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                  WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor

                                 Version 3.0
                                November 1983

                                 Written by:

                               Douglas Bigelow
                          Wesleyan Computing Center
                             Wesleyan University
                            Middletown, CT  06457
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 2


     1.0     TABLE OF CONTENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
     2.0     INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.0     BASIC DOCUMENT CREATION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.1       Terminals Supported By WPSIM . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.2       Creating A Document  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
     3.3       Editing A Document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
     3.4       Using WPSIM As Your Primary Editor . . . . . . . . 4
     3.5       Using Pre-defined Forms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     3.6       Control Characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     3.7       Numeric Command Arguments  . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
     4.0     BASIC TEXT MANIPULATION COMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . 5
     4.1       String Search And Replacement Commands . . . . . . 6
     4.2       Cursor Positioning Commands  . . . . . . . . . . . 6
     4.3       Text Deletion Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
     4.4       Insertion Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
     4.5       Special Tabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     4.6       Moving Text  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
     4.7       Double Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.8       Evening Out The Text Lines . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.9       Pagination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.10      Setting And Removing Tab Positions . . . . . . .  12
     4.11      Changing Margin Settings . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.12      Dynamically Adjusting Margin Settings  . . . . .  13
     4.13      Showing Current Tab And Margin Settings  . . . .  13
     4.14      Changing Scrolling Value . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.15      Centering Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     4.16      Making Text Flush Right  . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.17      Joining Two Lines  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.18      Interactive Program Help . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.19      Inserting A New Input File . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.0     CHANGING SPECIAL SYSTEM PARAMETERS . . . . . . . .  15
     5.1       WPSIM INI Files  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.2       Special Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.3       Special Print Options  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     6.0     DISASTER RECOVERY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     7.0     OUTPUT FILE OPTIONS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     8.0     USING WPFORMAT TO FORMAT WPSIM TEXT  . . . . . . .  21
     9.0     COMMAND SUMMARY  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 3


     WPSIM is a program designed to provide the basic  facilities  of  a  word
processor  while  running on a DECSYSTEM-20.  WPSIM is designed for the person
who wants to produce a document, memo or letter quickly,  easily  and  without
fuss,  while producing output that is neat and well formatted.  WPSIM requires
little knowledge of computers, text editors or  formatting  programs  --  just
type  your  material.   You  don't  even have to bother with carriage returns,
since the program will automatically insert them at the proper breaking  point
on the line.

     The primary design goal of WPSIM was a product  that  could  quickly  and
easily produce well formatted documents.  WPSIM is not suited for applications
that require printed tables, footnotes  or  any  number  of  complex  options.
Users  who  need such capability may turn to RUNOFF, a more sophisticated (and
more complicated) document preparation program.


3.1  Terminals Supported By WPSIM

     WPSIM runs only upon properly supported CRT terminals, and cannot run  on
a hardcopy terminal.  At present only the major types of WCC CRT terminals are

      o  Viewpoint terminal.

      o  Datamedia terminal.

      o  VT100 (alias DT80) terminal.

      o  VT52 terminal.

     The terminals have different operating characteristics, but all have  the
same basic control keys -- the arrows and the HOME key.  Adding a new terminal
type is usually not difficult.

3.2  Creating A Document

     Log in and type "WPSIM<cr>" in response to the "@" prompt.   The  program
will ask you to enter a file name.  Type SAMPLE followed by a carriage return.

     After a message from WPSIM saying  that  it  is  creating  the  new  file
SAMPLE.WPS, you will be looking at a blank screen with the cursor in the upper
left-hand corner.  This is called the "home" position.  From now  on  anything
that you type is becoming part of your file, and what you see on the screen is
what your finished product will look  like.   Use  the  cursor  keys  to  move
anywhere  you  want,  or  push  the  home  key to return to the home position.
Anything that you type over is gone, replaced by the new text.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 4

     If you try typing a sentence that is longer  than  one  line,  note  what
happens  as  you  approach  the  right margin -- the sentence is automatically
split at the most convenient space break.

     As you approach the bottom of the screen, the terminal will scroll in the
normal fashion.  Just keep typing.

     When you've finished your document, type a ^E (control-E).   The  program
will  clear  the  screen  and  type out the name SAMPLE.WPS for your approval.
Type a carriage return to use that name, or  you  could  change  the  name  by
typing  in  something else.  The program will now exit and you have a new file
in your area.

3.3  Editing A Document

     Suppose you'd like to make some changes to an  existing  document.   Just
run  WPSIM again.  This time, when the program asks for the name of your file,
give the name of the file you wish to change.

     Now instead of looking at a blank screen, you're  looking  at  the  first
page of your document.  What you type changes the current text.  Note that the
screen behaves differently if you move the cursor down past the bottom of  the
screen  -  if  there  is more text to be displayed you will see the next eight
lines scrolled in.

     Again, type the ^E when you've finished, and select a new  name  (or  use
the  old  one) for the output text.  If you wish to maintain the same name for
the edited file, just type a carriage return and WPSIM will use the old  name,
which was printed at the top of the screen for your information.

