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Slightly updated (CPR) 4:18pm  Thursday, 26 June 1980

File: Languages, Node: Top, Up: (DIR)

This file describes the languages that have implementations that can
run on a DECSYSTEM-20 (also referred to herein as "Twenex", which is
jargon ["TENEX on the Twenty", or "Twenty TENEX"]).  The menu lists
the languages.  If a language has only one dialect, then the node for
that language will give general information about it and then provide
a menu of specific information (how to use the compiler, how to use
the debugger if any, etc.) and possibly pointers to more information.
If a language has more than one dialect, then its node has a menu that
lists the dialects.

Several points of information are given about each language: where it
comes from (i.e., who mostly produced it, or who last maintained it),
how to invoke it (what command string to give to the Exec), what
system it is oriented towards (either the -10 or the -20, or a few
other odd operating systems), what file extension is considered the
'default' for that language (i.e., if you use it, you're more likely to
have the right things happen by default), and a general 'title page'
description of the language.

One point of jargon: when a language, or the programs it produces, is
said to 'run native', this means that it is TOPS-20 oriented and thus
uses only the TOPS-20 monitor calls; otherwise, it is TOPS-10 oriented
and has to run under PA1050, the "compatibility package" (which tries
to fool programs into thinking they're running under a TOPS-10
monitor).  (Programs that were written for Tenex also run native, but
there may be slight inconsistencies of style.  Programs that were
written under ITS at MIT have mostly been converted to run native on

When DEC manuals have been cited as reference material, it should be
understood that there may be newer versions or updates to the cited

The ensuing language summaries were written, except where otherwise
indicated, by Frank da Cruz and Chris Ryland of the Columbia
University Center for Computing Activities (Chris is now at MIT), who
should be held responsible for any omissions or misrepresentations,
and all opinions, therein, and who invite your comments.  Please note
that this file is under constant development.  If you have additions
or corrections, please send them to:

  Frank da Cruz
  Columbia University Computer Center
  New York, NY 10027


  Chris Ryland
  MIT, room 38-374
  Cambridge, MA 02139

Or, if you're on the Arpanet, to g.daCruz@SU-SCORE and CPR@MIT-AI.

This file contains many INFO pointers at files which may live on
different directories on different sites.  Your site will have to
update these pointers to point at the right places.  The pointers in
the file assume a logical device name for each language, which is the
same (in most cases) as the default filename extension (file type) of
the language, e.g. SIM: for Simula.  All of the file pointers that
don't refer to DOC: or HLP: refer to these logical names.

* Menu:	The following languages exist on DEC-20's:

* Assemblers::	Several assembly-language processors.
* Algol-60::	ALGOrithmic Language-1960.
* Algol-68::	ALGOrithmic Language-1968.
* Simula::	SIMULAtion Language.
* Fortran::	FORmula TRANslation language.
* Sail::	Stanford Artificial Intelligence Labs language.
* Mainsail::	MAchine INdependent Sail
* Pascal::	Named after Blaise, a modern, fully-typed language,
		 with additions for systems programming on the -20.
* Lisp::	List-Processing Language: 2 implementations for the -20.
* Bliss::	Several versions of DEC's "implementation language".
* PPL::		Polymorphic Programming Language, a pedagogic,
		 extensible language.
* ECL::		Harvard's extensible programming system (EClectic
* C::		Bell Lab's portable, high-level "implementation language".
* BCPL::	A relative of C from BBN.
* CPL::		A "toy" PL/I from DEC.
* PL/I::	The real PL/I, also from DEC.
* Basic::	Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
* APLSF::	A Programming Language with Shared Files.
* Snobol::	StriNg-Oriented symBOlic Language.
* Cobol::	COmmon Business-Oriented Language.
* PCL::		Programmable Command Language for TOPS-20.
* MuDdLe::	Muddle.  (lisp like language)

* Utilities::	Language-related utilities.

File: Languages, Node: Assemblers, Up: Top, Next: Algol-60

An assembler allows you to write programs consisting of actual machine
instructions.  This is thought to be desirable for at least two
reasons:  1. only in assembly language can you write a program that
can take advantage of all the features of the  machine, and 2. you
have maximum control over every aspect of the operation of your program,
including storage allocation, efficiency, etc.

In order to use an assembler, you must first be familiar with the
machine's instruction set.  The definitive source for this information
is the:

    DECsystem-10/DECSYSTEM-20 Hardware Reference Manual, Volume I:
    Central Processor, EK-10/20-HR-001 (1978).

You will notice that this manual actually describes three different
machines: the KA10, the KI10, and the KL10.  You should be aware that
DEC-20's are KL10's, except for 2020's which are KS-10's.  There is
also a PDP-10 Reference card (DEC-10-XSRCA-B-D) which is out of date
(a new one is expected some day), and an article that traces the
development of the PDP-6/PDP-10 36-bit family of computers:

    Bell, et al., "The Evolution of the DECsystem-10", CACM (Jan 1978)

also found in

    Bell, et al., "Computer Engineering", Digital Press (1978).

Another thing that assembly-language programmers need to know about is
monitor calls.  There are many things that you cannot do even in
assembly language on a time-shared machine, such as issue i/o
instructions; only the monitor can do these things.  You can ask the
monitor to perform services for you by issuing a monitor call (a
DEC-20 monitor call is called a 'JSYS' (Jump to SYStem)).  Information
about DEC-20 monitor calls is to be found in the following DEC

1. Monitor Calls User's Guide, DEC-20-OMUGA-A-D (1976).
   This is a rather informal introduction to DEC-20 monitor calls,
   with detailed information about some of the most common ones.

