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7.3 CUsym MACSYM Augmentation Macros
The CUsym macros and documentation were written by George L. Lotridge
of Digital Equipment Corporation (while he was assigned to Columbia
University as a resident software specialist) and Chris Ryland of
CUsym contains a whole set of symbol and macro definitions to augment MONSYM
and MACSYM. Included are the standard register definitions, macros for
interfacing to the UUO package (which supports standard I/O, simple uses of
the COMND Jsys, etc.), and generally any macro which has been found to be
useful and which is missing from MONSYM and MACSYM (a working knowledge of
which is assumed).
NOTE: you should have a good feel for the contents of MACSYM (6)
document and the Macro coding standards document (8) before using this
A word about naming conventions: all names in this module are of the form
%symbol; this will hopefully sidestep any name conflicts with a SEARCHing
program. DEC has reserved names with % and . in them, but their use of % is
restricted to other than the first char- acter, so we're safe. (Actually, a
few of our Useful Symbols, below, use a "." as their first character, which is
also DEC-reserved, but they're simple and few enough to cause no problems.)
Also, a few of the 'hidden' symbols used herein (e.g., the stack, or global
symbols in the support package) begin with "%%".
7.3.1 Accumulator Support
Accumulator (register) definitions (conform to the DEC coding standard) These
must be used exclusively, unless specifically redefined at the start of a
module with the %DefAC macro (see below).
p=:17 ; Stack pointer
cx=:16 ; Call/Return temporary
.sac=:16 ; CU/MacSym utility reg
f=:0 ; Flag register (preserved)
t1=:1 ; General temp and Jsys registers:
t2=:2 ; never preserved
t3=:3 ; ...
q1=:5 ; First set of preserved regs
q2=:6 ; (must be preserved by callee
q3=:7 ; across a call)
p1=:10 ; Second set of preserved regs
p2=:11 ; (ditto)
p6=:15 ; NB: not useable with TrVar MacSym facility
.fp=:15 ; Frame pointer for TrVar facility
Define an alternate name for one of the registers; this macro should egisters
are re-defined, and the new definition should be made in terms of one of the
definitions above. This macro purges the old name, thus preventing multiple
names for one register.
define %defac(new, old)
7.3.3 Useful Symbols
.prjfn=<.priin,, .priou> ; Symbol for usual primary JFN pair
.null==0 ; General nothing value
.nil==0 ; General nothing pointer
.True==1 ; General boolean truth value
.False==0 ; and its complement
; Lengths of various Jsys control blocks; ommitted from MONSYM, sadly.
.acln ; Length of ACCES arg block
.ckln ; Length of CHKAC arg block
.cmln ; Length of Command State Block
.cmfln ; Length of Function Descriptor Block
.cdln ; Length of CRDIR arg block
.cjln ; Length of CRJOB arg block
.jiln ; Length of GETJI arg block
.gjln ; Length of (long form) GTJFN arg block
.ipln ; Length of ipcf packet descriptor block
.rsln ; Length of SFTAD arg block
.rdln ; Length of TEXTI arg block
7.3.4 UUO Package OPDEFs and Interface Symbols
%uprin ; Print UUO
%comnd ; COMND interface UUO
%ucmin ; COMND initializer UUO
%cmgfg ; Get COMND flags UUO
%cmgab ; Get COMND atom buffer UUO
%nuuo ; Add-new-UUO UUO
%cmres ; COMND reset UUO
%prPush ; JFN-stack push (%print package) UUO
%prPop ; JFN-stack pop (ditto) UUO
; length of COMND interface UUO atom buffer:
%atmbl==^d250/5+1 ; in words
extern %csb ; command state block, for you hackers
7.3.5 Setup Environment Macros
%SetEnv is a macro that must be used as the first thing after your Title and
Search CUsym statements; it sets up the CUsym, MonSym, and MacSym environments
properly. Its use is envisioned as:
title Baz - tweak the frob's runtime
search CUsym ; (No MAC: needed!)
%setenv ; Set up our environment
%SetUp is a macro that you should use as the first executable action in your
program; it Resets the execution environment, sets up a stack, clears the flag
register F, sets up for UUO calls, sets up for COMND parsing (resetting) (and
starts off your code in %Pure mode).