3.4  Using WPSIM As Your Primary Editor

     If you wish to use WPSIM as  your  primary  editor,  you  would  put  the
following  line  in  your  LOGIN.CMD  or COMAND.CMD file, or issue the command
while in EXEC mode:


     Then you may use the standard EDIT command to create a new file  or  edit
an existing one:  EDIT FILENAME.EXT.

     Alternately, you may edit or create a file just by typing:


     This will act just like the EDIT command would, above.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 5

3.5  Using Pre-defined Forms

     Pre-defined forms are useful for typing standard documents.  For example,
you  could  design  a  memo  form which contains the standard heading for your
department and has "TO:", "FROM:" and "SUBJECT:" already in place.  Then  call
in  the  standard  form when you start your memo creation and just fill in the

3.6  Control Characters

     All of the special commands are handled by control characters.   In  this
document  these  are  indicated by a "^" before a letter.  Most of the special
commands are described in the next section, but here  are  two  you'll  always

      o  ^E -- Exit.  This command asks you to name a file to  hold  the  text
         you've created, and terminates the program.

      o  ^L -- This command refreshes the screen by clearing it and  re-typing
         all  the  current  text.  This is very useful if a system message has
         appeared on your screen somewhere (such as  an  "Operator  off  duty"
         message.)  You  should  type  the  ^L immediately to make sure you're
         looking only at text that you inserted.

3.7  Numeric Command Arguments

     A number of WPSIM commands will accept a numeric argument that  specifies
how  many  times to repeat the command.  A numeric argument is given by typing
<escape> (the ESCAPE or ALTMODE key) followed by a number, right before giving
a WPSIM command.  The <escape> and the number will not show on the screen.

     This feature is particularly useful with cursor movement -- if  you  type
<escape>15<up-arrow>, your cursor will move up 15 lines.

     If the command that follows the numeric argument does not  use  a  repeat
count, the number you typed will be ignored and discarded.

WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 6

4.1  String Search And Replacement Commands

     There are three commands for manipulating strings, one to  search  for  a
string,  one to replace a string, and one to repeat the last search or replace
command.  These are:

      o  ^W -- Search or Replace command.  WPSIM asks  for  a  string  at  the
         bottom  of  the screen.  If you type a character string followed by a
         carriage return, WPSIM positions the cursor  to  the  next  available
         incidence  of that string.  If you type a character string, an escape
         ($), another string, and then a carriage return,  WPSIM  will  search
         for the first string and then replace it by the second string.

              If you wish to search backwards in the file, you may precede the
         ^W command by an $-1 (escape, minus one).  This will search backwards
         towards the beginning of the file.

      o  ^X -- Repeat previous search or replace.   Re-executes  the  last  ^W
         command exactly as it was given.

              The ^X command is initialized upon startup to look for a "@", so
         this character is very useful in pre-defined memo forms.  You can put
         the at-sign where you will want the date, names, etc  and  then  move
         from field to field with one keystroke.

4.2  Cursor Positioning Commands

     A number of special commands  are  available  to  move  the  cursor  more
quickly  than  is  practical with the arrow keys.  These are the ^P (Position)
commands.  Each command takes two keystrokes, as follows:

      o  ^PL - Position to beginning of current Line.

      o  ^PA - Position to Append to current line.

      o  ^PW - Position to beginning of next Word.

      o  ^PB - Position to Beginning of file.

      o  ^PE - Position to End of file.

      o  ^PN - Position to Next page of file.

      o  ^PP - Position to Previous page of file.

      o  ^PC - Position to Center of screen.  This refreshes  the  screen  and
         centers  it  around  the current line.  The cursor position stays the

Any other character following a ^P will not echo and will be ignored.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 7

     A repeat count (see section 3.7) can be given before the commands ^PN and
^PP  to  move  multiple pages forward or backward.  If a repeat count is given
before the commands ^PC and ^PL, the behavior of these commands is altered  to
mean change cursor position forward or backward by some number of lines (L) or
characters (C).  The repeat count given before ^PC and ^PL may be negative  or

4.3  Text Deletion Commands

     There exist several ways to delete text.  Ordinarily the typist  corrects
a mistake by backspacing over the misspelling and re-typing it.

     The DELETE or RUBOUT key is also available but has  a  different  effect.
This  key  deletes  the  character  which  is  at  the  cursor, and shifts the
remainder of the line one place to the left.  If there is no character  at  or
following the cursor, the program backs up one character and deletes that one.

     For more complex deletions,  the  ^D  command  is  available.   Like  the
positioning  commands,  two  keystrokes  are  necessary.   The  options are as

      o  ^DC - Delete Character.  This  command  functions  the  same  as  the
         rubout  key,  removing  the character the cursor is on and moving the
         remainder of the line one space to the left.

      o  ^DW - Delete Word.  This moves to the beginning of the word currently
         overlapping  the  cursor  position or to the next word on the line if
         the cursor is on a space, and deletes it  and  its  trailing  spaces.
         The  remainder  of  the  text  on  the  line  is  shifted  right  the
         appropriate number of spaces.  If no word follows the cursor,  delete
         the previous word.

      o  ^DR - Delete Remainder.  This deletes the remainder of  the  text  on
         the  current line, from the cursor position onward.  (On a Datamedia,
         there is a special key marked DEL EOL for this function.)