2. TOPS-20 Monitor Calls Reference Manual, AA-4166D-TM (1980).
   The definitive source for information about DEC-20 monitor calls
   (Release 4 of TOPS-20).

In addition, an excellent introduction to assembly language
programming will soon be available (and is in circulation at some
sites in draft form):

   Gorin, Ralph E., "Introduction to DECsystem-20 Assembly
     Language Programming", Stanford University Computer
     Science Department, 1980.  Soon to be published by
     Digital Press.

There are several assemblers suitable for use on the DEC-20.

* Menu:		They include:

* Macro::	The standard DEC assembler
* Midas::	MIT's alternative for Macro
* Fail::	A very fast one-pass assembler from Stanford

Only Macro is supported by DEC, but the other two have certain
distinct advantages.

In addition, the following general information is available on line:

* Instruction set:	(MAC:ASM.DOC)*
   A document put together at Columbia in June 1979 that combines
   portions of various DEC manuals and other materials in an attempt
   to provide a single reference on opcodes, jsys's, macro, style,
   etc.  Somewhat superfluous with the appearance of Ralph Gorin's
   book.  The chapters (OPCODE, JSYS, MACRO, etc), are also available
   seperately with their own tables of contents and indexes.

File: Languages, Node: Macro, Up: Assemblers, Next: Midas

Macro: Assembler

 > Comes from: DEC
 > Invoke via: 'Macro' or load-class command.  Extension: .MAC
 > System orientation: -20
 > Description: Free-format, statement-oriented, 2-pass assembler with
macro processor.  Capable of searching external 'universal' files at
assembly time.  Fully supported by DEC.  Most system programs,
including the monitor and the Exec, are written in Macro.
 > Debugging: DDT interactive symbolic debugger.
 > References:
1. Macro Assember Reference Manual, DEC, AA-4159C-TM (1978).
    You won't learn how to program in Macro from this manual;
    it is strictly for reference.
2. Macro Assembler User's Guide, DEC (forthcoming).
3. DECsystem-10 Assembly Language Handbook, DEC, DEC-10-NRZB-D (1972).
    This is out of print, and strictly -10ish, but it is of a better
    instructional nature than any of the currently available DEC manuals.
    It also includes a DDT manual.
4. Singer, "Introduction to DECsystem-10 Assembler Language",
    John Wiley & Sons (1978).  Strictly for the -10, but it's a textbook.
    Also covers Teco and DDT.  Ignore the description of TOPS-10 monitor
    calls.  TOPS-20 monitor calls are described in the references cited
    under the general topic 'assemblers' (up).
5. Gorin, Ralph E., "Introduction to DECsystem-20 Assembly Language
    Programming", Stanford University Computer Science Department
    (1980). Soon to be published by Digital Press.  The only introductory
    textbook especially for TOPS-20, and the best one we're likely to see.
    Discusses opcodes, MACRO, JSYS's, and programming techniques.

* Menu:	On-line information:

* Help:		(HLP:MACRO.HLP)*
* Manual:	(MAC:MACRO.DOC)*
* Hints:	(MAC:HINTS.TXT)*
* Debugging:	(HLP:DDT.HLP)*
* DDT Manual:	(MAC:DDT.DOC)*

File: Languages, Node: Midas, Up: Assemblers, Next: Fail

Midas: Assembler

 > Comes from: MIT, distributed with EMACS.
 > Invoke via: 'midas'. Extension: .MID
 > System orientation: ITS (MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System) and TOPS-20.
 > Description: Midas is a 2-pass assembler several times as fast as
Macro.  In addition, it has better error messages, and more powerful
macro facilities.  Most software that comes from MIT that is not
written in Teco or Lisp is written in Midas, for instance Teco itself.
If you want to use TOPS-20 monitor symbols, you must use the statement
".insrt sys:twxbts.mid".  Midas can produces executable code directly,
allowing you to bypass LINK, if you include the .DECSAV directive.
This is a great performance win for assembly language students.

 > Debugging: DDT interactive symbolic debugger.

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:		(HLP:MIDAS.HLP)*
* Debugger:	(HLP:DDT.HLP)*
* DDT Manual:	(MAC:DDT.DOC)*
* Manual:	(INFO:MIDAS)Top
		This is the INFO-structured manual.

File: Languages, Node: Fail, Up: Assemblers

Fail: Assembler

 > Comes from: Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL),
     but is usually distributed with MM or other programs that are
     written in Fail.
 > Invoke via: 'Fail', or load-class command.  Extension: .FAI
 > System orientation: -20
 > Description: Fast, one-pass, block-structured assembler written by
Ralph Gorin at Stanford.  DEC-20 monitor calls are built in, but
symbols have to obtained by searching monsym (.FUN, not .UNV).
Extremely close to Macro (except block structure, which need not be
used, and small syntactic differences) but about 5 times faster.
Programs can be written such that they will assemble under either
Macro or Fail; MM is a good example.
 > Debugging: DDT (but if you use block structure, watch out!)
 > Reference:
Wright & Gorin, "Fail", SAIL Operating Note 75B (Jan 1977).

