TABLE ................ 5-9


                A.1     INDICATOR VALUES ........................ A-1
RPGII Internal Documentation                                    Page 4


This manual is intended to assist the programmer that must maintain or
modify  the  DECsystem-10  RPGII system.  While all attempts have been
made to assure the accuracy of this manual,  the  final  authority  is
always the program listings themselves.  This manual is designed to be
used in conjunction with a  set  of  listings,  rather  than  just  by
itself.  In appropriate parts, references have been made to particular
program modules that contain further  documentation  of  a  particular

Programmers that are familiar with the DECsystem-10 COBOL system  will
notice  many  similarities  in RPGII.  This is both good and bad.  The
programmer that has been deep into COBOL and found his way out, should
not  get  lost in the RPGII system.  However, such a programmer, being
overly smug about having a vague understanding of how COBOL works, may
get  overconfident and not notice some of the subtle changes that have
been made.  Contrary to appearences, these changes have not been  made
just  to trap unwary programmers, but were made for what, at the time,
seemed to be good reasons.

                              CHAPTER 1

                          COMPILER OVERVIEW

The RPG II compiler consists of seven major phases:

        RPGIIA          Initialization
        RPGIIB          Header,  File,  Extension  and  Line   counter
                        specification scanner
        RPGIIC          Input and Output specification scanner
        RPGIID          Calculation specification scanner
        RPGIIE          Table builder and code generator
        RPGIIF          Listing
        RPGIIG          Final assembly

In addition there is a phase which dumps core and the contents of  the
scratch  files  whenever  a catastrophic error occurs in the compiler.
This phase in RPGIIK.

If a multi-segment compiler (ONESEG=0) is generated, the  seven  major
phases and RPGIIK are grouped into six high segments:

        RPGIIC.SHR      RPGIIC
        RPGIID.SHR      RPGIID
        RPGIIE.SHR      RPGIIE
        RPGIIK.SHR      RPGIIK

If a single segment compiler (ONESEG=1) is generated, all eight phases
are stored in RPGII.SHR.


Each  phase  of  the  compiler  also  contains   an   impure   segment
(IMPURE.MAC)  and one or more of the following routines.  All of these
routines are collected into the library LIBA.REX.  The  extenstion  of
"REX" is for historical reasons.

        CLEANT          Clean up tables to gain more free core
        DIAGS           Define diagnostics tables
        GENCOM          Common routines used by Phase E
COMPILER OVERVIEW                                             Page 1-2

        GETASY          Read from AS1FIL, AS2FIL, AS3FIL
        GETCPY          Read from CPYFIL
        GETERA          Read from ERAFIL
        GETGEN          Read from GENFIL
        GETSRC          Read from the source  file  and  perform  some
        IMPURE          Define the impure storage area
        INTERM          Universal file to define default switches
        LOOKUP          Generate code for the LOOKUP operation
        PREDIT          Pre-edit the edit words
        PURAB           Pure constants for Phases A & B
        PUREC           Pure  constants  for  Phase  C  (multi-segment
                        compilers only)
        PURED           Pure  constants  for  Phase  D  (multi-segment
                        compilers only)
        PUREE           Pure  constants  for  Phase  E  (multi-segment
                        compilers only)
        PURFG           Pure constants for phases F & G
        PUTAS1          Write AS1FIL
        PUTAS2          Write AS2FIL
        PUTAS3          Write AS3FIL
        PUTBIN          Write BINFIL
        PUTERA          Write ERAFIL
        PUTGEN          Write GENFIL
        PUTLST          Write LSTFIL
        RPGASM          Universal file to define option switches
        RPGCOM          Common routines used by all phases
        RPGERR          Define error messages
        RPGIIA          Initialization and command scanner
        RPGIIB          H, F, E, and L specification scanner
        RPGIIC          I and O specification scanner
        RPGIID          C specification scanner
        RPGIIE          Code and table generation phase
        RPGIIF          Listing generator
        RPGIIG          Assembly phase
        RPGIIK          Error dump phase
        RPGIIP          Parameter definition fil
        RPGUNV          Universal file used by many routines
        SRTTAB          Sort tables (primarily ERAFIL)
        STINFL          Set up input file
        TRYNAM          Interface to NAMTAB
        XPAND           Expand a table
        XPNPPL          Handle error traps

                              CHAPTER 2

                       COMPILER FILE STRUCTURE

The RPG II compiler uses three files specified  by  the  user.   These
files  can  be on any device which supports the type of data contained
in the file.  The three files are:

     1.  SRC - The RPG II source program.

     2.  LST - The listing.

     3.  BIN - The relocatable binary produced by the compiler.

The compiler also uses several data files for temporary storage.   All
of  these files are stored on disk, and are deleted at the end of each
compilation.  All files have the user's job number as the first  three
characters  of  the  filename,  and  the  extension ".TMP".  The three
characters that are appended  to  the  job  number  to  form  the  six
character  filename  are  given below with a brief description of each

     1.  ERA - Diagnostics to be output with the listing file.

     2.  GEN - Output of the syntax parsing phase.

     3.  CPY - A copy of the source with line numbers assigned.

     4.  CAL - A copy of the calculation specifications used to  delay
         calculation spec processing until after output processing.

     5.  AS1 - Intermediate language containing  assembly  information
         for the data storage and table definition areas of the object

     6.  AS2 - Intermediate language containing  assembly  information
         for the detail calculation area of the object program.

     7.  AS3 - Intermediate language containing  assembly  information
         for  the  total  calculation  and literal areas of the object
COMPILER FILE STRUCTURE                                       Page 2-2


SRC is the ASCII file containing the program to be  compiled.   It  is
primarily  manipulated  by  the  routines  contained  in  the "GETSRC"


The listing file is broken down into two subsections:  A copy  of  the
source  with line numbers assigned and error messages imbedded;  and a
listing of the generated object output if the user  has  requested  it
via the /A switch.


