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UNIVERSITY OF TURKU
. ; DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES
. ; COMPUTER SCIENCE
. ; ADDR. SF - 20500 TURKU 50, FINLAND
.S 12
.center
TWO EFFICIENT HYBRID SORTING PROGRAMS: DSORT AND DSOPE
.s 1
.center
by
.center
J. Ernvall and O. Nevalainen
.center
30.11.1981
.s 3
.i 5
ABSTRACT: By the FORTRAN-subroutine DSORT the user can sort an array
A(I), I=1,..,N, to an increasing order.  The subroutine DSOPE additionally
determines a permutation array IR of the elements: IR(I)=K means that the
Ith element of the final ordering was the Kth in the original one.  The
programs apply the distributive sorting technique but they can also be used
as Quicksort by a setting of a switch.  When operating as Quicksort the programs
DSORT and DSOPE are somewhat faster than the IMSL-subroutines VSTRA and VSRTR,
respectively.  As distributive versions, the programs are for large files of
uniformly distributed keys considerably faster than Quicksort.  The growth of
the running time is then linear.  The same is true also for other smooth
distributions.  For worst case distributions the running time is dominated
by the time of Quicksort.  Then the additional loss of the time due to the
bucketing is about one fourth of the total running time.
.s 1
.i 5
KEY-WORDS: Internal sorting, Distributive sorting, Quicksort, Insertionsort.
.page
.lm 5.hl 1 DSORT (A,N,NP,LL,P)
.hl 2 GENERAL NOTICES
.lm 0.I 5
DSORT is a FORTRAN IV subroutine by which one can internally sort an
array A of N real numbers.  The values of the parameters N and NP quide the
operation of the program:
.i 5
Mode 1: If N is less than 500 or NP is less than N, the array A is
sorted by Quicksort.  The Quicksort-program is a FORTRAN version of the Algol
procedure outlined by R. Sedgewick /Sed/.  The arrays LL and P are then dummy
and must be defined in the calling program to contain at least one element.
.i 5
Mode 2: If N is greater than 500 and NP is greater than or equal to N the
distributive sorting technique (method 2 of /NeE/) is used.  The technique
is following: Search from A the maximal and minimal value.  The interval from
minimum to maximum is divided into floor(N/5) intervals of equal length.
Each interval corresponds to a bucket of keys.  Array A is rearranged so that
the keys reside in their correct buckets and the buckets are in increasing
order of the lower limits.  The array LL acts as a pointer array of the
buckets and P as a temporary area of the N elements.  Finally the buckets are
sorted by a combined Quick/Insertion sort /Sed/, /NeE/.  The arrays LL and P
must be defined in the calling program to be of the length NP/5 and NP.
.i 5
The array A must be defined to be of length N+1: the actual keys are
stored in A(1),..,A(N) and A(N+1) must contain a value greater than any of
the key values.
.lm 5.hl 2 PERFORMANCE
.lm 0.i 5
Mode 1: When N=10,000 the ratio R(D,V) of the running times of DSORT
to that of DEC-20 IMSL program VSTRA is ca. 683/782 (msec/msec) and when
N=100 ca. 3.52/3.92.
.i 5
Mode 2: The performance of DSORT depends on the distribution of the key
values.  For uniformly distributed keys the method works most efficiently.
When N=10,000 the ratio R(D,V) is 510/782.  The method is efficient also for
other smooth distributions.  The worst case occurs when all keys but one
are inside a single bucket.  The ratio R(D,V) is then for N=10,000 ca. 1072/782.
Thus if one suspects that there exist some very large clusters in the data,
one should use Mode 1 of the program (NP=0).  For further information, see
/ErN/.
.s 1
.lm 5.hl 2 EXAMPLES
. ;The main program, Mode 2:
.s 1
. ; DIMENSION A(1001),LL(200),P(1000)
. ; .
. ; .
. ; A(1)=..
. ; .
. ; A(1000)=..
. ; A(1001)=999999.
. ; CALL DSORT(A,1000,1000,LL,P)
. ; .
. ; .
.lm 0
.lm 5
.s 1
The main program, Mode 1:
.s 1
. ; DIMENSION A(50),LL(1),P(1)
. ; .
. ; .
. ; A(1)=..
. ; .
. ; A(10)=..
. ; A(11)=999999.
. ; CALL DSORT(A,10,0,LL,P)
. ; .
. ; .
.hl 1 DSOPE(A,IR,N,NP,LL,P)
.hl 2 GENERAL NOTICES
.lm0.i5
DSOPE is a permutation array version of DSORT.  By DSOPE one can
sort internally an array A of N real numbers into an increasing order and
also get a permutation array IR which tells for each element of the final
sequence the index in the original input array.  The program is useful
for example when multified vectors are internally sorted in the FORTRAN
environment.
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IR must be defined in the calling program to be of length N.
Further it must be initialized so that IR(I)=I for I=1,..,N.
.lm 5.hl 2 PERFORMANCE
.lm 0.i 5
Mode 1: When N=10,000 the ratio R(D,V) of the running times of
DSOPE and the DEC-20 IMSL library program VSRTR is ca. 963/1131
(msec/msec) and when N=100 ca. 5.20/5.88.
.i 5
Mode2: For uniformly distributed random keys R(D,V) is ca.
620/1131, when N=10,000.  In the worst case R(D,V) is ca. 1355/1131.  See
also the notes in Section 1.2. and in /ErN/.
.lm 5.hl 2 EXAMPLES
The main program, Mode 2:
.s 2
. ; DIMENSION A(1001),IR(1000),LL(200),P(1000)
. ; .
. ; .
. ; A(1)=...
. ; .
. ; A(1000)=...
. ; DO 1 I=1,N
. ;.i -3
1##IR(I)=I
. ; A(1001)=999999.
. ; CALL DSOPE(A,IR,1000,1000,LL,P)
. ; .
. ; .
.lm 0
.lm 5
.s 1
The main program, Mode 1:
.s 1
DIMENSION A(10),IR(10),LL(1)
. ; .
. ; .
. ; A(1)=15.; A(2)=1.; A(3)=7.; A(4)=17.; A(5)=2.; A(6)=9.
. ; A(7)=999999.
. ; DO 1 I=1,6
. ;.i -3
1##IR(I)=I
. ; CALL DSOPE(A,IR,6,0,LL,P)
. ; .
. ; .
. ; The result:
. ; A: 1.,2.,7.,9.,15.,17.
. ; IR 2,5,3,6,1,4
.lm 0.s 3
.lm 10
REFERENCES
.s 1
.I -10
/ErN/#### J. Ernvall and O. Nevalainen: Performance Tests with
Distributive Sorting Programs, Technical report A-31, Dept. of
Comp. Sci., Univ. of Turku, Finland, 1981.
.I -10
/NeE/#### O. Nevalainen and J. Ernvall: Implementation of a Hybrid
Sorting Algorithm, manuscript, 1981.
.i -10
/Sed/#### R. Sedgewick: Implementing Quicksort Programs,
CACM 21:10, 1978.
.lm 0