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Volume 1 Number 3
DECsystem 10/DECSYSTEM 20
TEN TO VAX UTILITY AND COMMAND COMPARISON
by Sandra Barry
Purchasing Data Center Software Support
This article compares the DECsystem-10 utilities to the VAX
utilities. It is intended to provide a quick reference for those
who are going from a TEN to a VAX. The information has been
compiled from the VAX/VMS Software Notebooks.
The comparison is based on the DECsystem-10 1091 and the VAX/VMS
I've taken the utilities on the TEN and in most cases found
comparable utilities on the VAX. A lot of my examples depict the
simplest of cases. These examples will give general ideas about
the commands on which you may need additional "HELP."
For example, if on the TEN you want to run BACKUP, you issue the
command "R BACKUP"; on the VAX you simply say "BACKUP". The VAX
does not make use of the "RUN" command for system utilities
because this command is built into the DIGITAL Command Language
I have listed, first, the TEN utilities and beside it a
comparable VAX utility. Examples of selected utilities and
ocmmands are also listed.
System Accounting Files User Authorization File
1022 DBMS, Datatrieve, (1032 ?)
CHANGE CONVERT and COPY
COBDDT DEBUG **
COBOL COBOL **
CONTINUE CONTINUE **
COPY COPY **
COPYIT COPY **
CREDIR CREATE/DIRECTORY **
DELETE DELETE **
DIRECT DIRECTORY **
DIP/PURGE PURGE **
FILCOM DIFFERENCES **
FORTRA FORTRAN **
LINK LINK **
MOUNT MOUNT **
PATH SET DEFAULT
PLEASE REQUEST and REPLY **
PROTECT SET PROTECT **
QUOLST DISKQUOTA and SHOW QUOTA
RUNOFF RUNOFF **
SEND PHONE and MAIL **
SET TTY SET TERMINAL
SORT SORT **
SUBMIT SUBMIT **
SYSDPY MONITOR **
SYSTAT SHOW SYSTEM and SHOW USERS **
TYPE TYPE **
TAPE USAGE **
** Indicates detailed information available in this article.
The % sign on the VAX is used in the same way the ? is used on
the TEN. The * is used on the VAX as it is on the TEN.
FILE SPECIFICATIONS ON THE VAX
Node::device:[directory]filename.type;version (max size 128
Node - Node enables you to access a file located at
another node on the network.
Device - See device format below.
Directory - 1 thru 9 alphanumeric character string or two-part
octal number in the format of a User Identification
- Eight levels of a sub directories (like SFD's on
Filename - 1 thru 9 alphanumeric characters.
Type - 0 thru 3 alphanumeric character extension.
Version - On input, the system defaults to the highest
version number of the file. On output, the system
adds 1 to the highest existing version number.
LOGGING INTO THE SYSTEM USING A DIALUP
1. Dial up the VAX.
2. Hit 2 carriage returns.
3. The system will prompt you with - Username:
4. Enter your Username and hit a carriage return.
5. The system will prompt you with - Password:
6. If the Username and Password were valid you will see a dollar
7. If step 6 fails you will receive a "User authorization
failure" message and you may have to dial up the system
In all of the following examples of VAX utilties and commands,
the legends are as follows:
Format - ddcu
dd = device type
c = controller designator
u = unit number
For example: MTA1 = device type MT magtape, controller A, unit
MONITOR COMMAND LEVEL
Monitor command level on the TEN is a dot (.)
Monitor command level on the VAX is a dollar sign ($)
Control-Y terminates execution on te VAX in the same way
Control-C works on the TEN.
Control-S stops scrolling and Control-Q continues as on the the
Control-T displays a single line of statistical information.
Most of the other control functions work on the VAX as they do on
COMPILING FORTRAN WITH THE DEBUGGER
SYSTEM DEFAULT LOGICAL NAMES
SYS$INPUT - Default "input" stream from which the system
"reads" commands and your programs "read" data.
Default interactive assignment = TT
Default batch assignment = the command procedure of
SYS$OUTPUT - Default "output" stream to which the system
"writes" responses to commands and your program
Default interactive assignment = TT.
Default batch assignment = batch job log file.
SYS$ERROR - Default device to which the system writes all error
and informational messages.
Default interactive assignment = TT.
Default batch assignment = batch job log file.
SYS$DISK - Default disk device.