7.3.6 Storage Declaration Macros
%Pure, %Impure, %Routine
Use these macros to declare what sort of storage follows them: either %pure
code (or read-only data) or %impure data (read-write). Thus, before beginning
a new logical section of code or data, always use one of them to declare what
follows (if you don't use them, you may be surprised!). It goes without
saying that %Pure should precede all code (which is NEVER impure). Using this
pair of macros is a good way of keeping impure data, which belongs to a
routine, physically (on the written page, that is) together with the routine.
The alias %routine for %pure exists for purely mnemonic purposes; its use is
suggested, as in:
openit: stkvar <fee,<foo,,5>>
7.3.7 General-Purpose Macros
This macro creates the stack area, and loads P with the stack pointer. Its
argument, the stack height, is optional, and defaults reasonably.
This macro builds a standard DEC version word from its arguments. In order,
its arguments are the major version, the edit number, the minor version, and
the customer version. Omitted fields default to zero.
This macro takes three args, two of which are optional. The first,
non-optional, argument is the starting address of the area to be cleared. The
next is the number of locations to clear, which defaults to one. The last
argument is the desired filler, which defaults to zero.
7.3.8 Macros Used for Common Primary I/O
Note that since these macros use %print, that any string argument shouldn't
include `%'s, or things may get very confusing. Also note that %typnum's
first argument, the address of the number, must conform to the %print argument
Types the given literal string at your terminal, followed by a carriage return
%typeCR <And your little dog, too!>
Like %typeCR, but types the CR before, instead of after, the string.
To type a literal string with no CR, either before or after, use the
MACSYM macro TMSG.
Types the number in location 'num' at your terminal. The two trailing
arguments are optional.
cols Field width in which to print the number. Default is 0,
i.e. use only as many character positions as are necessary to
type the number.
rdx Radix in which to type the number. Default is 10 (decimal).
Types a carriage-return/linefeed sequence at your terminal.
Types a horizontal tab at your terminal.
7.3.9 JSYS Support Macros
Macro to be used after a Jsys that either returns +1 on error or always
returns +1 (i.e., all but two of the Jsysi); %JSerr types the user's error
message (if given) or the Jsys error that caused it to be invoked (if no
message is given); it then either halts (if no address is supplied) or goes to
the address (if given).
Note: this is similar to the MacSym macro JSERR, but it only works
after a Jsys, since it is invoked by an erjmp; %JSerr has the
advantage, though, that it ALWAYS works after a Jsys, which JSERR
Note also that both %Jserr and %ErMsg, if they halt and are continued, will
simply return to the point after the invocation of the %Jserr or %ErMsg.
Both of these macros, since they use %print, can produce customized error
messages (eg, %jsErr <CUsym: Bad command %s [%e]>,,<ptrToS> will print an
error-synchronized message, with a string argument and the monitor error
message in brackets, and then halt).
This macro, which, in contrast to %JSerr, is designed to be used in a non-Jsys
skip context, will print a message (if given) or the last fork error (if not
given); finally, it either jumps to an address (if given), or halts (if not
given). See %Jserr comments for more info.
7.3.10 Local Label Support Macros
The intent of this set of macros is to provide a facility usually available in
good assemblers (hint, hint): local labels. The idea, due to Knuth, is that
instead of agonizing over choosing a label for each little local motion within
some code, you simply plant one of nine local labels, of the form %N, and
refer to the next local label %N by %NF, and the previous local label %N by
%NB - a simple example of all this is:
some: stkvar <from,to>
txne t1,gj%old ; Does he want an old file?
jrst %1f ; Yes, go handle it
txz t1,gj%fou ; No, reset this
setom from ; and set 'from' flag
%1 call foo ; Continue with processing
jrst %1b ; Failed: try it again
... ; etc etc
These macros (internally) use symbols of the form %n% and %n%m, where n ranges
from 1 to 9, and m from 0 to 777, so be wary.
Useful macro that just returns its two arguments (as text strings),
7.3.11 COMND JSYS Support Macros
Build a standard 7-bit ASCIZ pointer to a literal string.
184.108.40.206 %table and %tbEnd
%table is used to start a keyword table definition; %tbEnd ends a keyword
table definition. Suggested use is as in the following example, which also
cmtb: %table ; Keywords for frotz program
%key Mumble,domum,cm%inv ; mumble command (invisible)
%key Noodle,donood ; noodle command
%key Zork,dungeo ; invoke dungeon command
%tbend ; End of this keyword table
220.127.116.11 %key(name, data, flags)
This macro takes three arguments: an (alphanumerics only!) name, the data to
be associated with the name, and an (optional) flag value. It creates either
a flag-less keyword (the normal case), or, if flags are given, a keyword with
flags in the first word (and cm%fw set). Thus, the result is a TBLUK table
entry, suitable for use by the .CMkey COMND Jsys function. Note that all %Key
words in a table must be bracketted by %table and %TbEnd macros (see above).