No online documentation, but command string is like Macro's.
It understands full -20 file names, but doesn't do recognition on

File: Languages, Node: Algol-60, Up: Top, Previous: Assemblers, Next: Algol-68

Algol-60 (ALGOrithmic Language 1960): compiler

 > Comes from: DEC
 > Invoke via: 'Algol' or load-class command.  Extension: .ALG
 > System orientation: strictly -10.  DEC has no plans to 20ize.
 > Description:
 Block structured, recursive, statement-oriented language best suited
for clear, structured exposition of algorithms.  Various data types
are available.  This is the original common language of computer
scientists and is the basis of many other languages, such as Sail,
Simula, Pascal, Bliss, etc.  Can be linked with external routines in
Algol, Fortran, and Macro.  DEC still distributes Algol-60, but no
longer develops it.  There are no plans to make it 20ish.
 > Debugging: ALGDDT, an interactive source-level debugger.
 > References (only a few of many):
1. DECSYSTEM-10/20 Algol Programmer's Guide, AA-0196C-TK (1977).
2. Backus et al., "Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language ALGOL-60", 
    CACM vol.6, no.1 (1963).
3. Dijkstra, "A Primer of Algol-60 Programming", Academic Press, 1962.
4. "Collected Algorithms for CACM and ACM TOMS (1966 ff.).
5. "Modified Report on the Algorithmic Language Algol 1960",
     Computer Journal, v.19, Nov 1976.

* Menu:	On-line information about Algol-60

* Help:		(HLP:ALGOL.HLP)*
* Debugger:	(HLP:ALGDDT.HLP)*

File: Languages, Node: Algol-68, Up: Top, Previous: Algol-60, Next: Simula

Algol-68 (Algorithmic Language 1968): compiler
 > Comes from: University of Essex, U.K.
 > Invoke via: A68.  Extension: .A68.  Logical name: A68:.
 > System orientation: TOPS-20 (native) (but since it produces .REL
files that must be LINKed, TOPS-10 conventions should still be
observed in naming your Algol-68 programs).
 > Description:
 A very powerful language which includes extensible language facilities
and employs a new grammatical method of language definition.
Developed under IFIP auspices by Working Group 2.1 (Algol).  Not a
compatible extension of Algol-60 although it retains the atmosphere of
the earlier language.  Algol-68 was originally defined in 1968; it has
recently been revised by WG 2.1 in light of implementation experience.
Versions exists for IBM 360/370 as well as PDP-10, PDP-11, and other

 > References:
1. Van Wijngaarden et al., "Revised Report on the Algorithmic Language
    Algol 68", ACM Sigplan Notices, v.12 (May 1977), or in hardcover
    (Springer Verlag).
2. Bourne, S.R., "ALGOL68C Reference Manual", University of Cambridge
    Computer Laboratory (refers specifically to our version).
3. Tanenbaum, "A Tutorial on Algol-68", ACM Computing Surveys, v.8
    (June 1976). 
4. Lindsey & van der Meulen, "Informal Introduction to Algol-68",
    Revised edition, North-Holland Publ. Co. (1977).

* Menu:		See also:

* Help:		(HLP:A68.HLP)*
* Users Guide:	(A68:A68.MAN)*
* Bugs:		(A68:A68.DOC)*
* i/o system:	(A68:CHAPT8.MAN)*
* Formatting:	(A68:PSF.MAN)*
* Updates:	(A68:UPDATE.MAN)*

File: Languages, Node: Simula, Up: Top, Previous: Algol-68, Next:  Fortran

Simula-67 (Simulation Language 1967), compiler.

 > Comes from: Norwegian and Swedish governments
 > Invoke via: 'simula' or load-class command.  Extension: .SIM
 > System orientation: TOPS-10 (a native version is on the way)
 > Availability: SU-SIERRA, not MIT-OZ
 > Description:
 A powerful general-purpose language that contains Algol-60 as a
subset.  Simula has built-in capabilities for list-processing,
text-handling, abstract data types, quasi-parallel processing
(coroutines), formatted i/o, limited extensibility, and discrete event
simulation.  Distinct from its predecessor, known as Simula-I, which
was primarily a simulation language.  Implemented on most large
computers, including IBM 360/370.  Simula is one of the languages that
fulfills the role on the DEC-20 that PL/I plays on IBM systems, but
Simula differs from PL/I in that it is fully defined (i.e. there is no
risk that the language specification does not say what will happen
when a certain construct is used).  Simula programs are fully portable
except where the machines involved have differing character codes, in
which case conversion programs are supplied.  A codasyl-type database
management system, SIMDBM, is available.

Unfortunately, Simula combines its abstract data types with strong
(compile-time) type checking, which eliminates most of the potential
advantage of abstract data types.

 > Debugging: SIMDDT, interactive source-level bebugger.
 > References:
1. Dahl et al., "Common Base Language", Norwegian Computing Center,
2. Birwistle et al., "Simula begin", Auerbach, Phila (1973).
3. "Simula Newsletter", Norwegian Computer Center.
4. "DECsystem-10/20 Simula Gazette", Swedish Nat'l Defense Research
    Institute, Stockholm.
5. A list of Simula reports & papers appears in ACM SIGPLAN Notices,
    vol 15 #5, May 1980, pp 12-18.

* Menu:		See also:

* help:		(HLP:SIMULA.HLP)*
   General help about Simula.
* compile:	(SIM:SIMCOM.HLP)*
   How to use the Simula compiler.
* debug:	(SIM:SIMDDT.HLP)*
   How to use the Simula debugger.
* directory:	(SIM:SIMDIR.HLP)*
   How to use the Simula module maintenance facility.
* editor:	(SIM:SIMED.HLP)*
   How to use the source-file formatter and implementation
   conversion program.
* runtime:	(SIM:SIMRTS.HLP)*
   Information about the runtime system, especially file access.
* general:	(SIM:SIMULA.HLP)*
   General info about Simula, known bugs, etc.
* man1:		(SIM:SIMLH1.MAN)*
   Part I of the language handbook: the language definition.
* man2:		(SIM:SIMLH2.MAN)*
   Part II of the language handbook: TOPS-10 dependencies.
* man3:		(SIM:SIMLH3.MAN)*
   Part III of the language handbook: The Simula library.