      o  ^DB - Delete Beginning.  This  deletes  from  the  beginning  of  the
         current line to the current cursor position.  The rest of the line is
         shifted over to start in the first column.

      o  ^DL - Delete Line.  This deletes the entire current line,  and  moves
         all  remaining  lines  in  the file back by one.  In other words, the
         line is deleted without leaving blanks in its place.

      o  ^DE - Delete to End of file.  This removes all text after the cursor.
         Since  this command can be dangerous if given accidentally, it always
         requires confirmation -- the terminal bell beeps and ** you must type
         a ^G ** (a bell) to carry out the action.

      o  ^DF -  Delete  File.   This  deletes  the  whole  file.   To  prevent
         accidental use, this command ** must be confirmed by a ^G. **
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 8

     A repeat count may be specified before  the  commands  ^DC  and  ^DL,  to
delete a number of lines or characters with one command.

     An  alternate  method  of  deleting  text  is  to  use  the  <escape>   -
<angle-bracket>  commands.  To delete a block of text that spans several lines
but does not start or end on line boundaries, you  can  use  the  $<  ...  $>D
command, described in section 4.6.

4.4  Insertion Commands

     Ordinary insertion is done by simply typing, but adding new text  in  the
middle  of  old text without wiping out previous work is more involved.  There
are several insertion commands, double keystroke commands that  start  with  a

      o  ^NL - iNsert Line.  This command creates a blank line in place of the
         line  where  the  cursor  is, by moving that and all succeeding lines
         down by one.  The cursor is then positioned at the beginning  of  the
         new line.

      o  ^NS - iNsert, Splitting line.  This  command  creates  a  blank  line
         following  the  line  where the cursor is.  It then moves all text on
         the current line following the cursor down into the new blank  space.
         The  cursor  is  left  on the original line in its starting position,
         followed by the newly created gap.  This is the main  way  to  insert
         new text in the middle of a line rather than between two lines.

      o  ^NI - enter Insert mode.  This command acts  like  the  ^NS  command,
         except  that whenever the cursor is advanced to the next line a blank
         line is inserted in the text to write over.  This command is  like  a
         toggle  switch  -  typing ^NI again will end insert mode and even out
         the text in the current paragraph.

      o  ^NC - iNsert Character.  This command inserts a blank at  the  cursor
         and  moves  the  remainder  of  the  line  one  place  to  the right.
         Characters shifted past the right margin are lost.

      o  ^NF - iNsert Function.  This command asks for the function  name  and
         text  of  the  function.   Please see section 5.2 for a discussion of

     A repeat count may be specified before  the  commands  ^NL  and  ^NC,  to
insert a number of lines or characters with one command.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                              Page 9

4.5  Special Tabs

     There are three types of tabs available.  The ordinary tab  is  generated
by the TAB key or by a ^I.  This tab is destructive;  if you tab over existing
text you replace it by spaces.  The other types of tabs are:

      o  ^T - Transparent tab.  This tab moves over text without affecting it,
         but otherwise acts like an ordinary tab.

      o  ^R - Reverse tab.  This backs up the cursor to the previous tab  stop
         without affecting text passed over.

     All of the tabs can pass line boundaries -- tabbing past the last  column
on  a  line will put the cursor on the next line, and reverse tabbing past the
first column will put the cursor on the previous line.

     The number of spaces per tab is  variable  --  by  default  it  is  eight
spaces,  but  you  can use the /TABS:n switch to set "n" spaces per tab.  (See
section 5.0 for more information on switch settings.)

4.6  Moving Text

     It is sometimes useful to be able to move text from one place in the file
to another.  Two commands exist for doing this:

      o  ^G - Get text into buffer.  This command  picks  up  some  number  of
         lines  of text and puts them into a text buffer for later use.  There
         are 99 lines of storage available in the buffer.  The command can  be
         preceeded by a repeat count given by the <escape>number method unless
         you wish to pick up only one line.  It should be followed by one of:

          o  C - Copy text (don't delete it.)

          o  M - Move text (delete from current location.)

      o  ^O - retrieve Old text.  Take the current  contents  of  the  storage
         buffer  and  copy  them into the file at the current line.  New lines
         are created and the existing  text  is  not  overlaid.   The  storage
         buffer is not affected and you can use the ^O command repeatedly.

     An  alternate  method  of  moving  text  eliminates  the  need  for  line
boundaries  - the <escape><angle-bracket> method.  By this method you can flag
the beginning and end of a string of text such as a sentence, a paragraph,  or
more, and pick it up for later use.  The commands are:

      o  $< - Mark beginning of text.  This command does not echo,  and  marks
         the current line and column as being the start of a text string.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 10

      o  $> - Mark ending of text.  This command must be  given  at  a  cursor
         position  that  is further along in the file than the place where the
         $< command was given.  This command must be immediately followed by a
         code specifying what to do with the text:

          o  C -Copy the text without deleting it.

          o  M - Move the text  into  text  buffer,  delete  it  from  current

          o  D - Delete the text without affecting  the  current  text  buffer

          o  R - Return cursor to position of beginning marker.

     When you remove text from the  file  with  the  $< ... $>M  command,  the
current paragraph is evened out.  (See section 4.8)

     The text is  again  retrieved  with  the  ^O  command,  described  above.
However,  the text will be inserted at the current cursor position when the ^O
command is given, and the paragraph will be evened  out  after  the  insertion
takes place.

