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10BACKUP Page 1
La Trobe University
10BACKUP is an easy to use VAX program to read files from a
magnetic tape created by the DECsystem-10 BACKUP utility. It's purpose
is to enable file transfer from a DECsystem-10 to a VAX, or to read
existing DECsystem-10 BACKUP format tapes.
Tapes written by the TOPS-20 DUMPER utility are very similar so
most of these should be able to be read by 10BACKUP as well.
Because of the architectural differences between the two machines,
binary files from a DECsystem-10 (such as .EXE or .REL files) are
normally meaningless on a VAX. 10BACKUP is therefore intended mainly
for restoring normal ASCII text files (such as .FOR or .RNO files). A
limited facility for transferring binary information is available
through the SIXBIT command.
10BACKUP uses 'interchange' mode to read the tape as DECsystem-10
disk and UFD information is not useful on a VAX.
2 USING 10BACKUP
Before using 10BACKUP the tape to be read must be mounted using the
/FOREIGN qualifier. Also you should set your default directory to where
you wish to put any restored files.
When the program is RUN it prompts for commands using a '/'. This
is the same prompt as DECsystem-10 BACKUP uses although 10BACKUP has
neither the same commands nor Run-Time commands like DECsystem-10
The commands used in 10BACKUP may be abbreviated as long as they
are not made ambiguous. 10BACKUP continues to prompt for commands until
it reaches the end of command input or an EXIT command.
The first command normally used in 10BACKUP is the TAPE command to
identify the input tape. After that the SSNAME command may be used to
select a particular tape save-set, and then DIRECTORY and RESTORE
commands can be used to get directory information or to restore files
from the tape.
10BACKUP Page 2
The commands available in 10BACKUP are:-
1. The HELP command provides help from the 10BACKUP help library.
This command uses the VMS help routines and is therefore
similar to the DCL HELP command in use.
Format: HELP [topic [,...] ]
2. The EXIT command exits from the program.
3. The TAPE command identifies the tape device for subsequent
commands. The tape device must contain a DECsystem-10 BACKUP
format tape and must be mounted with the /FOREIGN qualifier. A
logical name may be used to specify the device. This command
must be given before any other command which accesses the tape
device. A file-name may be used in place of the device name
when the file contains a copy of a DECsystem-10 BACKUP tape.
Format: TAPE device-name
Example: /TAPE MTA0:
4. The SSNAME command may be used to select a specific save set on
the tape for processing. Subsequent RESTORE and DIRECTORY
commands will only process files from the selected save set.
If no save set name is given then all save sets on the tape
will be processed (the default). To preserve lower case
characters or exact spacing in the save set name it should be
put in double quotes (").
Format: SSNAME [save-set-name]
Example: /SSNAME "COBOL File Save"
5. The RESTORE command restores files from the tape to the current
default directory. A file name list may be given to restore
only specific files. The '*' character may be used as a
wildcard in the file name list. Before this command is given a
TAPE command must be used to identify the tape to be read, and
an SSNAME command may be used to select a particular save set
for processing. As each file is restored appropriate directory
information is printed.
Format: RESTORE [file-names]
Example: /RESTORE SYS*.CBL,BACK.RNO
6. The DIRECTORY command prints file-name, size, and creation date
information about files on the tape. A file name list may be
given to print information only on specific files. The '*'
character may be used as a wildcard in the file name list.
Before using this command a tape must be selected with the TAPE
command, and a specific save-set may be selected using the
10BACKUP Page 3
Format: DIRECTORY [file-names]
Example: /DIRECT *.RNO
7. The REWIND command repositions the tape to its beginning. This
allows the contents of the tape to be reprocessed.
8. The OUTPUT_DEFAULT command sets the default output file name
specification for files generated by the RESTORE command. This
is useful for when you wish to restore files to an area other
than the current default.
Format: OUTPUT_DEFAULT [file-specification]
Example: /OUTPUT_DEFAULT DSK1B:[CCPN]
9. The SKIP command skips over one or more save-sets. The command
parameter describes how many save-sets to skip. The parameter
may be a positive number to skip forward or a negative number
to skip backwards.