File: Languages, Node: Fortran, Up: Top, Previous: Simula, Next: Sail

Fortran is the common language of engineers and many scientists;  it
is best suited for numerical applications, and it can be found on
almost every computer. However, it is also a very early language and
lacks most of the features which are thought to be essential to a
modern programming language (the 'do while' and 'if-then-else'
constructions, statement bracketing, scoping of variables, a standard
way of dealing with character-string data, adequate means of error
recovery, etc.), and therefore a great deal of discipline is required
to write clear, readable, correct, transportable programs.

 > References:
1. American National Standard, FORTRAN, ANS X3.9-1966.
2. American National Standard Basic FORTRAN, ANS X3.10-1966.
3. "Clarification of FORTRAN Standards -- Second Report", CACM v.14
    (Oct 1971).

By the way, there is a new ANSI standard for Fortran called
Fortran-77, which corrects a couple of the most outstanding
deficiencies (noted above) of Fortran-IV.  It replaces the 1966
standard.  See:

1. American National Standard, FORTRAN, ANS X3.9-1978.
2. Brainerd, "Fortran 77", CACM v.21 (Oct 78).

We don't expect to see Fortran-77 on the DEC-20 for several years
(except for SITGO, see below).

The following dialects of Fortran-IV exist (on the DEC-20):

* Menu:

* Fortran-20::	Fortran-20:
		The principle Fortran compiler for the DEC-20.
		Capable of producing well-optimized code.

* Sitgo::	This is a fast compile-and-go
		system mainly useful for instruction and
		program development.  Includes Fortran-77 features.

* Ratfor::	"Rational Fortran".  This is a preprocessor
		that allows structured programming, string
		manipulation, etc., in Fortran programs.

File: Languages, Node: Fortran-20, Up: Fortran, Next: Sitgo

Fortran-20 (Fortran for the -20): compiler

 > Comes from: DEC
 > Invoke via: 'fortran' or load-class command.  Extension: .FOR
 > System orientation: -10, but upgrade to -20 will happen some day.
 > Description:  Full ANSI 1966 standard Fortran IV with useful
extensions.  Global optimization as an integral (but optional) part of
the system.  Has a large library of built-in functions, and allows
access to various packages, such as the IMSL scientific subroutine
library and DBMS, and to external routines in Fortran, assembly
language, and Cobol.  Also, Fortran routines can be called from other
languages such as Algol and Sail.
 > Debugging: FORDDT, an interactive source-level debugger.
 > Reference:
FORTRAN Reference Manual, DEC, AA-4158B-TM (1977)

* Menu:		On-line information:

* Debugger:	(HLP:FORDDT.HLP)*
* Hints:	(FOR:HINTS.TXT)*
* Document:	(DOC:FORTRAN.DIF)*
   This contains details of how to use Fortran on the DEC-20,
   and comparison of DEC-20 Fortran with IBM Fortran and
   standard Fortran.

File: Languages, Node: Sitgo, Up: Fortran, Next: Ratfor, Previous: Fortran-20

Sitgo (Stevens Institute of Technology 'go'): compiler/loader

 > Comes from: DEC via Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ.
 > Invoke via: 'Sitgo' or load-class command, Extension: .STG
 > System orientation: Strictly -10
 > Description:
A very fast fortran compiler designed especially for people learning
Fortran.  It has very good compile-time diagnostics.  Includes most of
the Fortran-77 features.  Can be run interactively, or it can manage
its own batch stream.  Requires modifications to PA1050.  Since it
does no optimization and bypasses LINK, it can be a big performance
win on systems with big introductory Fortran courses.

* Menu:

* Help:		(HLP:SITGO.HLP)*

File: Languages, Node: Ratfor, Previous: Sitgo, Up: Fortran

Ratfor (Rational Fortran): Preprocessor

 > Comes from: Bell Labs via BBN
There are many other versions, but this is the one we happen to have.
 > Invoke via: 'ratfor'. Extension: .RAT
 > System orientation: TOPS-20 (but see below)
 > Description: 

Developed at Bell Laboratories by Kernighan and Plauger.  A
preprocessor for Fortran which gives it modern control structures,
string data, text substitution, etc., without leaving the language
entirely.  The flavor of Ratfor is like C, and the language is
becoming very popular because it meets minimal requirements for
structuredness and utility, and it generates a Fortran source program,
which can be compiled on almost any computer.  Since Ratfor itself is
written in Ratfor, the compiler can be moved to new computers very
easily.  The compiler runs native; you can give it TOPS-20
file specifications for input and output, but it produces a Fortran
program, and Fortran currently runs under compatibility.  However, a
number of routines can be found in RAT: that allow TOPS-20 i/o from
Ratfor and hence from Fortran.  The compiler and other sources are on
line in RAT:; users are invited to make fixes and improvements.  No
comprehensive document about this version exists; users are invited to
write one.

 > Debugging: ForDDT interactive Fortran source-level debugger.
 > References:

Kernighan & Plauger, "Software Tools", Prentice-Hall (1976).

* Menu:		See also

* help:		(HLP:RATFOR.HLP)Top
* history:	(RAT:RATFOR.INFO)*
   This is a mail file; use Rmail or MM to read it.  Contains valuable
   information about how Ratfor was developed at BBN and how the BBN
   version differs from K & P's.

