There are no other files named 7lisp.tty in the archive.
PROPERTY LISTS AND HASH LINKS
7.1 Property Lists
Property lists are entities associated with literal atoms, and are
stored on cdr of the atom. Property lists are conventionally lists of
the form (property value property value ... property value) although the
user can store anything he wishes in cdr of a literal atom. However,
the functions which manipulate property lists observe this convention by
cycling down the property lists two cdrs at a time. Most of these
functions also generate an error, ARG NOT LITATOM, if given an argument
which is not a literal atom, i.e., they cannot be used directly on
The term "property name" or "property" is used for the property
indicators appearing in the odd positions, and the term "property value"
or "value of a property" or simply "value" for the values appearing in
the even positions. Sometimes the phrase "to store on the property --"
is used, meaning to place the indicated information on the property list
under the property name --.
Properties are usually atoms, although no checks are made to eliminate
use of non-atoms in an odd position. However, the property list
searching functions all use eq.
Property List Functions
getproplist[atm] if atm is a literal atom, returns property list
of atm. Otherwise, generates ARG NOT LITATOM
error. getproplist compiles open without any
setproplist[atm;lst] if atm is a non-NIL literal atom, sets property
list of atm to be lst, and returns lst as its
value. If atm is NIL, generates an ATTEMPT TO
RPLAC NIL (unless lst is also NIL). If atm is
not a literal atom, generates an ARG NOT LITATOM
putprop[atm;prop;val] puts on the property list of atm, the property
prop with value val. val replaces any previous
value for the property prop on this property
list. Generates an error, ARG NOT LITATOM, if
atm is not a literal atom. Value is val.
adds the value new to the list which is the
value of property prop on property list of atm.
If flg is T, new is consed onto the front of
value of prop, otherwise it is nconced on the
end (nconc1). If atm does not have a property
prop, the effect is the same as
putprop[atm;prop;list[new]], for example, if
addprop[FOO;PROP;FIE] is followed by
addprop[FOO;PROP;FUM], getprop[FOO;PROP] will
be (FIE FUM). The value of addprop is the (new)
property value. If atm is not a literal atom,
generates an error, ARG NOT LITATOM.
remprop[atm;prop] removes all occurrences of the property prop
(and its value) from the property list of atm.
Value is prop if any were found, otherwise NIL.
If atm is not a literal atom, generates an
error, ARG NOT LITATOM.
Changes name of property prop1 to prop2 on
property list of x, (but does not affect the
value of the property). Value is x, unless
prop1 is not found, in which case, the value is
NIL. If x is not a literal atom, generates an
error, ARG NOT LITATOM.
getprop[atm;prop] gets the property value for prop from the
property list of atm. The value of getprop is
NIL if atm is not a literal atom, or prop is not
Note: the value of getprop may also be NIL, if there is an occurrence of
prop but the corresponding property value is NIL.
listput, listput1, listget, and listget1 are functions similar to
putprop and getprop that work directly on lists. they are described
in Section 5.
getprop used to be called getp.
Note: Since getprop searches a list two items at
a time, the same object can be used as both a
property name and a property value, e.g., if the
property list of atm is (PROP1 A PROP2 B A C),
then getprop[atm;A] = C.
getlis[x;props] searches the property list of x, and returns the
property list as of the first property on props
that it finds e.g., if the property list of x is
(PROP1 A PROP3 B A C),
getlis[x;(PROP2 PROP3)]=(PROP3 B A C)
Value is NIL if no element on props is found. x
can also be a list itself, in which case it is
searched as above.
deflist[l;prop] is used to put values under the same property
name on the property lists of several atoms. l
is a list of two-element lists. The first
element of each is a literal atom, and the
second element is the property value for the
property prop. The value of deflist is NIL.
Note: Many atoms in the system already have property lists, with
properties used by the compiler, the break package, DWIM, etc. Be
careful not to clobber such system properties. The value of sysprops
gives the complete list of the property names used by the system.