This file contains  the  relocatable  binary  data  generated  by  the
compiler.   This relocatable binary code is designed to be loaded with
LINK-10.  A description of it's contents can be found in  the  LINK-10
Programmer's Reference Manual (DEC-10-ULKMA-B-D).


The diagnostic file contains  a  one-word  entry  for  each  error  or
warning detected by the compiler.  The file is written by Phases B, C,
D, and E, and read by Phase F.  The entries are defined as follows:

        Bit 0           Always zero to aid sorting of the file.
        Bit 1           A zero if this diagnostic is to be imbedded in
                        the source listing, a one if the diagnostic is
                        to be listed seperately.
        Bits 2-14       The line number of the line in error.  This is
                        used  to  determine  where  in the listing the
                        error message should go.
        Bit 21          A zero if this is a warning, a one if this  is
                        a fatal error.
        Bits 22-25      The  compiler  phase   which   generated   the
                        diagnostic.  (1=Phase A,...,5=Phase E).
        Bits 26-35      A number identifying the error  message.   The
                        messages    are    defined   in   the   module
COMPILER FILE STRUCTURE                                       Page 2-3


The generator input file consists of operators and operands put out by
the  parsing phases B, C and D.  Each operator entry is two words, all
others are one word.

2.5.1  Operators

      Word 1:

OP.OPR  Bit 0           A zero to identify this as an operator
OP.OP   Bits 1-8        A code for identifying the operator
        Bits 9-15       Misc flags required for code generation
OP.LN   Bits 16-28      Source line number to use if error found

      Word 2:

OP.IND  Bits 0-17       Link to conditioning indicator chain
OP.RES  Bits 18-35      Resulting indicator chain link

2.5.2  Operands, Other Than Literals

      Word 1:

OP.OPR  Bit 0           A one to identify this as an operand
OP.LIT  Bit 1           A zero  to  identify  this  as  other  than  a
OP.AC   Bit 2           Operand is TEMP of AC's
OP.LNK  Bits 18-35      Table link to operand

2.5.3  Operands, Literal

      Word 1:

OP.OPR  Bit 0           A one to identify this as an operand
OP.LIT  Bit 1           A one to identify this as a literal
OP.NUM  Bit 2           A one to identify this as a numeric literal, a
                        zero to identify this as non-numeric
OP.FIG  Bit 3           A one if a figurative constant
OP.LNK  Bits 18-35      Table link to literal (if OP.FIG = 0)


This file contains a  copy  of  the  source  file  with  line  numbers
assigned  and  some  editing done.  There is a one word entry for each
line which contains:
COMPILER FILE STRUCTURE                                       Page 2-4

        Bits 0-6        The  printer   control   character   for   the
                        preceding line (form-feed or line-feed)
        Bit 7           Always zero
        Bits 8-20       The assigned line number for this line
        Bits 21-24      The first two characters of the source line
        Bit 35          Always one to identify this as a header word

The remaining words for each line contain the ASCII characters  copied
from the source file.


This file contains a copy of  the  calculation  specifications  copied
from  the  source  file.  This copy is used to delay processing of the
calculation statements until after the  output  statements  have  been
processed.   The  file  is just an ASCII copy from the source, with no
editing done.


The output of Phase E is a set of files containing directions for  the
assembly  phase.   Each  entry  in  the file consists of a header word
followed by one or more words of more definitive data.

2.8.1  Addresses

The header data words may contain an address.  That address has a type
code  in its first three bits, followed by an address relative to some
table.  The type codes are:

AS.CNS          0       The remainder of the address is a constant
AS.ICH          1       The address is relative to the start of ICHTAB
AS.PRO          2       The address is relative to PROTAB
AS.EXT          3       The address is relative to EXTAB
AS.FTB          4       The address is relative to FTBTAB
AS.OCH          5       The address is relative to OCHTAB
AS.CNB          6       The increment (see 2.8.2) is a constant
AS.MSC          7       Miscellaneous (see 2.8.2)

2.8.2  Address Increment

Occasionally the address must be  modified  by  some  increment.   The
increment  has  a  type  code  in  its first three bits, followed by a
constant amount to increment by.
COMPILER FILE STRUCTURE                                       Page 2-5

The values for the type codes are:

AS.ABS          0       Add constant to the address
AS.OTB          1       Add constant to OTFBAS
AS.OCB          2       Add constant to OCHBAS
AS.LIT          3       Add constant to base of the literal pool
AS.ICB          4       Add constant to ICHBAS
AS.DOT          5       Add constant to current location
AS.TMP          6       Add constant to base of runtime impure area
AS.DAT          7       Add constant to base of data storage area

2.8.3  Instruction

      Word 1:

        Bit 0           Always zero to identify this as an instruction
        Bit 1           If there is an increment word following  this,
                        this bit is a one
        Bits 2-8        Operation code (see 2.8.8)
        Bits 9-12       Accumulator field for the instruction
        Bit 13          Indirect bit for instruction
        Bits 14-17      Index field for the instruction
        Bits 18-35      The address (see 2.8.1)

      Word 2:

        This word exists only if bit 1 of word 1 was a  one.   It  has
        zero  in  the  left  half, and an increment (see 2.8.2) in the
        right half.

