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!These lines, beginning with a '!' in column 1,
!will be treated as comments by the GNOSIS processor
!and ignored. Note that '!' must not be the FIRST
!character in the lesson, since GNOSIS would then
!take '!' as a command indicator.
!Note that all commands in this lesson have been
!abbreviated to three letters.
!If you would like to use this lesson, to teach your
!students about the computer, then you should go
!through the lesson with an editor and replace
!all the occurrences of '<password>' with the
!account's real password, and all the occurrences of
!'<account number>' with the actual account number.
%COP (c) 1978 by Walter Maner
%TEA Dr. Walter Maner, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508
%PRO PROCEDURE showhowitlooks;
Write("Your last answer, as received by the computer after you pushed RETURN,[N]");
Write("was as follows: ");
The following lesson is a demonstration of the GNOSIS system for computer-aided
instruction. It was written to teach first-time computer users (usually
students) how to use the computer. Hence, its name 'HOW'. The script for
this lesson appears in an appendix to the GNOSIS manual, GNOSIS.DOC, which normally resides
in the 'DOC:' area.
Since HOW does not know your password and account number, it will have to use
<place holders> for these in its typeout to you. Of course, if such a program
were running in a student account, the actual values would be substituted for
these <place holders>.
From this point on, you will have to pretend you are a student who is making
his first serious attempt to use the computer...
Is this your first time to use a computer?
Well, then, congratulations for having made it this far.
I'm going to celebrate a little...
FOR i:= 1 STEP 1 UNTIL 500 DO Outsymbol(controlg)
Then I'll skip the gala welcome party I had planned.
Would you like to review the log-in procedure with me, just to be sure
you will remember how to do it the next time you want to log in?
Alright. We will review the essential steps.
Fine. I won't bother to rehearse the steps for you.
I was expecting a simple 'yes' or 'no' answer from you.
What is the very first thing you should do at the terminal?
%RIG Push the RETURN button
The computer will then respond with a period PROMPT '.' for you on the bottom left.
By this simple token, the computer indicates to you that the terminal IS connected
and waiting on you to type something in.
If for some reason you do NOT get a period prompt after you push the RETURN
button, ask anybody you see around you for advice or assistance.
There are several reasons why you might fail to get the prompt, none of them
your fault: (1) the terminal could be out of
order, (2) the terminal may not be turned on, (3) the terminal might not be
connected the computer, (4) the computer itself might not be running, or (5)
the transmit or receive speed of the terminal might need to be adjusted.
You don't need to remember any of this, however.
Almost ANYONE you are likely to see in a terminal room will be more than
willing to help you
when you encounter a problem such as this (it makes them feel important), so PLEASE DO ASK FOR HELP.
%NEU turn on
Technically, you are right.
But let's assume that the terminal is switched on and proceed from that point.
You can't log in unless the terminal is connected to the computer. The
best way to tell whether or not the terminal is patched in is to push
the RETURN key. If the terminal IS connected properly and the computer
IS operating, the period PROMPT '.' will appear at the bottom left.
This is the computer's way of saying it is ready to receive
input from your terminal.
Hint: You push a single button located on the right side of the keyboard.
What is the second thing you should do?
%RIG Type 'LOG'
This causes the computer to check and to see whether any logins are
going to be allowed at this time. There might be too many jobs already
logged in. Or the system may be temporarily restricted for various
kinds of maintenance. But, if all goes well, the computer will proceed to log you in.
That will be entered later.
First, the computer has to see if there is enough room for you on the system.
After accepting the 'LOG' command, the computer will respond with a
'#' prompt in the lower left side of the screen. What do you do next?
%RIG Type '<account number>'
That, of course, is our 'account number,' 'project-programmer number,'
or 'ppn' (for short).
%RIG <account number>
%RIG project programmer
Our account number is <account number>, of course.
The password is filed UNDER our account number. So the computer can't
validate your password until it knows where to look (i.e., the account
number). Our account number is '<account number>.'
Hint: It is expecting you to type in two fields of digits, separated only
by a comma.
Hint: This number has a name but, if you forgot the name, just type in the
Alright. Let's suppose the computer is in the process of logging you in. It already knows
the account number. What is the next thing it needs to know?
Our password is '<password>', of course.
%RIG pass word
This, of course, is known as our 'password.
Hint: This is the secret 'code' that opens your account.
One last review question: In which order do we do the following things?