     Evening out the text will not  take  place  if  /PROGRAM  mode  has  been
specified (see section 5).

4.7  Double Spacing

     Text may be entered double spaced  by  using  the  ^KD  (Double  spacing)
command.   When  in  double  spaced  mode, any movement up or down in the file
moves you by two lines instead of one.  Typing text automatically leaves blank
lines between lines of text.  This format is useful for most academic papers.

     Double and single spacing mode may be mixed, as for example when you wish
to  embed  a single spaced indented quotation within double spaced text.  Just
use ^KD to toggle between the two modes.

     Evening out your text needs special handling  when  you're  dealing  with
double spaced text.  See the next section for details.

4.8  Evening Out The Text Lines

     After several delete operations or some insertions,  your  file  may  not
have  the nice evenly-spaced lines it started with.  The ^V (eVen) command has
several variations:
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 11

      o  ^VP - eVen Paragraph.  Starting at the current  line,  even  out  the
         text  lines  by filling in each line up to the margin with words from
         succeeding lines.   Stop  the  process  when  a  paragraph  break  is
         reached.  (A paragraph break is defined as a blank line, a line whose
         first word starts off the left margin, or a line beginning with a dot
         in column one.)

      o  ^VD - eVen Double-spaced paragraph.  Starting at  the  current  line,
         even  out  double  spaced input text.  The paragraph is broken when a
         double spaced line is blank, starts with the first word off the  left
         margin, or begins with a dot in column one.

      o  ^VF - eVen File.  Even out the  whole  file,  and  leave  the  cursor
         positioned at the beginning.  Starts on the current line.  Works only
         with single spaced text.

      o  ^VA - eVen All.  Even out entire file like ^VF, but accepts  text  in
         double spaced input mode only.

     These commands work only with neatly formatted lines.   If  you  need  to
even  lines  that  are  mixed  spacing  modes  or  which  start  at  different
indentations, you may preface the ^VP or ^VD command with a number of lines to
even.  (Using the escape-number convention.) This will define the paragraph as
exactly that number of lines  and  ignore  any  conventional  paragraph  break

     The formatted lines are written out in the  prevailing  spacing  mode  --
i.e.  a paragraph may be changed from single to double spacing simply by using
^VP on it while the double spacing toggle (^KD) is set to double spacing.

     All ^V commands are disabled if /PROGRAM mode has been specified.

4.9  Pagination

     WPSIM has automatic pagination available, obtained by using the /PAGINATE
switch.   In  this  mode,  (which is always turned off when you're in /PROGRAM
mode) your input text will have page markers set automatically every  PAGESIZE
lines,  which is set to 52 by default.  You will know a page break by seeing a
"P" in the last column of the screen, in reverse video on any terminal  but  a
DATAMEDIA.  The line the "P" appears on is the first line of the next page.

     When the file is output to disk, each page break will be  turned  into  a
formal page header with a page number at the top followed by three blank lines
before the text resumes.

     There are two styles of header:  the default is a "- (number) -" centered
in  the middle of the page.  The alternate style is a special header string on
the left hand side of the page and the words "Page (number)" on the right hand
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 12

     The header string can be specified by using the ^KH command.  This causes
WPSIM  to  ask for a 1-50 character line to be output at the top of each page.
If you don't use the ^KH command,  the  centered  page  number  will  be  used

     There are times when you wish to manually insert a page break.   You  may
do  this  by  typing the ^KB (pageBreak) command on the line where you wish to
insert a break.  This causes a permanent  page  marker  to  be  inserted,  for
example  at  a  chapter  start.   These permanent page breaks will remain even
across several editing sessions, leaving and re-entering WPSIM.

     The automatic page breaks, indicated by the highlighted "P",  are  "soft"
page  markers  and  go  away  when  you read a paginated file back into WPSIM.
Reading in a paginated file causes the entire page header to be removed.

     Hard (or "manual") page marks are indicated by a "~" symbol (a tilda)  in
column  one  of  an otherwise blank line.  These symbols are converted to a ^L
character (a hardware form feed) whenever you exit from WPSIM, then  converted
back when you reenter.

     When in /PROGRAM mode, and in some other cases, you may need to leave  ^L
symbols  alone  and  not  convert them to page headers.  This would be true of
most cases where you aren't working on a document, but on some type of program
or  data.   In  this case the /NOPAGINATE switch will tell WPSIM to leave page
break symbols alone when either entering or exiting.

     The default is /NOPAGINATE when editing any normal file.   The  exception
to this is a previously paginated file -- WPSIM can detect a file paginated by
WPSIM version 3.0 or later, and will automatically  go  into  pagination  mode
when  reading  such  a file in.  For page headers created by older versions of
WPSIM, version 2.7 or earlier, you must specifically use the /PAGINATE  switch
to strip off the old page headers.  (Note:  you can tell what version of WPSIM
you're working with simply by typing WPSIM followed by a  carriage  return  in
EXEC  mode.   The  first  line of printing tells the version.  Version 3.0 was
implemented September 1, 1983.)

     When reading in a previously paginated file, WPSIM will take note of  any
page  header  that  you created with the ^KH command.  This old header will be
stored for later use when you again exit from the program.