2.8.4  Byte Pointer

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-2        Always 4
        Bits 3-17       Not used
        Bits 18-35      Address (see 2.8.1)

      Word 2:

        Bits 0-17       The  left  half  of  the  byte   pointer,   as
                        generated by the MACRO-10 psuedo-op.
        Bits 18-35      Increment (see 2.8.2)
COMPILER FILE STRUCTURE                                       Page 2-6

2.8.5  XWD

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-2        Always 5
        Bits 3-17       Not used
        Bits 18-35      Number of following two word entries

The header word is followed  by  one  or  more  two  word  entries  as

      First Word:

        Bits 0-17       Address increment for left half of the XWD
        Bits 18-35      Address for the left half of the XWD

      Second Word:

        Bits 0-17       Address increment for right half of the XWD
        Bits 18-35      Address for the right half of the XWD

2.8.6  Constant

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-2        Always 6
        Bit 3           ASCII constant
        Bit 4           SIXBIT constant
        Bit 5           One-word decimal constant
        Bit 6           Two-word decimal constant
        Bit 7           Floating point constant
        Bit 8           Octal constant
        Bits 9-12       Not used
        Bits 13-17      Number of characters  in  the  floating  point
        Bits 18-35      Number of words containing the constant

Following the header word is the value constant, in as many  words  as
is  necessary.   Floating  point  constants are two words apiece:  the
first word is the tens exponent in binary;  the  second  word  is  the
mantissa, four bits per digit.

2.8.7  Micellaneous

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-2        Always 7
        Bit 3           Paragraph  or  section   name   (for   listing
        Bit 4           Special tag (for listing purposes)
        Bit 5           RELOC psuedo-op
COMPILER FILE STRUCTURE                                       Page 2-7

        Bits 6-16       Not used
        Bit 17          Increment word follows

      Word 2:   Present only if bit 17 of word 1 is a 1

        Bits 0-17       Not used
        Bits 18-35      Address increment (see 2.8.2)

2.8.8  Instruction Codes

A complete list of the instruction codes and  their  compiler  symbols
can be found in the module "GENCOM.MAC".

                              CHAPTER 3


The RPGII compiler makes use of a great many  internal  tables  during
the compilation process.  This chapter is intended to be a description
of those tables.  A complete, and up to date, listing  of  the  tables
and their entries may be found in the module PURE.MAC.


FILTAB consist of one 8 word entry for each file used  by  the  object
program.  These entries are arranged as follows:

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-2        Always 0 to identify table.
FI.NAM  Bits 3-17       Relative pointer  to  NAMTAB  entry  for  this
FI.TYP  Bits 18-20      File Type as follows:
                000 = Input
                001 = Output
                010 = Update
                011 = Combined
                100 = Display
FI.DES  Bits 21-23      File Designation:
                000 = Primary
                001 = Secondary
                010 = Chained
                011 = Record Address
                100 = Table or Array
                101 = Demand
                110 = Blank (Output or Display)
FI.PRO  Bits 24-26      Processing Mode:
                000 = Consecutive
                001 = By ADDRout
                010 = Sequential by key
                011 = Sequential within limits (not supported)
                100 = Random by relative record
                101 = Random by Record Key
FI.ORG  Bits 27-28      File Organization:
                00 = One I/O area (sequential or direct)
COMPILER INTERNAL TABLE STRUCTURE                             Page 3-2

                10 = Indexed file
                11 = ADDRout file (if not and FI.DES = 011, is  limits
FI.RAF  Bits 29-30      Record Address Format
                00 = Unpacked
                01 = Binary (not supported)
                10 = Packed (not supported)
                11 = None
FI.DEV  Bits 31-34      Device Name:
   .FIMF1       0 = MFCU input hopper 1
   .FIMF2       1 = MFCU input hopper 2
   .FICDR       2 = READ01 (CDR:)
   .FILPT       3 = PRINTER (LPT:)
   .FILP2       4 = PRINTR2 (obsolete)
   .FITTY       5 = CONSOLE (TTY:)
   .FIDSK       6 = DISK (DSK:)
   .FIMTA       7 = TAPEn (MTAn:)
FI.EOF  Bit 35          Program may end only after  all  records  from
                        this file have been processed when this bit is

      Word 2:

FI.KYP  Bits 0-11       Relative key position within record
FI.BKL  Bits 12-23      Block length
FI.RCL  Bits 24-35      Record length

      Word 3:

FI.SEQ  Bits 0-1        Sequence checking option:
                00 = No checking
                01 = Ascending order
                10 = Descending oreder
FI.BUF  Bits 2-8        Tape buffer offset
FI.AST  Bit 9           ASCII File flag
FI.REW  Bits 10-11      Tape rewind option:
                00 = Rewind at EOF
                01 = Unload at EOF
                10 = Leave tape at EOF
FI.EXT  Bits 12-17      Number of extents
FI.ADD  Bits 18-19      File addition option:
                00 = No additions
                01 = Ordered additions
                10 = Unordered additions
FI.OVI  Bits 20-27      Overflow indicator
FI.ADF  Bit 28          Record Address link flag
FI.LPP  Bits 29-35      Lines per Page

      Word 4:

FI.OVL  Bits 0-5        Overflow line
FI.UNT  Bits 6-9        Unit number for TAPE
FI.KYL  Bits 12-16      Length of key field
FI.EXI  Bits 17-24      External Indicator
COMPILER INTERNAL TABLE STRUCTURE                             Page 3-3

      Word 5:

FI.COR  Bits 0-17       Core index size (not implemented)
FI.ADL  Bits 18-35      Link to ADDRout or Limits file

      Word 6:

FI.DAT  Bits 0-17       Link to primary DATAB item
FI.LIN  Bits 18-29      Line number of defining file specification

      Word 7:

FI.PHY  Bits 0-35       Physical (SIXBIT) name of file

      Word 8:

FI.OTF  Bits 0-17       Link to corresponding OTFTAB item


DATAB, the data item table, consists of a series of  13  word  entries
linked  together in such a manner as to represent the input and output
data structures defined in  the  user's  program.   It  also  contains
descriptions  of  data items defined in the calculation specifications
and not used in either the input or output sections.

