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    This file contains facilities for compile-time suppression of
    unnecessary allocation and collection of cons cells, large integer
    boxes, and floating boxes.  It also provides access fields that can
    be used to speed up boxing and unboxing in arithmetic operations.
    The trick for managing storage allocation is basically to allocate
    the memory for temporary results (e.g. a list that will be thrown
    away or a floating number that will not exist outside a local
    computational context) at compile-time or load-time.  This "static"
    storage will be re-used whenever the given line of code is
    re-executed.  Compiled functions need no run-time support for these
    facilities, so that NOBOX need not be loaded to execute compiled


    The function CBOX may be used to suppress allocation of cons cells.
    It operates like the function CONS, except that the cons-cell
    returned is constructed at compile/load time.  New values for CAR and
    CDR are smashed into the cell at each execution.  When run
    interpreted, CBOX is exactly equivalent to CONS.

    The function LBOX is to LIST and CBOX is to CONS.  Thus, (LBOX A B C)
    will cause a 3-element static list to be included with a compiled
    function's literals.  Each time the line of code is executed, those
    three cells will be returned containing the current values of the
    variables A, B, and C.  When run interpreted, LBOX is exactly
    equivalent to LIST.

    LBOX allocates cells according to the number of its arguments.  There
    is also a mechanism for suppressing new conses when the length of a
    list is not known at compile-time.  This is accomplished by the
    iterative statement operator SCRATCHCOLLECT.  This can be used in
    iterative statements exactly as COLLECT.  Each time it is executed,
    however, it re-uses the cells that it returned on previous
    executions, which it has remembered as an internal scratch list.
    This scratch list will always be the length of the maximum value that
    was ever returned; new cells will be allocated whenever the scratch
    list runs out, and they will be permanently remembered.

    CBOX, LBOX, and SCRATCHCOLLECT, like the arithmetic facilities
    described below, must be used carefully.  They should only be used
    for processing temporary values, since the static cells will be
    smashed if the line of code is re-executed.  See Note 2 below.


    There are 3 functions and 2 record declarations for improving the
    efficiency of arithmetic computations.  They permit information to be
    given to the PDP-10 compiler (not the byte-compiler) that will
    improve access time to variable-values that are known to be large
    integers or floating point numbers, and that will inhibit the
    allocation (and subsequent collection) of number boxes needed for
    holding temporary results of numeric computations.  In the latter
    respect, these duplicate some of what SETN does, except that they are
    more convenient to use and are executed more efficiently.

    The records declared in this file (IBOX and FBOX) describe the
    structure of large-number and floating-point boxes.  IBOX has a
    single field, called I, by which the user can cause the bits of a
    large-integer box to be extracted.  The use can create a large
    integer box containing a given value by saying
         (SETQ X (create IBOX I _ (FOO)))
    Even if (FOO) evaluates to a small integer, the result will be stored
    in a new large-number box.  Why is this seeming ineffeciency
    important?  Because if some values of (FOO) might be large, making
    all values large means that the compiler can be told exactly how to
    treat future references to X without generating run-time tests to
    discover how to do the unboxing.  Thus, wherever the value of X is to
    be referenced, the user can simply write X:I (or (fetch I of X).  The
    compiler will generate a single MOVE instruction without any
    type-testing whatsoever.  Furthermore, given that X is guaranteed to
    be bound to a large integer, the user can re-use that number box by
    saying X:I_(FUM), which is equivalent but much more efficent than
    (SETN X (FUM)).  In other words, once it is known that X is bound to
    a large integer, the suffix :I can be used in all number-contexts to
    inform the compiler of that fact.

    The record FBOX and the field F act in the same way for
    floating-point boxes.  Note, however, that the (create FBOX --)
    construction isn't that useful for floating point numbers, since
    there is no distinction between small and large to be erased.  The :F
    suffix can still be used to improve accesses to the values, however.