File: Languages, Node: Sail, Up: Top, Previous: Fortran, Next: Mainsail

Sail (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Labs language): compiler

 > Comes from: Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
   Distributed by:
Charles Hedrick (Hedrick@RUTGERS)
Laboratory for Computer Science Research
Hill Center, Busch Campus
Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ  08903
 > Invoke via: 'sail' or load-class command. Extension: .SAI
 > System orientation: Mostly Tenex, some -20 (but no -10!).
 > Description:

A superset of Algol-60.  Additional features include dynamic strings,
records, additional control structures, in-line assembly code,
built-in access to monitor calls (JSYS's), a complete set of
compile-time arithmetic and logic as well as a macro processor,
conditional compilation and compile-time i/o, sets and lists,
interrupt facilities, plus just about every other feature that could
be imagined.  Also included is another language called LEAP, which
allows manipulation of associative data structures.  Sail can be
linked with external routines in Sail, Fortran, and assembly language.
Sail is not entirely free of idiosyncrasies and bugs - it was written
by many different people over a long period.  But it is quite usable.
Sail only runs on DEC-10's and -20's, but a machine-independent Sail
(Mainsail) is available; it's not the same language, but it's very
close in spirit.
 > Debugging: Bail, a source-level interactive debugger.
 > References:

Shapiro, Marvin,  "A Beginner's Guide to Sail",
 Division of Computer Research and Technology,
 National Institutes of Health, Bethesda MD 20014 (July 1976).

Reiser, "SAIL", Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory Memo
 AIM-289, Computer Science Department Report No. STAN-CS-76-574.
 This reference manual is indispensible for Sail users.

Smith, "Sail Tutorial", Sail Memo AIM-290,
 C.S. Dept Report STAN-CS-76-575.

Feldman, "An Algol-Based Associative Language", CACM Aug 1969.
 (This is about Leap).

* Menu:	On-line information about Sail:

* Help:		(HLP:SAIL.HLP)*	
* Debugger:	(HLP:BAIL.HLP)*
* Manual:	(SAI:SAIL.MAN)*
* New Stuff:	(SAI:SAIL.DOC)*

* Hints:	(SAI:HINTS.TXT)*
		Valuable tips from Columbia Sail users.  You can append
		your own tidbits to this file.

		It's quite long, but if you want to teach yourself Sail
		it beats the reference manual, especially if you come from
		a Fortran background.

File: Languages, Node: Mainsail, Up: Top, Previous: Sail, Next: Pascal

Mainsail (MAchine-INdependent Sail): Compiler

 > Comes from: Stanford University Medical Center
 The contact is:
Clark R. Wilcox (Wilcox@SUMEX-AIM)
SUMEX Computer Project
Department of Genetics, Room TB105
Stanford University Medical Center
Stanford CA 94305

The Mainsail project is about to go commercial, as XIDAK Inc.  (Cheap
for educational institutions).

 > Invoke via: 'mainsail'. Extension: .MSA (or null).
 > System orientation: TENEX
 > Description:
 Under development at SUMEX by Clark R. Wilcox et al., this language
may well be the long-awaited native-mode general-purpose programming
language for the DEC-20.  It is a generalization of Sail, designed
from scratch with portability and consistency as principle criteria.
It is a serious effort, fully supported by the Biotechnology Resources
Program of the National Institutes of Health.  All the power of Sail
is there, but the hacks are gone and many of Sail's features have been
extended, especially strings and records.  In addition, certain
concepts have been adapted from other languages, such as the modules
of Simula.  A wide variety of data types and control structures are
supported.  Mainsail programs cannot be linked with programs written
in other languages, but it is possible to write in-line assembler code
or assembly-language modules.  In fact, Mainsail cannot be used with
LINK; Mainsail provides its own combined dynamic linker and operating
environment.  Since Mainsail programs are intended to look the same on
any machine, some special features of TOPS-20 like filename
recognition are not available.  Versions currently exist for TENEX
(and therefore with very slight modification for TOPS-20), TOPS-10,
UNIX, RSX-11M, and RT-11.  There are also versions under development
(perhaps completed by the time you read this) for the VAX, MC68000,
and IBM 370/30xx/43xx CMS.

 > Debugging: An interactive source-level debugger is expected.
 > References:

1. Wilcox et al., "Mainsail Language Manual", Stanford University
    Medical Center (also available on line, see menu).
2. Wilcox, "The Mainsail Project: Developing Tools for Software
    Portability", Proc. 1st Annual Symposium on Computer Application
    in Medical Care, Washington DC (Oct 77).
3. Wilcox (in Lederberg & Feigenbaum, [?]), "Comparison of Mainsail
    and Pascal".

* Menu:

* Hints:	(MSA:HINTS.TXT)*
* PDP-10:	(MSA:PDP10.DOC)*

File: Languages, Node: Pascal, Up: Top, Previous: Mainsail, Next: Lisp

Pascal: Compiler

 > Comes from: Rutgers University.  Converted from Hamburg DECsystem-10
version by Charles Hedrick, and given systems programming orientation
in the doing.
 > Invoke via: 'pascal' or load-class command, Extension: .PAS
 > System orientation: TOPS-20.  The compiler command string is in
TOPS-10 format to allow it to be hooked into the load-class
commands.  Otherwise, the compiler runs native on the -20, as do
the programs it generates.
 > Description:
 Loosely based on Algol-60; includes a variety of data-structuring
facilities (records, sets, lists).  Intended as both a convenient
basis to teach programming and as an efficient tool to write large
programs; emphasis is on keeping the number of fundamental concepts
reasonably small.  Pascal-20 was developed for use as a systems
programming language, and includes a JSYS interface and the ability to
write external Pascal and assembly language procedures, but is
otherwise very close to the original language definition.  Active
development of Pascal-20 continues; current projects are to make it
closer to UCSD Pascal, to add a preprocessor, and to make a compatible
compile-and-go version (an incompatible compile-and-go version has
been done at Stanford, called PASSGO, but it's not quite ready for
widespread distribution).