     If you are creating a new file and remember only after you entered  WPSIM
that  you  wish  to paginate it, you don't have to exit and re-enter using the
/PAGINATE switch.  Simply use the ^KP command (Paginate) while in WPSIM and it
will  toggle the /PAGINATE switch on or off -- on if it was off before, off if
it was on.

4.10  Setting And Removing Tab Positions

     If you aren't happy with the default tab stops being set every "n" spaces
(where  "n"  defaults to eight unless you change it), you may manually set tab
stops wherever you wish them, and remove them where you don't.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 13

     The ^KS command sets a tab stop, and the ^KR command removes  one.   Just
position the cursor via the arrow keys to where you'd like a tab and type ^KS.
Nothing will show up on the screen.  To remove one, tab or reverse tab to  the
tab  stop  you  wish to delete, then type ^KR.  Again, nothing will show up on
the screen.

4.11  Changing Margin Settings

     You can dynamically adjust the  current  margins  of  your  file  without
exiting  by  using the ^KI and ^KM commands.  ^KI sets the default indentation
to be to the column where the cursor  is  currently  located.   ^KM  sets  the
maximum  right margin in the same way.  It's just like setting tab stops.  For
more information on margin setting, please refer to section 5.

4.12  Dynamically Adjusting Margin Settings

     The ^KA (Adjust) command is used to adjust margin settings in or  out  on
both  sides of the page.  Typing ^KA will cause both margins to be indented 15
spaces, suitable for indented notes or  quotations.   Typing  ^KA  again  will
return to the previous margins.

     Use the /SHRINK:n switch on entry to  WPSIM  to  specify  the  amount  to
shrink or expand the margins when ^KA is used.  The default is 15.

4.13  Showing Current Tab And Margin Settings

     The ^KW (What) command is  used  to  show  the  current  tab  and  margin
settings  at the bottom of the screen.  The display is cleared when you type a
space.  It also shows several other parameters.

4.14  Changing Scrolling Value

     When you switch display pages by using the arrow keys  to  move  off  the
screen,  the  screen  moves eight lines up or down by default.  You can switch
the number of lines scrolled to any value between 1 and 24 by  using  the  ^KV
command.  Just type <ESCAPE> followed by the number desired;  then followed by
the ^KV command.

4.15  Centering Text

     The ^KC command automatically centers text for you.  Type the text to  be
centered  on  a blank line, starting at the normal left margin.  At the end of
the text, use the ^KC command.  The text will be centered  between  the  right
and  the  left  margins.   Type  no spaces between the end of the text and the
command, or the centering will be incorrect.  Any text on the  line  following
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 14

the ^KC command will be lost.

4.16  Making Text Flush Right

     The ^KF command causes text to be placed flush against the right  margin.
It  works like the center command -- type the text on a blank line starting at
the normal left margin, then type ^KF.  The text will then be shifted  on  the
line  so  that  column where the cursor had been when you typed the command is
now against the right hand margin.  Any text that may have been  on  the  line
beyond the cursor position where you typed ^KF is lost.

4.17  Joining Two Lines

     The ^KJ command deletes from the current cursor position to  the  end  of
the  current line, and appends as much of the following line as will fit.  The
remainder of the following line is deleted.  Leading spaces on the second line
are discarded.

4.18  Interactive Program Help

     The ^K?  command will put page one of a two-page command summary  on  the
screen.   Typing  a  space  will  toggle  between  the  two  help pages, and a
carriage-return will return to your original text.  This provides a quick  and
easy reference for any commands you may have forgotten.

4.19  Inserting A New Input File

     The ^KN command will load a new input file.  If you wish to  discard  the
contents  of  your current editing buffer without saving the work you've done,
you can replace your text with the contents of a new input file.  Type ^KN and
the  terminal  will beep.  If you wish to confirm the command, type a ^G.  The
program will then ask you for the name of the new file You cannot specify  any
switches and /TYPE checking will not be done.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 15


     Several special parameters which affect the appearance of the text can be
changed  when  starting  up  the  program.   These  parameters  are changed by
switches on the input file command line when you first start the program.   If
the  switch  name is followed by ":N", it means that N is a number you specify
for the switch value.  These parameters are:

      o  /AUTOSAVE:N -- this switch will cause your file to  be  automatically
         backed up every n characters.  See section 6 for more information.

      o  /BACKUP:N -- this value, currently set at 15, is the  maximum  number
         of  characters that the program will back up looking for a space.  If
         the overlapping word is more than 15 characters long, it is broken at
         the right margin,and will be hyphenated at that point.

      o  /CIPHER:N -- Reads in a file previously encrypted by the use  of  the
         /CIPHER:N  switch  on output.  N is any non-zero integer, and must be
         the same cipher key as the one  used  to  encrypt  the  output  file.
         Beware:   if  you forget what the encryption key was for a particular
         ciphered file, you may as well just throw the file away.

      o  /[NO] EXPAND -- Allow current maximum margin setting to  be  expanded
         if  you are editing a document which was created with larger margins.
         Without this switch, WPSIM will automatically wrap any  words  beyond
         the margin onto the following line.