18.104.22.168 %Flddb (typ, flgs, data, hlpm, defm, lst)
This macro is useful for building function descriptor blocks that don't
contain just literal strings for the help and default components; otherwise,
it's the same as the MONSYM flddb. macro.
22.214.171.124 %Handlr(p,e), %PrsAdr, %EvlAdr
Macros to support structured parse/evaluation; %Handlr builds a structure
comprised of the parse routine address (p) and evaluation routine address (e),
for a given keyword (it should be in a literal in the %Key macro); %prsAdr and
%evlAdr are the DEFSTR structures for accessing these two elements of a
An example of all this:
%cmkey comtab, <command,> ; Get a top-level keyword
%merrep restart, repars; Usual error handling
hrrz t2, (t2) ; Pick up data value from keyword
load t2, %evladr, (t2) ; Get evaluation routine
movem t2, evaler ; Save its address
load t2, %prsadr, (t2) ; Now, get parse routine
call (t2) ; And call it
%jmerrep restart, repars, restart ; Handle errors
: ; Continue
; Pure data for main parse
%table ; Main command table
%key bletch, [%handlr(bletcm, doblet)] ; Bletch mode
%key mumble, [%handlr(mumbcm, domumbl)] ; Mumble mode
126.96.36.199 %CMxxx Macros to Invoke .CMxxx COMND Functions
See the CUUOS document (7.1) for information about using these. They are
listed here for convenience:
- %cmIni (prompt, flags, ioJfn, gjfBlk): Initialize parse.
- %cmKey (keyTab, help, defalt, flags): Parse a keyword.
- %cmNum (radx, help, defalt, flags): Parse a number.
- %cmNoi (guide-word): Parse guide words.
- %cmSwi (swTab, help, defalt, flags): Parse a switch.
- %cmIfi (help, defalt, flags): Parse an input filespec.
- %cmOfi (help, defalt, flags): Parse an output filespec.
- %cmFil (help, defalt, flags): Parse a general filespec.
- cmFld (help, defalt, flags): Parse a "field".
- %cmCfm (help, flags): Get confirmation (CR).
- %cmDir (data, help, defalt, flags): Parse a directory name.
- %cmUsr (help, defalt, flags): Parse a user name.
- %cmCma (help, flags): Parse a comma.
- %cmFlt (help, defalt, flags): Parse a floating-point number.
- %cmDev (help, defalt, flags): Parse a device name.
- %cmTxt (help, defalt, flags): Parse a text string.
- %cmTad (tadBlk, help, defalt, flags): Parse time and date. Note
that the Time-and-Date flags belong to the first argument, since
they're part of the data to the function.
- %cmQst (help, defalt, flags): Parse a quoted string.
- %cmUqs (brkTab, help, defalt, flags): Parse an unquoted string.
- %cmTok (token, help, defalt, flags): Parse a token. The token as
given should be a string in double quotes, as in %cmtok "*"; if you
need some other form, use the %comnd UUO bare.
- %cmNux (radix, help, defalt, flags): Parse a number.
- %cmAct (help, defalt, flags): Parse an account string.
- %cmNod (help, defalt, flags): Parse a network node name.
7.3.12 Macros to Handle COMND Errors
For use in secondary parsing subroutines. Handle a parse error or reparse by
just returning non-skip.
188.8.131.52 %errep errlab, replab
For use in top-level command parser. Handle an error by going to errlab, and
a reparse by going to replab.
184.108.40.206 %merrep errlab, replab
For use in top-level command parser. Handle an error by giving an error
message and going to errlab, and a reparse by going to replab.
220.127.116.11 Macros for Fail-Return from Parsing Routines
These macros help with error- and reparse-handling after a parse subroutine
call (which is expected to return skip on success, and non-skip on failure);
three sorts of errors can be expected from such subroutines: parse error,
reparse needed, other type of failure (usually a semantic problem). Thus,
these macros have three dispatch addresses, corresponding to these three
errors. Note that the method used here assumes that if neither the parse
error or reparse flags are set in the command state block, then the error is
of type `other'.