Default assignment = set in User Authorization
Within your program or at DCL level:
ASSIGN SYS$OUTPUT OUTFILE
So, when the program writes to the logical device OUTFILE and
output is directed to the terminal.
DETAILED EXPLANATION FOR SOME VAX UTILITIES AND COMMANDS
NOTE: In the following description, lines beginning with a:
$ (dollar sign) signify user input.
% (percent sign) signify system information responses
- (dash) at the end of the line signifies a continuation
(underscore) at the beginning of the next line
signifies continuation of your command string.
$RUN/SCHEDULE = 14:00 STATUS
%RUN-S-PROC_ID, identification of created process is 13012A
$CANCEL/identification = 13012A
The run command creates a process to execute the image
The process hibernates, and is scheduled to be awakened at 14:00.
Before the process is awakened, the CANCEL command cancels the
$RUN/process name = LIBRA/interval=1:00 LIBRA
%RUN-S-PROC_ID, idntification of created process is 130017
The run command creates a subprocess name LIBRA to execute the
image LIBRA.EXE at hourly intervals. Subsequently, the CANCEL
command cancels the wake-up request. The process continues to
exist, but in the state of hibernation. The STOP command deletes
$COBOL/LIST/OBJECT = TEST A12
Source file A12.COB produces an object module; TEST.OBJ, and a
source listing in the file A12.LIS.
$LINK TRANSLATE, SYS$LIBRARY:C74LIB/LIBRARY
Compiles source TRANSLATE.COB and creates an object file named
TRANSLATE.OBJ and a listing named TRANSLATE.LIS.
The LINK specifies the object file, TRANSLATE.OBJ and the
COBOL-74 run-time library, C74LIB, that is located on the default
system library device, needed to link all VAX-11 COBOL-74 images.
Example of program running with a control-Y interruption. The
program will continue after you invoke the CONTINUE command.
16-JUN-1982 13:40:12 (system response)
This utility copies records from one file to another, changing
the organization and format of the input file to that of the
output file. You can append to the end of the file or merge the
records sequentially into an indexed file.
Copies records from a file with variable-length records
(VARFILE.DAT) to a file with fixed-length records (FIXFILE.DAT).
It truncates variable-length records that are longer than the
fixed-length records in FIXFILE.DAT, and copies short records to
the exceptions file EXFILE.EXE.
$CONVERT FILE.IDX FILE.IDX
Creates the output file FILE.IDX with a version number one higher
than that of the input file. The output file is a copy of the
input file, but it is a clean copy; bucket splits and RRVs
(Record Reference Vector) disappear, and pointers to deleted
records are reclaimed.
CONVERT establishes new RFAs during such organization.
RFAs (Record File Address) are used to retrieve records in any
file organzation as long as the file resides on a disk volume,
this allows records previously accessed to be accessed randomly
at a subsequent time.
$COPY TEST.DAT NEWTEST.DAT
Copies the contents of TEST.DAT into a file name NEWTEST.DAT if
NEWTEST.DAT exists, the copy command creates a new version of
$MOUNT MTA1: VOL25 TAPE:
$COPY TAPE:*.* *
The COPY command uses the logical name TAPE for the input file
specification requesting that all files on the magnetic tape be
copies to the current default disk and directory.
All the files copies retain their file name and file types.
This example shows two separate files being created with a
control-Z terminating the input into each.
$CREATE A.DAT, B.DAT
..The rain in Spain falls
..mainly on the plain
Control Z (close A.DAT)
..one fish two fish
..red fish blue fish
Control Z (close B.DAT)
File A.DAT will contain "The rain in Spain falls mainly on the
plain." A separate file, B.DAT, will contain "One fish two fish
red fish blue fish."
$SET DEFAULT [BARRY.SANDRA]
All files subsequently created are cataloged in [BARRY.SANDRA]
This is a lot like the sub-file directories on the TEN.
%DEBUG-I-INITIAL, language is FORTRAN, module set to
The FORTRAN and LINK commands both specify the /DEBUG qualifier
to compile the program WIDGET.EXE with the debugger symbol table
information and to include the debugger in the image file. The
RUN command begins execution of the image WIDGET.EXE, which loops
uncontrollably. Control-Y interrupts the program, and the DEBUG
command gives control to the debugger.