7.2 Hash Links
The description of the hash link facility in Interlisp is included in
the chapter on property lists because of the similarities in the ways
the two features are used. A property list provides a way of
associating information with a particular atom. A hash link is an
association between any Interlisp pointer (atoms, numbers, arrays,
strings, lists, et al) called the hash-item, and any other Interlisp
pointer called the hash-value. Property lists are stored in cdr of the
atom. Hash links are implemented by computing an address, called the
hash-address, in a specified array, called the hash-array, and storing
the hash-value and the hash-item into the cell with that address. The
contents of that cell, i.e. the hash-value and hash-item, is then called
Since the hash-array is obviously much smaller than the total number of
The term hash link (unhyphenated) refers to the process of
associating information this way, or the "association" as an
possible hash-items, the hash-address computed from item may already
contain a hash-link. If this link is from item, the new hash-value
simply replaces the old hash-value. Otherwise, another hash-address (in
the same hash-array) must be computed, etc, until an empty cell is
found, or a cell containing a hash-link from item.
When a hash link for item is being retrieved, the hash-address is
computed using the same algorithm as that employed for making the hash
link. If the corresponding cell is empty, there is no hash link for
item. If it contains a hash-link from item, the hash-value is returned.
Otherwise, another hash-address must be computed, and so forth.
Note that more than one hash link can be associated with a given
hash-item by using more than one hash-array.
Hash Link Functions
In the description of the functions below, the argument array has one of
three forms:  NIL, in which case the hash-array provided by the
system, syshasharray, is used;  a hash-array created by the function
harray; or  a list car of which is a hash-array. The latter form is
used for specifying what is to be done on overflow, as described below.
harray[n] creates a hash-array of size n, equivalent to
which is the total number of Interlisp pointers, i.e. in Interlisp-
eq is used for comparing item with the hash-item in the cell.
After a certain number of iterations (the exact algorithm is
complicated), the hash-array is considered to be full, and the array
is either enlarged, or an error is generated, as described below in
the discussion of overflow.
For reasonable operation, the hash array should be ten to twenty
percent larger than the maximum number of hash links to be made to
syshasharray is not used by the system, it is provided solely for
the user's benefit. It is initially 512 words large, and is
automatically enlarged by 50% whenever it is "full". See page 7.6.
clrhash[array] sets all elements of array to 0 and sets left
half of first word of header to -1. Value is
puthash[item;val;array] puts into array a hash-link from item to val.
Replaces previous link from same item, if any.
If val=NIL any old link is removed, (hence a
hash-value of NIL is not allowed). Value is
gethash[item;array] finds hash-link from item in array, and returns
the hash-value. Value is NIL, if no link
exists. gethash compiles open. Note that
gethash makes no legality checks on either
rehash[oldar;newar] hashes all items and values in oldar into newar.
The two arrays do not have to be (and usually
aren't) the same size. Value is newar.
maphash[array;maphfn] maphfn is a function of two arguments. For each
hash-link in array, maphfn will be applied to
the hash-value and hash-item, e.g.
maphash[a;(LAMBDA(X Y) (AND(LISTP Y) (PRINT
X)))] will print the hash-value for all
hash-links from lists. The value of maphash is
dmphash[arrayname] Nlambda-nospread that prints on the primary
output file a loadable form which will restore
what is in the hash-array specified by
arrayname, e.g. (E (DMPHASH SYSHASHARRAY)) as a
prettydef command will dump the system
Note: all eq identities except atoms and small integers are lost by
dumping and loading because read will create new structure for each
item. Thus if two lists contain an eq substructure, when they are
dumped and loaded back in, the corresponding substructures while equal
are no longer eq.
circlprint and circlmaker (Section 21) provide a way of dumping and
reloading structures containing eq substructures so that these
identities are preserved.
By using an array argument of a special form, the user can provide for
automatic enlargement of a hash-array when it overflows, i.e., is full
and an attempt is made to store a hash link into it. The array argument
is either of the form  (hash-array . n), n a positive integer;
 (hash-array . f), f a floating point number;  (hash-array); or
 (hash-array . fn), fn a function name lambda expression. In the
first case, a new hash-array is created with n more cells than the
current hash-array. In the second case, the new hash array will be f
times the size of the current hash-array. The third case, (hash-array),
is equivalent to (hash-array . 1.5). In the fourth case, (hash-
array . fn), fn is called with (hash-array . fn) as its argument. If fn
returns a number, the number will be the size of the new hash array.
Otherwise, the new size defaults to 1.5 times the size of the old hash
array, e.g. fn could be used to print a message, or perform some monitor
function. In each case, the new hash-array is rplacaed into the dotted
pair, and the computation continues.
If a hash-array overflows, and the array argument used was not one of
these three forms, the error HASH TABLE FULL is generated, which will
either cause a break or unwind to the last errorset, as per treatment of
errors described in Section 16.
The system hash array, syshasharray, is automatically enlarged by 1.5
when it is full.