[T](1) Push the RETURN button
[T](2) Type in the PASSWORD
[T](3) Type 'LOG'
[T](4) Type in the ACCOUNT NUMBER
Your answer should be a series of four digits.
%RIG 1 3 4 2
%RIG 1 , 3 , 4 , 2
Number 1 is first.
Number 3 is second.
Number 4 is third.
Number 2 is fourth.
All you do to run one of the lessons is type 'RUN ', followed immediately by the name of the lesson
you want, and finish with a push of the RETURN button.
The computer takes over from that point, and the rest should be self-explanatory.
If you type like your professor does, then you're going to make a few
mistakes from time to time. How do you correct them?
Well, you can take advantage of the fact that the computer (usually,
at least) doesn't pay attention to what you have typed until you push
the return button. Until you push that button, you have the chance to
'erase' whatever it is that you have mistyped.
The simplest erasing command is the CTRL-U or '^U'.
Typing in this character causes everything you have typed on a line to be
To type a CTRL-U, depress the 'CTRL' key and--while continuing to hold it
down--depress the 'U' key.
Then release both keys.
Now I'll let you get some practice using the '^U' command.
Following the arrow prompt, type in some garbage.
Then use the '^U' to erase it all.
Then, before you push RETURN, type in something else--something sensible.
When you have experimented enough, type 'GO ON'.
%NEU go on
Of course, you will not want to erase the ENTIRE line just to get rid of,
say, the last character you typed in.
So, you'll need some way to erase just one character at a time.
To do this, you push the 'DELETE' or 'RUB OUT' key. The first time you
push it, the computer types a back-slash ('\') and then erases the
last character you typed. The second time, the next-to-the-last
character is erased, and so on.
NOTE: Every time an erasure is made, the computer RE-TYPES
the character it has deleted.
It does not actually erase the character physically from the display.
Thus you can erase your answer all the way back to the start of the line if necessary and start over.
If you typed 'sciences' when you meant to type 'science', then you
should push the 'RUB OUT' key or the 'DELETE' key once. The computer
will respond by typing a '\s' to let you know it has deleted the 's'
(your word will then look like this: 'sciences\s'). When you hit the
'RETURN' the computer will react as if you had typed in 'science' and
the 's\s' which appears at the end of the word 'science' will NOT be
transmitted to the computer.
Before I ask you some questions about the use of the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE'
key, I will give you an opportunity to experiment with it.
Following the arrow prompt, type in some garbage.
Then, before you push RETURN, use the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' key to erase one
or more of the characters you typed.
Then--still before you push RETURN--type in a couple of additional characters.
THEN (finally) push the RETURN.
You'll notice the computer is TOTALLY IGNORANT of whatever you erased (i.e., the
characters BETWEEN the two back-slash marks).
Type 'GO ON' when you are ready to proceed with the lesson.
%NEU go on
What will your answer look like after you have typed 'politicall' for
'political' and used the 'RUB OUT' key to delete the 'l'?
(Note: When you answer this question, DO NOT actually depress the
'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' key. Rather, IMITATE what the computer would do
and what the answer would look like IF you had used that key.
CHECK THE KEYBOARD for the BACK-slash '\'.
With that key--NOT the OTHER slash '/'--you can imitate what the computer does.
The computer types a back-slash automatically before it types whatever
letter you are deleting. Perhaps you typed the wrong kind of slash.
The back-slash runs from northwest to southeast, so to speak. Or
perhaps you actually USED the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' key. (Of course, if
you were REALLY erasing a character instead of merely faking how it
would look when you did so, then you WOULD use that key.)
%WRO \ \
The computer will type only ONE back-slash at this point.
It will not type the SECOND back-slash until both these conditions
[T](1) you have finished using the RUB OUT key;; and
[T](2) you have begun to type the rest of the word or line.
That's not the kind of slash you should be using if you intend to imitate
EXACTLY what the computer does.
Remember: It will re-type the character it is deleting. It doesn't REALLY
Hint: It's going to look like the last character is doubled. And don't
forget to put the back-slash ('\') in your answer.
Suppose you had typed 'logzical.' How many times would you depress the
'RUB OUT' key?
That deletes the 'l', 'a', 'c', and 'i' but it leaves the 'z'.
Hint: You'll need to delete some of the good characters to get back to
the one which is wrong.
What does your answer look like after you have deleted 'logzical' back
to the 'z'? (Note: DO NOT actually use the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' key.
Just type a series of characters which imitates how the answer would
look if you HAD USED IT.)