 > Debugging: PASDDT, interactive source-level debugger.
 > References:
1. Jensen & Wirth, "Pascal User Manual and Report", 2nd Ed.,
    Springer-Verlag (1974).
2. Wirth, "The Programming Language Pascal", Acta Informatica 1 (1971).
3. Wirth, "Systematic Programming: An Introduction", Prentice-Hall (1973).
4. Conway, Gries, & Zimmerman, "A Primer on Pascal", Winthrop (1976).
5. Mickel (editor), "PASCAL Newsletter", Computer Center, University
    of Minnesota.

* Menu:

* Help:		(HLP:PASCAL.HLP)*
* Pas-Critique::
   An objective evaluation of Pascal-20 by its author.
* Manual:	(DOC:PASCAL.DOC)*
   This document describes only the system-dependent aspects of Pascal-20.
   It is not a language manual; for this see reference 1.

File: Languages, Node: Pas-Critique, Up: Pascal

The following words were written by Charles L. Hedrick at Rutgers:
[PASCAL] is based on the PASREL compiler from the University of
Hamburg, which was submitted to DECUS about two years ago.  Since then
Hamburg has submitted an updated version, the most useful pieces of
which we have also used.  (In general there seem to have been more
bugs in the updates than in the original implementation.)  I have made
the following sorts of changes to their system:

- The TOPS-20 I/O system is completely new.

- The runtime structure has been changed to allocate core
automatically as needed.

- The compiler has had many bug fixes made.

- The compiler has been modified in a number of minor ways to be
closer to a full implementation of the PASCAL language.

- Certain added I/O and runtime procedures required modification of
the compiler in order to be compiled properly.

The goals of these changes were as follows:

- To give the user access to all the facilities of the underlying
operating system if he desires, supplying reasonable defaults when he
does not.

- To make use of the system "smoother" (e.g. provide output for CREF,
fix problems that caused every program to begin by typing "*" and to
always create a file called OUTPUT).

The "non-goals" (to use DEC's terminology) were

- To make an optimizing compiler (not practical in the time available,
and maybe not even desirable for installations using this for

- To extend the PASCAL language (as distinguished from adding new I/O
procedures).  While there are serious limitations to PASCAL, solving
them would make it a "bigger", more complex language, thus possibly
reducing its attractiveness for teaching purposes.  Anyway, there are
other languages available that have all the features that would be
added (e.g. SAIL).  However I have not removed the extensions present
in the original PASREL compiler.

I consider that [PASCAL] has the following major strengths [in the
DECSYSTEM-20 environment]:

- Its syntax is based on Algol.  This is the major source of its
reputed "cleanness".  (I cannot understand why PASCAL is taking the
world by fire and Algol never got anywhere.)

- It has very good data structuring facilities.  The record structures
are very general and easy to use.  Packed records make it possible to
define the various wierd argument blocks used by UUO's and JSYS's.

- This implementation gives very good access to the functions of the
operating system.  It is possible to do odd kinds of I/O, and to
insert UUO's and JSYS's into the program without needing to set up
arguments using assembly language.

These advantages make it useful for teaching and system programming.
However when one attempts to use it for general applications
programming, the following problems in the design of the language show

- It is not possible to write procedures that take arrays of arbitrary
size as arguments.  E.g. one can write a procedure to invert 5 by 5
matrices, but not to invert arbitrary size matrices.

- There is no double precision arithmetic.

- There are no character strings.  Instead one has only arrays of
characters.  Thus one is constantly writing loops that deal with each
character in the array.  None of the usual string operations are
available (or even definable, because of the limitation on variable
length arrays).  This implementation allows you to treat a character
array as a file, which makes some operations a bit easier.  But
character handling is dramatically clumsier than SAIL, or even DEC

- Records are not garbage collected nor is their any way to return
records to the heap.

The first two problems mean that the language cannot be considered for
serious numerical work.  The lack of character strings means that it
takes considerable ingenuity to write interactive programs that
conduct dialogs with the user.  The fact that records cannot be
returned means that non-trivial use of pointers requires the user to
supply his own memory management.  Because of strong typechecking, it
is not possible for the user to write a good memory management system.
The best one can do without abusing the language is to keep separate
free lists for each record type.

I think most users would find SAIL a better choice for general
applications programming.  PASCAL would be better only in the
following rather special circumstances:

- Records and pointers are very important to the application.  Packed
records and strong type checking make PASCAL an excellent choice in
this case.  (This implementation checks for attempts to follow NIL or
0 pointers, and it is possible to force all uninitialized variables to
be 0.)  SAIL's record syntax is somewhat clumsy, and it does not
provide a clean way to have records with components smaller than a
word.  However macros can be used to solve these problems in SAIL if

- The program contains many JSYS's.  In SAIL one would have to use the
facility for inserting assembly language in line.  In PASCAL monitor
calls can be done very nicely in a high level way, using the data
structures built into the language.

- The program is intended to be transportable.  In this case one should
consider Simula as an alternative, however, as there are a number of
other Simula implementations.  Simula is not my first choice because
the programs that have been done locally using it seem to be big and
slow.  (I.e. when translated into SAIL they get smaller and and

There are, of course, a number of languages other than SAIL which
would be suggested by my various colleagues.  (The most interesting of
these seems to be ECL, which combines a good interactive environment,
such as Lisp and APL provide, with the advantages of a syntax and
semantics of roughly the same power as Algol 68.)