For each input or output file there is a corresponding FILTAB entry as
defined  above.   This  entry contains a pointer (FI.DAT) to the first
DATAB item in the input or output chain.  This first item contains the
data  defining  the  first  record.   If there are additional input or
output records they are linked together via the DA.MAJ pointer.   Each
record  also  contains  a pointer to those data items contained within
the record.  These data items are  chained  together  via  the  DA.BRO

Another linkage of importance is the same name (DA.SNM) linkage.   Via
this  pointer  all  items that have a common name are linked together.
This link is useful for compiling composite information on a field.

The remainder of the DATAB items are defined as follows:

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-2        Always 01 to identify the table
DA.NAM  Bits 3-17       NAMTAB link
DA.MAJ  Bits 18-35      Link to next major (record) item

      Word 2:

DA.BRO  Bits 0-17       Link to next minor (field) item
DA.IND  Bits 18-35      Link to conditioning indicators
COMPILER INTERNAL TABLE STRUCTURE                             Page 3-4

      Word 3:

DA.VAL  Bits 0-17       Link to literal value of field
DA.COR  Bits 18-35      Pointer to assigned core location

      Word 4:

DA.NPS  Bits 0-1        Number of entries per sequence type:
                00 = Sequence not checked
                01 = 1 record/type
                10 = n records/type
DA.RTR  Bit 2           Record type is required
DA.TRA  Bit 3           Trailer item (not supported)
DA.LHI  Bit 4           Look-ahead item
DA.STS  Bits 5-7        MFCU stacker select
DA.FLD  Bits 8-9        Field type:
                00 = Alphanumeric
                01 = Packed decimal (not supported)
                10 = Packed binary (not supported)
                11 = Unpacked numeric
DA.SIZ  Bits 10-21      Size of field
DA.DEC  Bits 22-25      Number of decimal positions
DA.PRI  Bit 26          Print and punch MFCU (not supported)
DA.PRO  Bit 27          Punch only MFCU (not supported)
DA.STR  Bit 28          Sterling sign (not supported)
                0 = not used
                1 = postion stored in DA.STP
DA.RES  Bits 29-34      Byte residue for core pointer (DA.COR)
DA.IMD  Bit 35          Array index is immediate

      Word 5:

DA.RII  Bits 0-7        Record identifying indicator
DA.CLI  Bits 8-15       Control level indicator
DA.FPL  Bits 16-23      Positive field indicator
DA.STP  Bits 24-35      Sterling position (not supported)

      Word 6:

DA.ORT  Bits 0-1        Output record type:
                00 = Heading
                01 = Detail
                10 = Total
                11 = Exception
DA.ARC  Bit 2           Add record
DA.FOV  Bit 3           Fetch overflow
DA.SPA  Bits 4-5        Space after count
DA.SKA  Bits 6-12       Skip after line number
DA.EDT  Bits 13-16      Edit Code:
                1 = "1"         11 = "J"
                2 = "2"         12 = "K"
                3 = "3"         13 = "L"
                4 = "4"         14 = "M"
                5 = "A"         15 = "X"
                6 = "B"         16 = "Y"
COMPILER INTERNAL TABLE STRUCTURE                             Page 3-5

                7 = "C"         17 = "Z"
               10 = "D"
DA.BLA  Bit 17          Blank field after printing
DA.SPB  Bits 18-19      Space before count
DA.END  Bits 20-31      Field end position in output record
DA.LDC  Bit 32          Table/array loads at compile time
DA.LDR  Bit 33          Table/array loads at pre-execution time
DA.LDE  Bit 34          Table/array loads at execution time
DA.DMP  Bit 35          Table/array dumps at end of job

      Word 7:

DA.OCC  Bits 0-14       Number of occurs (Max index) of table/array
DA.ALT  Bit 15          Alternate table
DA.INF  Bit 16          Input section flag (this item  seen  in  input
DA.RND  Bit 17          Round (Half-adjust) the result
DA.ALL  Bits 18-35      Table link to alternate table

      Word 8:

DA.EPR  Bits 0-9        Number of entries per record
DA.SEQ  Bits 10-11      Sequence checking:
                00 = No check
                01 = Ascending sequence
                10 = Descending sequence
DA.ARE  Bit 12          This item an array entry
DA.ADD  Bit 13          Add record
DA.FMT  Bits 14-17      Field data format:
                0 = SIXBIT
                1 = ASCII
                2 = EBCDIC
DA.LDP  Bits 18-35      Table link to file this table/array loads from

      Word 9:
DA.DPP  Bits 0-17       Table link to file this table/array dumps to
DA.SNM  Bits 18-35      Table to link to item with same name

      Word 10:
DA.FRP  Bits 0-11       From relative field location
DA.TOP  Bits 12-23      To relative field location
DA.MAT  Bits 24-31      Matching indicator
DA.TAB  Bit 32          Table flag  (valid  for  OCHTAB  linked  items

      Word 11:

DA.FMN  Bits 0-7        Negative field indicator
DA.FBZ  Bits 8-15       Blank or zero field indicator
DA.SKB  Bits 16-22      Skip before line number
DA.FRR  Bits 23-30      Field record relation indicator
DA.DUN  Bit 31          This item processed by Phase E
DA.NDF  Bit 32          This item not fully defined (used?)
DA.FLS  Bit 33          This item defined in file section
COMPILER INTERNAL TABLE STRUCTURE                             Page 3-6

      Word 12:

DA.ICH  Bits 0-17       Pointer to related ICHTAB item
DA.ARP  Bits 18-35      Pointer to array this item references

      Word 13:

DA.INP  Bits 0-17       Pointer to index (or index itself if DA.IMD  =
DA.LIN  Bits 18-30      Line number of defining line (for errors)
DA.LTF  Bit 31          Literal flag
DA.RSV  Bits 32-35      Reserved word flag/code (set up by Phase E):
                1 = UDATE               5 = PAGE
                2 = UDAY                6 = PAGE1
                3 = UMON                7 = PAGE2
                4 = UYEAR


The indicator table consists of a series  of  1  word  entries  linked
together form an equivalent of the indicator checks used in the user's
program.  Rather than actually being linked, consecutive  entries  are
used until the ID.END flag is seen, indicating the end of the chain.