      o  /[NO] EXPERT --  Inhibits  typing  of  most  error  messages.   Error
         messages in WPSIM are displayed on the bottom two lines of the screen
         in reverse video, and are displayed for  1.5  seconds.   This  switch
         keeps  such  messages  from appearing, and errors are signaled by the
         failure of an expected action to occur.

      o  /[NO] FILETAB -- Converts multiple spaces to tabs on output.

      o  /FUNCTION:code "function text" -- Allows the use of  special  command
         combinations  as  pre-defined  functions.  Code is either 1-6 or A-J,
         and "function text" is any string of characters or control characters
         that  you  can  legitimately  type  to  WPSIM.   See  section 5.2 for

      o  /INDENT:N -- Lines can be automatically indented to  any  column  you
         wish   when  you  type  a  carriage  return  or  when  your  text  is
         automatically split at end of line.  Auto indentation does not affect
         the  use  of  the  arrow  keys  or  any other functions.  The default
         indentation is zero.

      o  /LETTERHEAD:N -- when paginating a document,  you  usually  want  the
         first  page  to  contain less lines than the rest to allow room for a
         letterhead or just a  large  top  margin.   The  letterhead:n  switch
         allows  you  to  specify how many lines should be subtracted from the
         standard pagesize for the first page only.  The default is 0 lines.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 16

      o  /MAXIMUM:N --if the text reaches column 65 without a space break, the
         program  searches  back  to  the  last  space  seen and re-writes the
         current word onto the next line.  Starting  four  spaces  before  the
         maximum, WPSIM looks for a space on which to break the line.

      o  /MODEL2 -- Used only if you are on Viewpoint terminal  model  2,  and
         are  using  the  special  function  keys  in  the  top  right corner.
         (Viewpoint model one terminals have  a  white  dot  below  the  power
         light, model two terminals don't.) See section 5.2.

      o  /NOHYPHEN -- Prevents the hyphenation that takes place when a word at
         the end of a line is too long to move.  (See /BACKUP).  The word gets
         split at the margin with no continuation character.

      o  /NUMBER:N -- Starts file page numbering at page N.

      o  /PAGESIZE:N -- by default, the number of lines per page is 52.   This
         is  only  used when you paginate the file.  You can set this value to
         whatever you wish.

      o  /[NO] PAGINATE -- this switch causes your input file, should you have
         one,  to  have  soft page headings stripped.  It also puts WPSIM into
         auto pagination mode and causes  page  headers  to  be  created  upon

      o  /[NO] PROGRAM -- Sets WPSIM into programming mode, which tends to  be
         different  from text preparation mode.  This sets the screen width to
         the maximum, prevents word wrap, prevents automatic justification  of
         text, and prevents pagination.

      o  /RECOVER -- this switch enables you to recover input lost  due  to  a
         system  crash,  if  you used the /AUTOSAVE switch.  See section 6 for
         more information.

      o  /SETTABS:n,n,n..  -- Sets tab stops at all the positions given in the
         list.  The list may contain column numbers from 1 to 78 and may be of
         any length.

      o  /SHRINK:N -- Sets margin adjustment value to N  characters,  for  use
         with the ^KA (Adjust) command.

      o  /SCROLL:N -- Sets default scrolling size to N.  N must be between one
         and 24.

      o  /TABS:N -- tabs are set by default to every eight  spaces.   You  may
         reset that to have tabs every "n" spaces.

      o  /TYPE:filetype -- Specifies the type  of  file  you  are  editing  or
         creating.  The significance of the file type is explained in the next

      o  /[NO] VT102 -- Tells WPSIM that  a  VT100  terminal  has  VT102-style
         advanced   line   and  character  insertion  and  deletion  functions
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 17

     You can reset any of  these  parameters  when  starting  the  program  by
appending switches after the file name you are asked for.

     Note that it is not necessary to type out the full name of the switch  as
long  as  you  have  enough  characters  to  make  the  switch unique.  Typing
/I:5/MA:60/BA:20 would be quite sufficient for WPSIM.

5.1  WPSIM INI Files

     It is possible to customize your WPSIM parameters, if  you  always  reset
the  switch  defaults to some standard value.  You can create a WPSIM.INI file
in your login directory which contains the switch settings you would  normally
use, and these settings will become the default.

     The first line of the INI file will always be executed.  Subsequent lines
are  optional,  but must start with an option selection keyword if used.  This
keyword is initially assumed to be the extension of  the  file  that  you  are
editing, such as WPS, PAS, RNO, etc.  Alternately, you may specify the keyword
by using the /TYPE:  switch followed by the proper option selection code.

     If the option selection keyword is matched in the INI file, the  switches
on  that line will be executed.  This allows you to specify different switches
for editing different  types  of  files.   An  example  WPSIM.INI  file  might


     Thus, you would have five-space tabs  when  editing  FILE.WPS,  but  have
eight-space tabs when editing FILE.RNO.

     The WPSIM.INI file is executed from the directory you  are  connected  to
when you run WPSIM.  If the file is not found there, your login directory will
also be searched before the program decides that no INI file exists.

5.2  Special Functions

     WPSIM can execute special user-defined  functions,  if  you  define  such
functions in your WPSIM.INI file or define them when you start the program.  A
function is loaded by using the /FUNCTION switch, specifying a  function  code
of  1-6  or  A-J, and giving a string of quoted characters that represent some
sequence of WPSIM commands.  You may also load functions using the ^KF command
(see section 4.4).