- Charles L. Hedrick, Rutgers University, October 1978

File: Languages, Node: Lisp, Up: Top, Previous: Pascal, Next: Bliss

Lisp - various Lisp implementations for the -20

Columbia has tried various implementations of LISP - Rutgers/UCI
(originally Stanford) 1.6 Lisp, InterLisp, and UCI Tenex/Tops20 Lisp
(called ILisp), and has settled - for now at least - on MIT MacLisp
because of the current choices, it's the easiest on the system
(Interlisp practically needs a dedicated machine), and it's most at
home in the TOPS-20 environment.  There is also a totally new LISP
system under development at Rutgers which we'll be watching.

If you don't know much about Lisp, you should look at the Lisp Culture
section, as selectable in the Menu below.  Also see the Lisp Tutor
section, and the tutorial referenced below.

* Menu:		the Lisps we have on the -20

* Culture::	Some ramblings about Lisp
* Tutor::	A Lisp CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) system
* MacLisp::	MIT project MAC LISP.
* Manual: (LISP)	(MacLisp Manual)
* RUCI Lisp::	Rutgers/UCI/Stanford Lisp 1.6
* Interlisp::	BBN/XEROX PARC Interlisp
* ILisp::	IMSSS' UCI Tenex/Tops20 Lisp
* Scheme: (SCHEME)

File: Languages, Node: Culture, Up: Lisp, Next: Tutor

Some Cultural Information about Lisp

Lisp is a language that has probably generated most of the important
seminal ideas in language theory and practice (Algol fans' opinions
notwithstanding), and which has carried most of the burden of
symbol-manipulation tasks in the computer science community for many
years.  It has been a particularly important tool in the development
of artificial intelligence and related disciplines, and still lives on
strong in many of these circles.  It is a language that can't be beat
for simplicity and power in its intended application of symbol
manipulation (which encompasses tasks such as natural language
understanding, goal-oriented programming, theorem-proving, etc.), and
it is even a decent programming language in its own right in other
areas (it is used as a systems programming language at some notorious
places, most notable the M.I.T. Artificial Intelligence Labs).  Its
simultaneous simplicity and power make it an attractive language for
many tasks.

Honeywell now sells an EMACS written in Maclisp, for their Multics
system.  The author said that using Lisp resulted in code that was
more concise, faster, and smaller in core than he would have got using
PL/1, the standard Multics system programming language.  With luck,
there may be an EMACS written in Lisp for DEC systems to replace the
current one.

Lisp is also the only truly extensible language.  Because a Lisp
interpreter is available when the compiler is used, the user can
define syntactic extensions which run arbitrary Lisp programs to
compute the code they expand into.  It is easy to define new control

This is not to say that it couldn't be better; it has many rough edges
that have been smoothed in later attempts at sophisticated
programming languages, but it still has a good deal of popularity in
many computer science circles.

Lisp was first conceived and developed by John McCarthy of (then)
M.I.T., who's now at Stanford (and has been for many years).  McCarthy
first defined a 'pure' Lisp which was theoretically very interesting,
but not very practical.  He, and several other people elsewhere, added
standard-programming-language features to it, and the result was
several versions of impure Lisp, which have diverged even further
since then.  Still, the basic concepts are the same, and
implementations have a surprising closeness, differing mostly in the
'sugar' added later to sweeten the particular programming environment.
There is a very good article on the history of Lisp, by McCarthy, in
the History of Programming Languages Conference Proceedings (Sigplan
Notices, Volume 13, Number 8, August 1978).  McCarthy, it should be
mentioned, is often considered one of the fathers of the time-sharing
concept, as he was the key figure on the development of CTSS at
M.I.T., back in the one-programmer-at-a-time-on-the-computer days.

To throw in a little controversy, I would venture to say that any
computer scientist that doesn't know and appreciate Lisp is missing
quite a bit, due to its singular importance in the development of this

For more reading, there are several good places to look:  Pat Winston,
the director of the Artificial Intelligence Labs at M.I.T., and a very
good teacher, has just written a introduction to the field of
artificial intelligence which includes a Lisp primer ("Artificial
Intelligence," Addison-Wesley; 1977).  He has also written, with
Berthold Horn, a complete text ("Lisp," Addison-Wesley; 1977).  The
old standby, somewhat babyish, but certainly a good beginner's book,
is the Weissman "Lisp 1.5 Primer" (Dickenson Publishing Co.; 1967).
There's also a fairly new book, called "Let's Talk Lisp", written by
Laurent Siklossy (Prentice-Hall; 1976); I don't know if it's that
good, but Winston recommends it.

For a very tasteful overview of how one segment of the computer
science community 'lives in' Interlisp, see the article "Programming
in the Interactive Environment: the LISP Experience", by E. Sandewall,
ACM Computing Surveys, Volume 10, Number 1 (March 1978).

Lisp has many spiritual children; some of the most prominent are
Planner, a goal-oriented programming language developed at M.I.T.;
Conniver, an alternative to Planner (there were a couple of papers
written of the sort "why Conniving is better than Planning"); QLisp,
an attempt at modernizing Lisp; QA4, a theorem-proving-oriented
language; POPL, a British language that emphasized a more ordinary
syntax; ECL, an extensible language developed at Harvard that owes
much to Lisp and has a kinship to Algol-68; MDL (or Muddle), a
considerably unusual dialect of Lisp developed at M.I.T. for use as a
modelling language; and many more which I probably don't know about.
(Of course, this paragraph does great injustice by trying to summarize
many man-years of intellectual striving in a single phrase.)