The computer types a back-slash before it types the first character it
is deleting. Perhaps you typed the wrong kind of slash. The back-slash
runs from northwest to southeast, so to speak. Or perhaps you actually
used the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' KEY, thus causing the computer to type
the slash. THIS WILL NOT work!!!!! Type the back-slash yourself, and
DO NOT use the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' key!!!! (Of course, if you were
REALLY erasing a character instead of merely faking how it would look
when you did so, then you WOULD use that key.)
That's exactly how it would look after you had both erased the incorrect
characters and typed in the correct ones.
But I wanted to know how it would look after you erased but BEFORE
you started typing in the correct characters.
%WRO \ \
It only types ONE back-slash as long as you are deleting characters.
It's true, of course, that it types a SECOND back-slash when you push
some other key besides the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' key.
Hint: It will appear that each character is 'added' to the original
word as they are deleted.
Hint: If the word was 'universixty' then, after using the 'RUB OUT'
key three times, the answer would appear to be 'universixty\ytx'.
To see how your answer should look, type the word 'logzical' and then
push the 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE' key five times just as you were doing earlier
when you were experimenting with the key.
REMEMBER HOW IT LOOKS
AT THIS POINT because that is exactly how you will have to type it in.
Then erase the whole line with a '^U', and re-type the line just as it looked
before you erased it.
This should be a piece of cake since the erased line is still visible to
you--but not to the computer.
Well, you are finished with the hardest section of this lesson.
Before we leave erasing entirely, however, I want to teach you about one
other useful command, the '^R' or CTRL-R.
Suppose you want to know how your answer is going to look to the computer
before you actually push the RETURN key.
(You might want to know, for example, that you actually SUCCEEDED in correcting
a misspelled word.)
The CTRL-R gives you this computer's eye view.
Try it out now and see.
The procedure is the same as before: Hold the CTRL key down while you push the
'R' key. Then release both.
%QUE nopause:= TRUE;
Following the arrow prompt, deliberately misspell a word.
Then, using 'RUB OUT' or 'DELETE', correct it.
Next, type a CTRL-R to be sure you succeeded.
Finally, push RETURN to get the computer to tell you how it 'sees' your answer.
When you are ready to move on, type 'GO ON'.
%NEU go on
When you want to leave the computer for a while, you cannot just walk
away or unplug it. Since the computer can't see you, it thinks you are
Therefore, it will wait patiently (forever) for you to give it some more input.
Since others are waiting to use the machine, this kind of loyalty
is not a virtue.
To prevent this, when you leave the terminal, you M-U-S-T have the computer perform a 'LOGOUT'
for you. The correct way to do this is to type 'K/F'.
ALTHOUGH WE CAN PRACTICE THIS OPERATION DURING THE LESSON, IN REALITY YOU WILL NOT
REALLY BE LOGGING OFF UNTIL LATER.
Here is why.
Before we can ACTUALLY log off, we need to have our old friend from the
first part of the lesson--the period prompt--in the lower left corner
of the screen.
The 'K/F' command is the one required to log you off.
Here is the procedure to follow:
1. Wait until you see a period prompt at the bottom left.
2. When you do (assuming you want to log out), type 'K/F'.
3. Stand by until the computer actually logs you off the system.
This may take a while during peak loads but, eventually, the computer
will inform you that it has logged you off and, just for the record,
will throw in a bunch of statistics.
4. If, after a reasonable wait, the computer has not logged you off,
ask someone around you for help or advice.
What do you type to log off, saving all the lessons?
In just a moment (upon completion of this lesson) you will get to log
off of your terminal.
Never leave the terminal--not even momentarily--without logging off.
Even if the computer has 'CRASHED' (i.e., stopped
running), at least TRY to log off. It may not react in the normal fashion to
your log off attempt. However, when it comes 'UP' again, it will log
you off if it hasn't forgotten all about you in the meantime.
Here is one final reminder.
A 'K/F' will not log you off while the lesson program is still in progress.
the lesson will have to finish running all the way to the end.
When it has ended, the computer will
type 'Leaving the lesson <lessonname>' followed (after a pause) by the words
'End of execution' and -- finally -- will give you a period prompt.
After THIS prompt you will be able to log off -- but not before!
We call it 'kissing off,' but what do we actually TYPE when it is time to
You forgot the slash character. It looks like this: '/'.
Do not type the BACK-slash by mistake. It looks like this: '\'.
Hint: The command is an abbreviation for Kill (my job) Fast.