18.104.22.168 %jerrep errlab, replab, othrlb
Handle a skip-return error condition as described above.
22.214.171.124 %jmerrep errlab, replab, othrlb
Handle a skip-return error condition as described above, printing an error
message on a parse error.
Note! t1 is clobbered by %errep, %merrep, %jerrep, %jmerrep.
7.3.13 Flag-Handling Macros
All of the following flag-handling macros use register F, the preserved flag
register. F is assumed to be the flag register for any program that uses
these macros. Note that %SetUp clears F, thus initializing flag management.
This macro takes a list of flag names, and assigns a flag value to each name
(within a 36-bit word). It can be used more than once, but no more than 36
flags can be defined.
126.96.36.199 %trnOn & %trnOff
These macros take a flag quantity (one or more flags ORed together), and turn
them on or off, respectively (with no skipping).
188.8.131.52 %TrOnS & %TrOfS
Like %TrnOn and %TrnOff, but skip always afterwards.
184.108.40.206 %SkpOn & %SkpOff
These macros take a flag quantity, and will skip if ALL the flags are on or
220.127.116.11 %AnyOn & %AnyOff
These macros take a flag quantity, and will skip if ANY of the flags are on or
7.3.14 CUuos (CUCCA Utility UUOs) Interface
18.104.22.168 %print, %prSkp
Formatted-print macros: output the arguments according to the format string.
%PrSkp returns skipping (+2 instead of +1, but handling a following
erjmp/ercal properly). See 7.1 for details.
A note about arguments: the argument list is really nothing more than a
sequence of addresses, so if you choose to use addressing forms such as
address(index), be sure and use the <z address(index)> form so that macro will
be happy with the address. The same applies to address forms such as
<z @(t1)>, etc.
COMND 149, 154
Error Message 153
Failure Return 157
Local Label 153
Program Version Number 152
Table of Contents
7.3 CUsym MACSYM Augmentation Macros 149
7.3.1 Accumulator Support 149
7.3.2 %DefAC 150
7.3.3 Useful Symbols 150
7.3.4 UUO Package OPDEFs and Interface Symbols 150
7.3.5 Setup Environment Macros 151
22.214.171.124 %setEnv 151
126.96.36.199 %setUp 151
7.3.6 Storage Declaration Macros 151
7.3.7 General-Purpose Macros 151
188.8.131.52 %Stack 151
184.108.40.206 %Version 152
220.127.116.11 %Clear 152
7.3.8 Macros Used for Common Primary I/O 152
18.104.22.168 %typeCR(string) 152
22.214.171.124 %crType(string) 152
126.96.36.199 %typNum(num,cols,rdx) 152
188.8.131.52 %crlf 153
184.108.40.206 %tab 153
7.3.9 JSYS Support Macros 153
220.127.116.11 %jsErr 153
18.104.22.168 %erMsg 153
7.3.10 Local Label Support Macros 153
22.214.171.124 %Cat(a,b) 154
7.3.11 COMND JSYS Support Macros 154
126.96.36.199 %Ptr(string) 154
188.8.131.52 %table and %tbEnd 154
184.108.40.206 %key(name, data, flags) 154
220.127.116.11 %Flddb (typ, flgs, data, hlpm, defm, lst) 155
18.104.22.168 %Handlr(p,e), %PrsAdr, %EvlAdr 155
22.214.171.124 %CMxxx Macros to Invoke .CMxxx COMND Functions 155
7.3.12 Macros to Handle COMND Errors 156
126.96.36.199 %pret 156
188.8.131.52 %errep errlab, replab 156
184.108.40.206 %merrep errlab, replab 157
220.127.116.11 Macros for Fail-Return from Parsing Routines 157
18.104.22.168 %jerrep errlab, replab, othrlb 157
22.214.171.124 %jmerrep errlab, replab, othrlb 157
7.3.13 Flag-Handling Macros 157
126.96.36.199 %Flags(aFlg,bFlg,cFlg,...) 157
188.8.131.52 %trnOn & %trnOff 157
184.108.40.206 %TrOnS & %TrOfS 158
220.127.116.11 %SkpOn & %SkpOff 158
18.104.22.168 %AnyOn & %AnyOff 158
7.3.14 CUuos (CUCCA Utility UUOs) Interface 158
22.214.171.124 %print, %prSkp 158