Format: SKIP save-set-count
10. The SIXBIT command causes the RESTORE command to write out
restored files in SIXBIT mode. SIXBIT takes an integer
parameter to say how big the output records should be in bytes.
If the record size is zero then SIXBIT mode is switched off and
the restored files are written using normal ASCII text format.
SIXBIT mode is used to restore binary information from the
tape. Each 36 bit word is written as six sets of six bits each
converted to an ASCII byte by adding decimal 32. If the file
contained SIXBIT text in fixed length records then no further
conversion is required, otherwise a user supplied program would
have to convert the appropriate binary data types into the
Format: SIXBIT record-size
11. The CHECKSUM command turns OFF or ON checking of tape block
checksums. The default is to check all block checksums on the
tape. The only reasons for turning off checksum verification
is to attempt to read a bad tape or if processing time is
Format: CHECKSUM OFF or ON
When 10BACKUP reaches the end of the tape volume while it is still
processing a save set, it assumes that another tape volume must follow.
10BACKUP Page 4
For interactive jobs, or if the tape input is coming from a file,
10BACKUP rewinds the current volume and prompts "Please ready the next
10BACKUP tape volume:". The response to this prompt may be:
1. A <RETURN> to re-use the same device. Before entering this
response the next tape volume containing the save set
continuation must be loaded into the device by contacting the
operators. This may be done by ringing and telling them which
volume to load, or by spawning a subprocess to send an
appropriate request message.
2. The name of another device to use. 10BACKUP will continue
processing the save set from this device which must also have
been mounted using the /FOREIGN qualifier.
3. A CTRL/Z to abort further processing of the save set.
For non-interactive jobs 10BACKUP sends a request to the operators
asking them to physically mount the next volume in the tape device.
When the operator replies 10BACKUP will continue processing the save set
from the new volume.
5 EXAMPLE USAGE
The following is an example of the usage of 10BACKUP. It shows the
commands used to get a directory of the whole tape, and how to restore
files *SKL.CTL and *.RNO from the save set "My Save Set".
$ MOUNT/foreign mtb1: backup tape
$ RUN 10backup
... directory appears here ...
/SSNAME "My Save Set"
... directory of restored files appears here ...
To use 10BACKUP on a system two files are required. These are the
image file 10BACKUP.EXE, and the help library file 10BACKUP.HLB. The
minimum required to install 10BACKUP is to copy these two files from the
installation tape to the desired directory. At La Trobe both of these
files reside in our SYStem PUBlic area, SYSPUB.
As supplied, the program expects the help library to have the name
SYSPUB:10BACKUP.HLB. To put the help library in an appropriate area for
your installation you must define the logical name SYSPUB, or edit
10BACKUP.BAS (and recompile/relink etc.) to use the correct name.
The installation tape contains the following files:
The ready to use files:
10BACKUP.EXE The 10BACKUP program.
10BACKUP.HLB The program help library.
10BACKUP.MEM This text file.
10BACKUP.BAS The main program.
BIO.MAR Program IO routines.
BUR.MAR Utility routines.
C36.MAR 36 bit conversion routines.
BMS.MSG Message definitions
10BACKUP.RNH Help library source.
10BACKUP.RNO This text source.
Intermediate files (in case you don't have a compiler):
10BACKUP.OBJ BIO.OBJ BUR.OBJ
C36.OBJ BMS.OBJ 10BACKUP.HLP
INSTALLATION GUIDE Page A-2
If need be the program can be compiled and linked from the sources
using the following commands:
$ BASIC 10BACKUP
$ MACRO BIO
$ MACRO BUR
$ MACRO C36
$ MESSAGE BMS
$ LINK/NOTRACE 10BACKUP,BIO,BUR,C36,BMS
$ RUNOFF 10BACKUP.RNH
$ LIBRARY/CREATE/HELP 10BACKUP 10BACKUP
10BACKUP is distributed on an 'as is' basis with no responsibility
being taken by the author for its use. It would be appreciated however,
if any problems found in 10BACKUP could be reported to the program
author (see front of program listing for details).