This command will delete all LOG files, all versions. You must
specify version number of file for security reasons.
This will delete all DAT files, all versions before June 16 and
will list what has been deleted.
DELETE A DIRECTORY
no files found (system response)
$SET PROTECTION SUBDIR.DIR/PROTECTION=OWNER:D
A directory must be empty before it can be deleted. If the
directory is protected from being deleted, you must set the
protection down so the owner can delete it.
Job 110 entered on queue SYS$PRINT
This command puts ALPHA.TXT into the system print queue in hold
state. You can then delete the entry by identifying it by its
$SUBMIT/HOLD/parameters = scanline DOFOR
Job 203 entered on queue SYS$BATCH (system repsonse)
Job 210 entered on queue SYS$BATCH (system response)
$DELETE/ENTRY = (203,210) SYS$BATCH
This will delete both batch jobs by entering the job
identification numbers 203 and 210.
Compares the contents of the two most recent versions of the file
EXAMPLES.TXT. DIFFERENCES compares every character in every
record and displays the results on the terminal. This is similar
to FILCOM on the TEN.
Files are listed in alphabetical order, with the highest numbered
versions first. The higher the version number the more recent
MYPROG.EXE has three different versions. The most recent, 3, is
Error messages either begin with a percent sign (%) or a hyphen
Format: %FACILITY-L-IDENT, text
FACILITY = Operating system facility, or program issuing error
L = Severity level; S for success, I for informational, W
for warning, E for error, and F for fatal.
IDENT = Shorthand code for the message text.
If there is a series of error messages the first will begin with
a percent sign and the following with a hyphen.
%DEBUG-I-INITIAL, language is FORTRAN, module set to 'WEATHER"
DBG> (You are now in the debugger)
Linker links the object module WEATHER.OBJ with the debugger. If
any unresolved references are encountered, the link searches the
library MATHLIB.OLB before searching the system library. The
CROSS_REFERENCES qualifier requests a cross reference listing in
the map file; WEATHER.MAP. The /EXECUTABLE requests the output
file name DBGWEATH.EXE. Now it is ready to accept debug
$MAIL/SUBJECT="New Project" PROJECT.DOC JONES,SMITH,ADAMS
File name PROJECT.DOC is to be sent to users Jones, Smith, and
Adams, with a subject description of New Project in the heading.
Combines two through ten similarly sorted input files and creates
a single output file. The input files to be merged must be in
Two identically sorted disk files CUST01.DAT and CUST02.DAT in
one directory are merged into another file CUSTMERGE.DAT in the
current default directory. The /CHECK_SEQUENCE input file
qualifier is used to ensure that the files are sorted in the
Note that the input files are not in the current default
directory, and therefore have the directory included as part of
their file specifications.
This command displays a bar graph showing the eight processes
that were the top consumers of CPU.
To obtain exclusive use of a device:
$SHOW DEVICES MT: (Will display what magtape drives are
$ALLOCATE MTB1: (Allocate device MTB1 to my job)
Mounting Volumes on Devices:
$ALLOCATE DMA2: (RK07)
$MOUNT DMA2:TEST_FILES INFILE
TEST_FILES is the volume label; INFILE is the lobical name
For operator interaction:
$MOUNT DMA1:TEST_FILES/COMMENT="Pack is in the tape library slot
The operator will see the following message:
%OPCOM, 17-Jan-83 15:47:50.26, Request 5, from user FRITZ
Please mount volume TEST_FILES in defice _ DMA1:
Pack is in the tape library slot 6B
When the operator locates the physical volume and mounts it in
the requested device you then receive the following messages:
%MOUNT-I-MOUNTED, TEST_FILES Mounted in _ DMA1:
%MOUNT-I-OPRQSTCAN, operator request cancelled you can begin
When you are done with the pack:
You can talk to other users on your system or any other VAX/VMS
system connected to your system by DECnet-VAX.
$PHONE DIRECTORY ROCK
This command establishes a DECnet link to ROCK and scans the
system for users and lists the user's name and if their PHONE
"status" is available or not available. If available you can
then DIAL the user and wait for them to ANSWER your call or
REJECT the call.