    The facilities described so far do nothing to suppress the creation
    of unnecessary boxes; indeed, the (create IBOX --) will produces
    boxes for small numbers that would not be allocated otherwise.  The
    functions (not records) IBOX, FBOX, and NBOX are used to suppress
    unnecessary boxing of temporaries.  Effectively, they cause
    "constant" or "static" boxes of the appropriate type to be allocated
    and stored in a functions literals when a function is compiled or
    loaded.  Those boxes can be used (and reused) to hold temporary

    IBOX and FBOX can appear with 0 or 1 arguments.  If no arguments are
    specified (which is different than having a single argument evaluate
    to NIL), then the value of the function is a large-integer or
    floating number box, respectively, which is allocated statically.
    These might be used to construct an initial binding for a variable
    into which temporary values will be stored using the :I or :F
    assignments.  For example
      (PROG ((X (IBOX)))
            (x:I_(FOO)) ...).
    If an argument is specified for IBOX or FBOX, then again a static box
    of the appropriate type will be allocated at compile- or load-time,
    but the value of the argument will be stored in that box whenever the
    IBOX statement is executed.  For example, suppose you wanted to set a
    file pointer to 1 past a given byte position.  If you said
    and POS happened to be large, you would get a new number box
    allocated on each execution.  That box would be passed into
    SETFILEPTR and then returned as its value.  Since the value is not
    saved, the box would be thrown away, to be collected later.  If you
    the desired position would be stored in a constant box--no
    allocations would take place.  For another example, suppose that you
    have a complicated integer expression whose value must be saved in a
    variable to be used a little further down in your code:
       (X_(IPLUS 2000 (ITIMES FOO (IQUOTIENT FUM 5))))
    The PDP-10 compiler is smart enough to suppress the boxing inside the
    X expression tree, but it will generate a box when it comes to do the
    SETQ (_).  This can be suppressed by writing
    Furthermore, it is now known that X is bound to a large-integer, so
    Z assignment can be speeded up by writing
    In effect, the function IBOX suppresses boxing at the root of an
    arithmetic expression tree; the field I can be used to speed access
    at the leaves of such a tree.  The compiler knows how to generate
    efficient code between the root and the leaves.

    The function FBOX behaves the same as IBOX, except that it traffics
    in constant floating boxes.  Note that if the argument of IBOX is
    FLOATP, then it will be FIXed; if the argument of FBOX is FIXP, it
    will be FLOATed.

    The function NBOX is a generic function for copying unknown values
    into constant number boxes.  It allocates 2 constant boxes, one
    integer and one floating, and stores the value of its argument in the
    one compatible with the value's type.  This is of limited utility,
    since it does not suppress the explicit boxing that might result from
    evaluation of its argument.  It is useful only if the argument value
    is a constant number box (of unknown type) that needs to be copied
    (see caution 2 below). 


    There are some dangers in using these facilities, just as there are
    with SETN, FRPLACA, and any other function that smashes structures.
    The user of this package should be particularly aware of the
    1.  The F and I fields aim at efficiency more than validity.  This
    means that they DO NOT CHECK THE TYPE of the pointer that they smash
    into.  If you say, for example, X:I_2, and X is bound to NIL, then
    you will have clobbered CAR and CDR of NIL!  You must be very careful
    that the arguments that you give for replacing do indeed point to
    cells that unboxed numbers can be smashed into.  (These need not be
    explicit number boxes--it is legal to store into the unboxed region
    of an array, for example, by presenting a pointer to the array cell
    in the replace statement.)  Note:  the DECLTRAN package can be used
    to generate the replaces, IBOXes, FBOXes automatically in a safe and
    efficient way.

    2.  CBOX, LBOX, SCRATHCOLLECT, IBOX, and FBOX allocate constant
    boxes, and those boxes will be reused (i.e. smashed with new values)
    every time the line containing the function call is executed.  If you
    save that box in a variable or data-structure (e.g. by a SETQ) as a
    way of preserving the value it contains, and then re-execute that
    line of code, the saved value will be smashed.  Thus you must beware
    of using the constant boxes to save information in loops or
    recursions that can get you back to the same statement.  In these
    situations, you must copy the value into other cells, perhaps a
    constant associated with some other line of code, or perhaps you must
    simply allow lisp to allocate the box to copy into in the ordinary
    way.  The first approach can be realized by SCRATCHCOLLECT, IBOX,
    FBOX or NBOX:
      (for V in X SCRATCHCOLLECT V), if X is the value of an LBOX, or
      (SETQ Y (IBOX X:I], if X was the result of a previous IBOX,
    will copy the value into new constants.  The second approach can be
    obtained by APPEND for LBOX, or by simply referencing X:I for IBOX
    (:F for FBOX):  (SETQ Y X:I].  You must also be careful about
    returning a constant box as the value of a function, since the caller
    might unknowingly save the value and re-invoke the box-returner.

    These facilities were implemented by Ron Kaplan, with help from
    Martin Kay and Beau Sheil.