     Functions are executed in two ways --  on  the  Viewpoint  terminal,  the
special  keys  F1,  F2  and  F3  give you functions 1-3, and shifted they give
functions 4-6.  Functions A-J are executed by using the ^B command -- type  ^B
and  follow  it  by  a  letter  between  A  and J to execute the corresponding
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 18

     Executing a function is exactly like typing in the  characters  that  are
specified  in the function string.  Control characters in function strings are
represented in the up-arrow--character format, and escapes are represented  as
dollar signs.  Function strings can be up to 119 characters long.

     For an example, if you wished to  use  a  function  that  jumped  to  the
beginning  of  the  current  line and then centered the word "MEMO", you could
give the following function definition in your WPSIM.INI file:


     You would execute this function by typing ^BA while you were in WPSIM.

     There are also three  pre-defined  functions  available  (which  you  can
re-define  if desired), which give you job-style information.  Function U will
print your user name, function C will print your connected directory name, and
function D will print the date and time.

     The command ^KL will list your custom functions while you are  in  WPSIM.
The  display  will return to the original state when you type a space to clear
the function list, just as with the ^KW command.

5.3  Special Print Options

     When your output is going to be  printed  on  an  Anderson-Jacobson  (AJ)
terminal   or   on  the  lineprinter,  two  special  features  are  available:
underlining and boldfacing.

     Boldfacing portions of your text is done by preceding the text by  a  "`"
(accent)  character.   Place  another "`" character immediately after the text
that should be boldfaced.

     Underlining a  phrase  is  done  by  preceding  the  phrase  with  a  "_"
(underline) character, and ending the phrase with the same character.

     While you are are creating it, your text will look like this:

     `This is in bold characters`, and _this is underlined_.

     To transform these special characters into the proper  output  codes  for
the  device selected, you must use the WPFORMAT program.  Please see section 8
for more information.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 19


     WPSIM has an AUTOSAVE feature similar to the  one  in  the  EDIT  program
which  can  protect you from losing data in the event of a system crash.  When
using the /AUTOSAVE:n switch, the state of your  file  will  be  automatically
stored every n characters you type.  The value n must be at least 100, and the
auto-store operation will occur no more then once  per  minute  in  any  case.
This option causes the creation of a WPSIM-BACKUP.WPS file.

     The default value of /AUTOSAVE is 200, so autosaving is  always  set  and
you  need not specify the switch unless you wish to change the value.  To turn
off the autosaving feature, use the switch /AUTOSAVE:0.

     If the system crashes during an editing session, you can recover most  of
your  work.  Enter WPSIM and respond NEWFILENAME.WPS/RECOVER to the input file
prompt.  Recovery information is stored in the  file  WPSIM-BACKUP.WPS.   This
file  may be deleted except when you need to recover lost information from it.
Note that this file is written in WPSIM internal format and won't  make  sense
unless you use the /RECOVER option.

     The recovery feature is of most use when a system  crash  causes  you  to
lose  a  file that you've been typing in.  However, it can also help if you've
made an editing mistake.  If you delete your file by mistake, for example, you
should  immediately  exit  from  WPSIM.   Then  start  WPSIM again and use the
/RECOVER switch when it prompts for a filename.  In  most  circumstances,  you
will  then  get  your  original file back, minus the last line or two that you
typed.  You must type a non-existing filename before the switch.

     Note that there is only one backup copy available, the most  recent.   It
is important that you use the /RECOVER option as soon as possible after you've
lost something.  In the example above, if you delete  your  file,  type  three
more  lines,  and  then exit and recover you'll probably have overwritten your
backup file with your last input.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 20


     Special switches allow you to specify special  options  for  your  output
file.   When  you type a ^E, the system shows you your default name but allows
you to select an alternate output file.  Either type in a name or  use  escape
to  fill  in  the  name  above, then follow it by one or more of the following

      o  /CIPHER:N - Encrypt the output using cipher key "n", where n  is  any
         non-zero integer.  This renders the file unreadable except via WPSIM.
         To read in a ciphered file, use the /CIPHER:n switch  on  input  with
         the same value of n.

      o  /FILETAB - Convert multiple spaces to tabs on output.   This  feature
         allows  you  to  save  storage  space  by  compressing  the number of
         characters in your file on disk.  However, tabs  may  interfere  with
         the use of RUNOFF or some compilers.

      o  /NOFILETAB - Don't convert multiple spaces to tabs on output.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 21


     The WPFormat program is a post-processor to the WPSIM  editor.   WPFormat
was  designed  to  allow  underlining  and boldfacing in a document created by
WPSIM to be printed on the lineprinter.  WPFormat also allows you to  go  from
WPSIM  format  (underscore,  accent)  to a format compatible with the Anderson
Jacobsen  (AJ)  letter-quality  printer.   WPFormat  is  simple  to  use,  and
alleviates  the problem of having to use RUNOFF commands in WPSIM to underline
and boldface.