In addition to using IDTTAB to  link  together  indicator  checks  for
output  records  and  calculations,  it  is also used to link together
checks for record identifying indicators in  the  input  specs.   When
used  for this, only OR lines contain an indicator, which is placed in
ID.RII rather than in the usual ID.IND.  Placed in ID.IND instead,  is
the  character  that is to be looked for in column ID.POS of the input

The assigned sequence number, ID.SEQ,  is  also  only  used  in  input
chains.   This  number corresponds to the record sequence number given
on the input specs.

The IDTTAB items are defined as follows:

      Word 1:

ID.OR   Bit 0           0 = Boolean AND relation with previous  entry,
                        1 = Boolean OR relation.
ID.NOT  Bit 1           Boolean NOT condition applied to ID.OR
ID.IND  Bits 2-9        Indicator/character
ID.POS  Bits 10-21      Character position
ID.END  Bit 22          This is last entry in this chain
ID.RII  Bits 23-30      Record identifying indicator (OR line only)
ID.SEQ  Bits 31-35      Assigned sequence number (first entry only)
COMPILER INTERNAL TABLE STRUCTURE                             Page 3-7


The  tag  name  table  consists  of  2  word  entries  used  to  store
information  about  symbols  used  in  TAG  and BEGSR statements.  The
entries are defined as follows:

      Word 1:

PR.ID   Bits 0-2        Always 4 to identify the table
PR.NAM  Bits 3-17       NAMTAB pointer to value of symbol
PR.LNK  Bits 18-35      Pointer to assigned location of tag

      Word 2:

PR.SEG  Bit 0           Segment containing the tag, as follows:
                0 = AS2FIL
                1 = AS3FIL
PR.BSR  Bit 1           Tag used in a BEGSR flag


LITAB contains  information  about  literals  generated  by  the  code
generation phase of RPG II.  This information is dumped into AS3FIL at
the end of that phase.  Each LITAB entry consists  of  a  header  word
followed  by  words  containing the literal value.  The header word is
defined as follows:

In the left half:

1       XWDLIT  An XWD
2       BYTLIT  A byte pointer
3       ASCLIT  ASCII text
4       SIXLIT  SIXBIT text
5       D1LIT   1-word decimal
6       D2LIT   2-word decimal
7       FLTLIT  Floating point
10      OCTLIT  Octal

In the right half:

        Number or following words containing data.

The data words are described in Section 2.8 of this manual.
COMPILER INTERNAL TABLE STRUCTURE                             Page 3-8


VALTAB holds the literals found in the output specifications  as  edit
words  or output literals.  Each value is placed in one or more words.
The first word  has  the  number  of  characters  in  bits  0-6;   the
remainder  of  that  word, and the following words, if any, contain an
ASCII string.


NAMTAB contains the names of all files and data  items  found  in  the
source  program.   This is a table driven by several hash tables.  The
search technique is described in the module "TRYNAM.MAC".  Each NAMTAB
entry consists of at least two words, defined as below:

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-35       Undefined (available for flags)

      Word 2:   The  name,  in  SIXBIT,  over  as  many  words  as  is
                        necessary.   The  name is terminated by a zero


EXTAB contains information about external  routines.   This  table  is
used  only  by the EXIT operation at the present time, but is included
in  this  form  to  allow  for  the  possibility  of  reentrant   code
generation.  Each two word entry in defined as follows:

      Word 1:

        Bits 0-2        Always 5 to identify the table
EX.NAM  Bits 3-17       Pointer to NAMTAB entry for this name

      Word 2:

EX.NRS  Bit 0           Name is used by non-resident segment
EX.USN  Bit 1           Use flag:
                0 = OPsys name
                1 = User name
EX.PID  Bit 2           This is the program ID
EX.ENT  Bit 3           This is an entry point
EX.CAL  Bit 4           Referenced by a CALL
EX.CNT  Bits 15-17      Count of extra words allocated
EX.HLD  Bits 18-35      Misc.  uses

                              CHAPTER 4

                       RUNTIME SYSTEM OVERVIEW


The RPG II runtime system, RPGLIB, is a collection of library routines
to  perform  various  functions  needed  by  the  object  program.  In
addition it contains a interpretive module,  RPGMAN,  which  simulates
the  RPG II  cycle,  taking  the  burden of the code generators in the
compiler.  The routines contained in RPGLIB are listed below:

        CBLIO           Low level I/O routines (taken from LIBOL)
        CHREQV          Generates  a  universal  file  containing  the
                        character  equivalences  across  the supported
                        character sets
        CDD             Convert from one display format to another
        COMP            Comparison routines
        COMUNI          Define the impure area
        DEBUG           Debugging routines
        DIV11           Divide single precision by single precision
        DPADD           Do double precision add
        DPDIV           Do double precision divide
        DPMUL           Do double precision multiplication
        DPSUB           Do double precision subtraction
        DSPLY           Handle the DSPLY operation
        EASTBL          Define EBCDIC, ASCII, SIXBIT conversion tables
        EDIT            Handle editing
        FLGDF           Define flags for LIBOL compatibility
        FTDEFS          Define file table constants for CBLIO
        GC              Convert COMP-3 to binary
        GD              Convert display to binary
        INTERM          Define default switches
        MAGNEG          Take magnitude and negative of numbers
        MOVE            Perform moves
        MOVSGN          Move sign field
        NUMEQV          Define character/number equivalences
        PC              Convert binary to COMP-3
        PD              Convert binary ti display
        RPGASM          Define user selected switches
        RPGIO           Perform high level I/O
        RPGIMP          Define impure area
        RPGMAN          Simulate RPG II cycle
        RPGPUR          Define pure area
RUNTIME SYSTEM OVERVIEW                                       Page 4-2

        RPGPRM          Define miscellaneous parameters
        RPGSWI          Define switch macros and constants
        SETRET          Do return and exit setup
        SPAC            Check for spaces
        SQRT            Find a square root
        SUBSCR          Do array/table subscripting
        UUOHAN          Handle UUO traps


I/O in the runtime system is performed  by  two  modules:   RPGIO  and
CBLIO.  Each performs a different level of I/O.

4.2.1  RPGIO

This module contains the high level I/O  routines.   It  contains  the
routines  that the generated code talks to, and also the routines that
the RPG II cycle simulator RPGMAN talks to.  It is within this  module
that all indicator checking and buffer setup is done.

4.2.2  CBLIO

All actual I/O is done within this module.  This is  the  same  module
contained  in  COBOL's  runtime system LIBOL.  This module was used to
maintain complete compatibility with COBOL's  I/O  system,  especially
the ISAM handlers, without introducing still another piece of software
that must be supported.

                              CHAPTER 5


The primary tables that the  runtime  system  utilizes  are:   OTFTAB,
are set up by the compiler and output as part of the  object  program.
CHNTAB  is allocated and set up by RPGLIB.  IDTTAB is also used by the
runtime system, but each entry is assigned a unique  location  in  the
literal pool.  Thus, although the entries are formated that same as in
the compiler, the  table  itself  is  distributed  throughout  memory,
rather than grouped in one place as with the other tables.


CHNTAB consists of one 23 word table for each file.  Its  primary  use
is  to  allow  quick  access  to  some of the information contained in
OTFTAB  and  FTBTAB.   When  a  file  is  opened,  it  is  assigned  a
pseudo-channel number.  This psuedo-channel number is the entry number
within CHNTAB.  The offsets into CHNTAB are defined as follows:

 0      CHN     I/O channel assignment
 1      BLK     Blocking Factor (obsolete)
 2      CUR     Current block in buffer (not always correct)
 3      PNT     SIXBIT byte pointer
 4      KEY     Relative key for next file access
 5      RWF     REWRITE flag
 6      BSZ     Buffer size in words
 7      BUF     Base of I/O buffer
10      BCN     Byte count in current buffer (obsolete)
11      EOF     This file has reached end-of-file
12-16   UPD     Update key
17      LIN     Line counter
20      IPC     Input chain pointer
21      SEQ     Sequence number
22      RII     Record identifying indicator

Those entries marked as obsolete are defined  for  historical  reasons


OTFTAB contains much the same  information  as  FILTAB  but  has  been
rearranged  and  condensed  to  be  of more use to the runtime system.
While this table is built at compile time, it is used only at  runtime
by the runtime system.  Each file used by the object program generates
one 9 word OTFTAB entry.  

Within this entry are pointers to the input and output chains  related
to   the   file.    These  pointers  point  into  ICHTAB  and  OCHTAB,
respectivly.  Also contained  in  this  entry  is  a  pointer  to  the
corresponding  FTBTAB entry so that the runtime system can gain access
to CBLIO generated information.

The entries are defined as follows:

      Word 1:

OT.COR  Bits 0-17       Pointer to core index (not supported)
OT.ADP  Bits 18-35      Pointer to ADDRout file

      Word 2:

OT.BFP  Bits 0-17       Pointer to record buffer
OT.OPC  Bits 18-35      Pointer to OCHTAB output chain

      Word 3:

OT.IPC  Bits 0-17       Pointer to ICHTAB input chain

      Word 4:

OT.NAM  Bits 0-35       Physical SIXBIT name of file

      Word 5:

OT.TYP  Bits 0-2        File type (as defined in FI.TYP)
OT.DES  Bits 3-5        File description (as defined in FI.DES)
OT.PRO  Bits 6-8        Processing mode (as defined in FI.PRO)
OT.ORG  Bits 9-10       File organization (as defined in FI.ORG)
OT.RAF  Bits 11-12      Record address format (as defined in FI.RAF)
OT.DEV  Bits 13-16      File device (as defined in FI.DEV)
OT.EOF  Bit 17          EOF option (as defined in FI.EOF)
OT.BLK  Bits 18-35      Blocking factor

      Word 6:

OT.KYP  Bits 0-11       Key position within record
OT.SEQ  Bits 12-13      Sequence checking (as defined in FI.SEQ)
OT.BUF  Bits 14-19      Tape buffer offset
OT.AST  Bits 20         ASCII file option
OT.REW  Bits 21-22      Tape rewind option (as defined in FI.REW)
OT.EXT  Bits 23-28      Number of extents
OT.ADD  Bits 29-30      File addition option (as defined in FI.ADD)
OT.KYL  Bits 31-35      Length of key field

      Word 7:

OT.OVI  Bits 0-7        Overflow indicator
OT.EXI  Bits 8-15       External conditioning indicator
OT.OVL  Bits 16-21      Overflow line
OT.CHN  Bits 32-35      Psuedo-channel number assigned to file

      Word 8:

OT.CRS  Bits 0-17       Core index size (not supported)
OT.BSZ  Bits 18-35      Buffer size in words

      Word 9:

OT.BSC  Bits 0-17       Buffer size in characters
OT.LAS  Bit 18          "I am the last OTFTAB entry" flag
OT.LPP  Bits 19-25      Lines per page


FTBTAB is generated to be compatible with the CBLIO module, which does
all  of  the  actual  I/O  for  the runtime system.  A bare minimum of
explanation  is  given  here,  as  little  trouble  should   ever   be
experienced with this table.  It should be kept in mind that all items
defined below are used by  RPG II  but  are  defined  only  for  CBLIO
compatibility.  More complete documentation may be found in CBLIO.MAC.