This command means you've found that DORENKAMP is located on ROCK
and her PHONE status is available. After issuing the DIAL
command PHONE broadcasts a message on DORENKAMP'S terminal that
indicates you are calling. This message will flash every ten
seconds until DORENKAMP either ANSWERS the phone or REJECTS the
R=READ; W=WRITE, E=EXECUTE; D=DELETE
SYSTEM: Users with system privilege, generally System managers.
OWNER: Users with the same UIC (User Identification Code)
Example: UIC = [group number, member number]
GROUP: All users, including the owner, who have the same group
number in their UICs as the owner of the file.
WORLD: All users including those in the first three categories.
$COPY DB1A:[PAYDATA]PAYROLL.DAT PAYSORT.DAT-
Users with system UICs can read and write to the file
PAYSORT.DAT; you, the owner, have all types of access to
Other users in your group may read and write to the file and all
other users in the world have no access.
To change a protection:
To see what your default protection is:
To look at a specific file protection:
This utility deletes all but the highest-numbered version or
versions of a specified file or files.
The PURGE command deletes all but the two highest-numbered
versions of the file AVERAGE.FOR.
$REPLY/ALL "message text"
$REPLY/TERMINAL=(terminal-name[,...]) "messages text"
$REPLY/USER "message text"
/ALL sends a message to all terminals that are online and
connected to the VAX/VMS system.
/TERMINAL sends a message to one or more specific terminals on
/USER sends a message to all terminals at which system users are
Note: you need OPER privileges to use REPLY commands.
/ABORT indicates that the user's request has been cancelled.
/PENDING sends a message to the user and keeps the user's process
in a wait state until the request can be fulfilled or aborted.
/TO indicates that the user's request has been fulfilled.
$REPLY/ALL/BELL "SYSTEM GOING DOWN FOR EXEC PM. PLEASE LOG OFF"
This command broadcasts a message to all terminals on the system.
At the end of the message a bell will ring at all terminals.
Job 401 entered on queue LPA1: (system response)
_"Have queued job 401 as forms = H; can you print it now??"
%OPCOM-S-OPRNOTIF, Operator notified, waiting....10:42:16.10
%OPCOM-S-OPRREPLY, No it will have to wait until 11:00
REQUEST sends a message to the operator, the operator REPLY's
with an answer.
$REQUEST/REPLY "Are there any operators on duty to service
This means you have a question and want a reply.
RUNOFF takes input file CHAPT1.RNO and writes formatted output to
the file CHAPT1.MEM. This is the same as .R RUNOFF on the TEN.
Allows you to search through for specific character strings,
returning a list of all lines containing occurrences of the
$SEARCH CABLE.MEM LAYER.MEM "manual title"
This will search both files for the character string manual
There are many commands associated with SET.
Type HELP SET for all the various qualifiers.
This command will enable control T to work.
There are many commands associated with SHOW. On the VAX type
HELP SHOW for all the various qualifiers.
$SHOW USERS (Similar to SYSTAT on the TEN)
$SORT/KEY=(POSITION:1,SIZE:80) BOATS.LST BOATS.TMP
Sorts the records in the file BOATS.LST and creates an output
file name BOATS.TMP. All the records in the input file are
sorted in alphanumberic order based on the first 80 characters in
$START/QUEUE/BATCH SYS$BATCH. /BATCH indicates that this is a
Job 112 entered on queue SYS$BATCH (system response)
Enters procedure AVERAGE.COM in the batch job queue. When the
batch job completes the log file AVERAGE.LOG is queued for
printing. the filetype COM is the default extension as CTL is
the default on the TEN.
Magtapes are sequential access.
Request a tape drive whose name begins with MT.
_MTA2: ALLOCATED (system response)
Unit 2 on controller A was available. now allocated to you.
Volume label GMB001 (6 character maximum): the protection code
restricts group access to read and allows no access to the world.
$COPY *.* MTA2:/LOG (/LOG if you want to see what files are
The COPY command copies the highest versions of all files in your
default directory onto the tape.
If you do not dismount your tape the system will do it for you
when you log out.
DEALLOCATE frees the devices for other users to use. If you do
not DEALLOCATE the device, other users cannot have access to it
until you log out.
The command requests that the file COMMON.DAT be displayed at the
The TYPE command contains a wild character in place of the file
name. files with file types of DAT displayed; when CTRL/O is
pressed, output of the current file stops and the TYPE command
begins displaying the next DAT file. CTRL/Y interrupts the
command, the STOP command terminates the TYPE command.