     Using WPSIM to prepare your document for the post-processor:

      o  Create your document with WPSIM.

      o  Wherever you want to underline, place an underscore character at each
         end of the text to be underlined.

      o  Wherever you want to boldface, place an accent character at each  end
         of the text to be boldfaced.

      o  Exit WPSIM in the normal fashion.

     Using the WPFormat program:

      o  Run WPFormat by typing "wpformat" at the EXEC prompt (@).

      o  WPFormat will prompt you for an input file;  enter the  name  of  the
         document you created using WPSIM.

      o  WPFormat will prompt you  for  an  output  file;   enter  a  filename
         different  from  the  document you created with WPSIM.  If you do not
         enter a different file name, WPFormat will write over  your  original

      o  WPFormat will prompt you for the number of spaces to indent the  left
         margin.  (Note:  documents created to eventually be printed on the AJ
         letter-quality printer should have a left margin of 0.  If you  enter
         "5"  to  this  WPFormat  prompt and have your document printed on the
         lineprinter, your document will look the same as it will when  it  is
         printed on the AJ).

      o  WPFormat will prompt you for the output format.  This can be  one  of
         WPSIM, AJ, or GENERAL.  However, the program will only convert in the
         following ways:

              wpsim => aj
              wpsim => general
              aj => wpsim

              This means that you will, in general, always want to keep a copy
         of  the  original  file  which  you  created with WPSIM.  The "wpsim"
         format is the format of a file which can be edited with  wpsim;   the
         underscore  and  accent  characters are in the file.  The "aj" format
         consists  of  character  strings  which   are   meaningful   to   the
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor                             Page 22

         Anderson-Jacobsen   letter-quality  printer.   The  "general"  format
         contains  the  control  characters   which   force   boldfacing   and
         underscoring on the lineprinter.

      o  When you see the EXEC prompt, submit the OUTPUT file to  be  printed,
         using whatever switches you want.

     This is an example of a document created with  WPSIM  for  use  with  the
WPFormat post-processor (test.wps) :

        _This is a test of underlining_
        `This is a test of boldfacing`

        This is a test of _underlining which
        overlaps_ to the next line

     This is a sample run using WPFormat:

Input file: TEST.WPS
Output file: TEST.LPT
Indentation: 5
Output format: GENERAL


      o  If you use the WPFormat output format option  "general",  you  cannot
         return the new file to a WPSIM compatible file.

      o  If you move the left margin of your document farther right  with  the
         WPFormat "indentation" option, WPSIM cannot move it back for you.

      o  In general, you  should  always  keep  the  original  WPSIM-  created
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor


Primary           Secondary
Command           Command      Function

       ^L                       Refresh the screen

       ^E                       Exit from program.  Allows you to
                                specify output file.
       ^C               **      Abort all editing, quit without saving file.

       ^P            B          Position to Beginning of file.
                     E          Position to End of file.
                     L          Position to start of current Line.
                     A          Position to Append to current line.
                     W          Position to start of next Word.
                     N  *       Position to Next page (screen).
                     P  *       Position to Previous page (screen).
                     C          Position to Center (alternate refresh).

       ^D            C  *       Delete Character.
                     W          Delete Word.
                     L  *       Delete Line.
                     R          Delete Remainder of line.
                     B          Delete to Beginning of line.
                     E  **      Delete to End of file.
                     F  **      Delete File.

       ^N            C  *       iNsert Character.
                     L  *       iNsert Line.
                     S          iNsert, Splitting line at cursor.
                     I          Insert mode - toggle on or off.
                     F          iNsert Function.

       ^W               *       Search for and optionally replace string.
       ^X                       Repeat last search or replace operation.

       ^G            C  *       Copy lines into text buffer.
                     M  *       Move lines into text buffer, deleting.

       $<                       Set beginning of text string.
       $>            C          Set end of string, copy into buffer.
                     M          Set end of string, move into buffer.
                     D          Set end of string, delete string.
                     R          Return to beginning of string.

       ^O                       Retrieve contents of move buffer.

*   Indicates that command can accept a numeric argument.
**  Indicates that command must be confirmed by ^G.
WPSIM - A Word Processor Simulation Editor

Primary           Secondary
Command           Command      Function

       ^T ; ^R                  Tab and Reverse tab.

       ^B            code       Execute function code, code is A-J.
                     U          Insert user name into file at cursor.
                     C          Insert connected directory at cursor.
                     D          Insert date and time at cursor.

       ^V            P  *       eVen out text lines in Paragraph.
                     D  *       eVen out Double spaced lines.
                     F          eVen out text lines in File.
                     A          eVen out All text lines, double spaced.

       ^K            A          Adjust margins.
                     B          set page Break.
                     C          Center text.
                     D          Double spacing mode toggle.
                     F          make current line Flush right.
                     H          specify a pagination Header.
                     I          set new value for /INDENT.
                     J          Join two lines together.
                     L          List user-defined functions.
                     M          set new value for /MAXIMUM.
                     N  **      load New file into memory
                     P          toggle Pagination mode.
                     R          Remove a tab stop.
                     S          Set a tab stop.
                     U          Unpaginate - remove perm. page markers.
                     V  *       set new scrolling Value.
                     W          show What tab and margin settings are.
                     ?          show a command summary.

*   Indicates that command can accept a numeric argument.
**  Indicates that command must be confirmed by ^G.