In addition to the 32 word entry defined below, there  is  also  a  32
word  DEVTAB  preceding  each  FTBTAB entry.  This DEVTAB area is used
only by CBLIO, thus the compiler merely outputs zeroes for this  area.
Documentation  on  the  contents  of  DEVTAB  can  also  be  found  in

      Words 1-5:

FT.FNM                  The filename used within the users program  in
                        SIXBIT.   This  is  not  the physical filename
                        that a LOOKUP  is  done  on,  but  rather  the
                        descriptive  filename given by the user.  Used
                        for error messages.

      Word 6:

FT.CVR  Bits 0-5        Compiler version number
FT.BLC  Bit 6           Buffer location is assigned
FT.SDF  Bit 7           SORT descriptor flag
FT.NOD  Bits 8-17       Number of devices
FT.DNM  Bits 18-35      Pointer to first device name

      Word 7:

FT.NFL  Bits 0-4        Number of file limits
FT.PMT  Bits 5-17       File position on Mag-tape

FT.NFT  Bits 18-35      Pointer to next file table

      Word 8:

FT.NAB  Bits 0-4        Number of alternate buffers
FT.MRS  Bits 5-17       Maximum record size
FT.RRC  Bits 18-35      Records between RERUN dump

      Word 9:

FT.VLR  Bit 0           Variable length EBCDIC records
FT.NSL  Bit 2           Non-standard labels
FT.STL  Bit 3           Standard labels
FT.IOF  Bit 6           Input/output file
FT.DDM  Bits 7-9        Device data mode:
                0 = SIXBIT              3 = EBCDIC
                1 = Binary              4 = ASCII-8
                2 = ASCII             5-7 = Unused
FT.RRE  Bit 10          RERUN dump at end-of-reel
FT.RCR  Bit 11          RERUN on record count
FT.OPT  Bit 13          File is optional
FT.CDM  Bits 14-15      Core data mode:
                0 = SIXBIT
                1 = Binary
                2 = ASCII
                3 = EBCDIC
FT.MOD  Bits 16-17      File I/O mode:
                0 = Sequential
                1 = Random
                2 = ISAM
                3 = Unused
FT.REC  Bits 18-35      Address of record area

      Word 10:

FT.NLS  Bits 0-17       Non-standard label size
FT.FSD  Bits 18-35      Link to file that shares same device

      Word 11:

FT.BKF  Bits 6-17       Blocking factor
FT.ACK  Bits 18-35      Address of actual key table

      Word 12:

FT.VID  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to value-of-id

      Word 13:

FT.VDW  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to value-of-date-written

      Word 14:

FT.SBA  Bits 0-17       Link to file that shares the same buffer area
FT.EUP  Bits 18-35      Address of error-use procedure

      Word 15:

FT.BBR  Bits 0-17       Address of before-beginning-reel procedure
FT.BBF  Bits 18-35      Address of before-beginning-file procedure

      Word 16:

FT.ABR  Bits 0-17       Address of after-beginning-reel procedure
FT.ABF  Bits 18-35      Address of after-beginning-file procedure

      Word 17:

FT.BER  Bits 0-17       Address of before-ending-reel procedure
FT.BEF  Bits 18-35      Address of before-ending-file procedure

      Word 18:

FT.AER  Bits 0-17       Address of after-ending-reel procedure
FT.AEF  Bits 18-35      Address of after-ending-file procedure

      Word 19:

FT.DNS  Bits 0-2        Mag-tape density:
                0 = System standard
                1 = 200 BPI
                2 = 556 BPI
                3 = 800 BPI
                4 = 1600 BPI
FT.PAR  Bit 4           Mag-tape parity:
                0 = Odd
                1 = Even
FT.OUP  Bit 5           Open use-procedure when enter fails
FT.PPN  Bits 18-35      Pointer to PPN

      Word 20:

FT.BSK  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to symbolic key

      Word 21:

FT.BRK  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to record key

      Word 22:

FT.KTY  Bits 15-17      ISAM key type:
                0 = Non-numeric
                1 = Numeric display < 11 digits
                2 = Numeric display > 10 digits
                3 = COMP < 11 digits
                4 = COMP > 10 digits
                5 = COMP-1
FT.KSG  Bit 20          ISAM key is signed
FT.KLB  Bits 24-35      ISAM key length in bytes

      Word 23:

FT.OWA  Bits 0-8        ISAM owner write  access.   Rightmost  4  bits
                        correspond  to Read, Rewrite, Write and Delete
FT.OTA  Bits 9-17       ISAM other write access.  Same bit assignments
                        as FT.OWA.
FT.RTC  Bits 18-35      ISAM retained record count

      Word 24:

FT.PFS  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to file-status

      Word 25:

FT.PEN  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to error-number

      Word 26:

FT.PAC  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to action-code

       Word 28:

FT.PID  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to value-of-id

      Word 28:

FT.PBN  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to block-number

      Word 29:

FT.PRN  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to record-number

      Word 30:

FT.PFN  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to file-name

      Word 31:

FT.PFT  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to file-table

      Word 32:

FT.LHL  Bits 0-35       Pointer to low,,high file limit


ICHTAB contains entries chained together much as the DATAB items were;
the  chaining  path  defines  a  data structure representing the users
input specifications.  Each of the 7 word entries contains 2  pointers
of  interest;   the  first  is  IC.NXR which points to the next record
level item in the chain;  the second is IC.NXF  which  points  to  the
next  field level item in the chain.  In both cases, a pointer of zero
terminates the chain.

The remainder of the entries are defined below:

      Word 1:

IC.DES  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to assigned core location

      Word 2:

IC.RII  Bits 0-17       Pointer to IDTTAB record identifying indicator
IC.NXF  Bits 18-35      Pointer to next field level item

      Word 3:

IC.NXR  Bits 0-17       Pointer to next record level item
IC.ARP  Bits 18-35      Pointer to array this item references

      Word 4:

IC.INP  Bits 0-17       Pointer to array index (or array index  itself
                        if IC.IMD = 1

      Word 5:

IC.FMN  Bits 0-7        Minus field indicator
IC.FBZ  Bits 8-15       Blank/zero field indicator
IC.FPL  Bits 16-23      Plus field indicator
IC.CLI  Bits 24-31      Control level indicator
IC.NPS  Bits 32-33      Number per sequence (same as DA.NPS)
IC.FLD  Bits 34-35      Field type (same as DA.FLD)

      Word 6:

IC.FRR  Bits 0-7        Field record relation indicator
IC.MAT  Bits 8-15       Matching indicator
IC.RTR  Bit 16          Record type required
IC.LHI  Bit 17          Look ahead item
IC.STS  Bits 18-20      MFCU stacker select
IC.SIZ  Bits 21-32      Size of field
IC.SEQ  Bits 33-34      Sequence check option (same as DA.SEQ)
IC.IMD  Bit 35          Immediate array reference

      Word 7:

IC.SRC  Bits 0-11       Character position in source
IC.OCC  Bits 12-26      Number of occurs for array item
IC.FMT  Bits 27-31      Data format (same as DA.FMT)


OCHTAB is the  direct  counterpart  of  ICHTAB,  but  for  the  output
specifications.   OCHTAB  is  linked in the same manner as ICHTAB, but
each 7 word entry contains information pertaining  to  output  records
and fields.  Each entry is defined as follows:

      Word 1:

OC.IDX  Bits 0-17       Pointer to array index
OC.NXR  Bits 18-35      Pointer to next record level item in chain

      Word 2:

OC.NXF  Bits 0-17       Pointer to next field level item in chain
OC.IND  Bits 18-35      Pointer to conditioning IDTTAB chain

      Word 3:

OC.SRC  Bits 0-35       Pointer to data source

      Word 4:

OC.FLD  Bits 0-1        Field type (same as DA.FLD)
OC.SIZ  Bits 2-13       Size of field
OC.DEC  Bits 14-17      Number of decimal positions in field
OC.STP  Bits 18-29      Sterling position (not supported)
OC.PRI  Bit 30          MFCU print & punch (not supported)
OC.PRO  Bit 31          MFCU print only (not supported)
OC.STR  Bit 32          Sterling sign (not supported)
OC.ORT  Bits 33-34      Output record type (same as DA.ORT)
OC.ADD  Bit 35          Add a record

      Word 5:

OC.FOV  Bit 0           Forced overflow
OC.SKB  Bits 1-7        Skip before line number
OC.SKA  Bits 8-14       Skip after line number
OC.SPB  Bits 15-16      Space before count
OC.SPA  Bits 17-18      Space after count
OC.END  Bits 19-30      Field end position in output record
OC.STS  Bits 31-34      MFCU stacker select
OC.IMD  Bit 35          Array index is immediate

      Word 6:

OC.OCC  Bits 0-14       Number of occurs of array/table
OC.EDT  Bits 15-18      Edit code (same as DA.EDT)
OC.LTF  Bit 19          Literal only output flag
OC.LSZ  Bits 20-28      Size of literal
OC.RSV  Bits 29-32      Reserved word code (same as DA.RSV)
OC.BLA  Bit 33          Blank this field after printing
OC.TAB  Bit 34          "This is a table" flag

      Word 7:

OC.ARP  Bits 0-17       Pointer to array this item references
OC.EDP  Bits 18-35      Pointer to edit word/literal


ARRTAB is generated for use by the runtime system whenever a table  or
array  must  be  loaded  or  dumped by the runtime system.  This table
consists of a series of 4 word entries each defining a table  that  is
to loaded or dumped.  The entries are set up as follows:

      Word 1:

AR.PNT  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to array/table

      Word 2:

AR.SIZ  Bits 0-9        Size of array entry
AR.OCC  Bits 10-19      Number of occurs of the array/table
AR.EPR  Bits 20-29      Number of entries per record
AR.LDM  Bit 30          Dump/Load flag:
                0 = Load
                1 = Dump
 AR.LAs Bit 31          "This is the last entry" flag

      Word 3:

AR.FIL  Bits 0-17       Link to OTFTAB entry for file this loads/dumps
AR.ASZ  Bits 18-27      Size of alternating table/array (if any)

      Word 4:

AR.ALT  Bits 0-35       Byte pointer to Alternate table/array (if any)

                             APPENDIX A

                           REFERENCE TABLES


In both the compiler  and  the  runtime  system,  all  indicators  are
referenced by the numbers described below:

Indicator       Octal Value

01-99           1-143
H1-H9           144-154
L1-L9           155-165
LR              166
OA-OG           167-175
OV              176
M1-M9           177-207
MR              210
L0              211
1P              212
U1-U8           213-222