One reason that Lisp and her offspring have fared so well, and are so
important for research is that implementations have two big advantages
over other languages: (a) the programs themselves are just Lisp (or
language X) data structures, and are thus manipulable in wonderful
ways, and, as a consequence, (b) these implementations are usually
completely self-contained and full environments (as the Sandewall
article mentioned above points out).  This means that one can live
totally in the world of the language, editing, compiling, running,
debugging, all at the language level.  Further, since most of these
systems are thus self-extensible, customization for personal tastes is
quite common, and encouraged; contrast this to the usual situation of
a language that is frozen forever (usually in its wrongness).

File: Languages, Node: Tutor, Up: Lisp, Previous: Culture,
      Next: MacLisp

Lisp Tutor: Lisp teaching system

 > Comes from: IMSSS (Stanford Center for Mathematical Studies in the 
   Social Sciences)
 > Invoke via: '<lspcai>lspcai'.
 > System orientation: Tenex/Twenex
 > Availability: MIT-OZ, NOT SU-Sierra
 > Description: Attempts to be a self-teaching system for Lisp, given
some programming background; does a fairly good, if straightforward,
job.  It tries to keep a history for each student, and has a fair
amount of features designed to help teachers track students' progress
(which we don't use, naturally, but at least it knows where you last
left off).  The system-specific parts refer to ILisp.

* Menu:

* LspCAI Reference: (LSP:LSPCAI.DOC)*
		Very IMSSS-specific, but tells about the system.
		(Somewhat garbled, meant for hardcopy output.)

File: Languages, Node: MacLisp, Up: Lisp, Next: RUCI Lisp,
      Previous: Tutor

 > Comes from: MIT, distributed by:
John L. White (JONL@MIT-MC)
545 Technology Square
Cambridge MA 02139
 > Invoke via: 'lisp', extension: .LSP, logical name: LSP:.
 > System orientation: TOPS-20.
 > Description: MacLisp features a compiler, file i/o, throws and
catches (with tags), arbitrary precision integer arithmetic (including

gcd function), arrays, macros, hunks, but lacks double precision
floating point arithmetic and complex numbers.
Well integrated with EMACS (LEDIT).  There are also TENEX and TOPS-10
versions, and it.  An extended version of MacLisp, Lisp Machine Lisp,
runs on the LISP machines at MIT.  In fact, the entire Lisp Machine
system is written in Lisp Machine Lisp.  A machine independent version
of Lisp (called NIL) is under development.
 > References:
1. Winston & Horn, "Lisp", Addison-Wesley.

2. Touretzky, "A Summary of MacLisp Functions and Flags",
    Carnegie-Mellon University (Aug 1979).

3. Weinreb & Moon, "Lisp Machine Manual".

4. Greenberg, "Lisp Tutorial".
* Menu:			Online documentation:

			  Helpful Hints - How to run functions.
			  Detailed documentation (incomplete).
* Functions:		(PS:<MACLISP>QIOORD.DOC)*
			  Names of functions and features.
			  Cryptic messages about newer features.
			  Introductory letter to the latest version

File: Languages, Node: RUCI Lisp, Up: Lisp, Next: Interlisp,
      Previous: MacLisp

Rutgers/UCI Lisp: Interpreter

 > Comes from: Rutgers (from UCI (from Stanford))
 > Invoke via: [not at Columbia any more],  Extension: .LSP
 > System orientation: -10 (see ILisp node for -20 version)
 > Description: see the Culture node (previous) for some flavor
of the language.  This is a later version of the original Stanford
Lisp 1.6, which was enhanced at U.C., Irvine, and even more enhanced
at Rutgers.  These improvements have left this version of Lisp with a
good deal of Interlisp flavor.  The advantages of this implementation
are its smallness, and consequent speed.  One unfortunate property of
using this Lisp is that you have to drag through three separate
manuals to get all the details, although the first manual (the
Stanford A.I. Labs Memo) contains nearly all you have to know to get
 > Debugging: built in to the language
 > References: see node Culture (previous node)

* Menu:

* Basic Manual:	(LSP:SAILSP.MAN)*
		This contains the basic language information.
* UCI Version:	(LSP:UCILSP.MAN)*
		Describes a few enhancements, and the new editor.
* Rutgers Version: (LSP:RUTLSP.MAN)*
		The Rutgers enhanced Lisp.

File: Languages, Node: Interlisp, Up: Lisp, Previous: RUCI Lisp, Next: ILisp

Interlisp: Interpreter

 > Comes from: Bolt, Beranek and Newman (BBN) and XEROX Palo Alto
Research Center (PARC)
 > Invoke via: [not at Columbia], no real default extension
 > System orientation: -20 (really, Tenex, but it's close enough)
 > Description: See the Culture node for a flavor of the
language.  This implementation of Lisp is by far the biggest and (some
claim) the best around; it really has everything, including the
kitchen sink.  Unfortunately, we have to recommend against using it,
as it's just too large for our poor system.  Its manual is
phenomenally good (and large).  Interlisp now has working
implementations on IBM 360/370 systems, Burroughs B6700's, and CDC
3300's (I'm not sure about this last one); the reason it's called
Interlisp is that it was designed to be portable to various machines.
 > Debugging: an integral part of the implementation
 > References:
  See the Culture Node, two Previous nodes.

  "Interlisp Reference Manual", Warren Teitelman, XEROX Palo Alto
Research Center, October 1974.  (Cost: about $30 from XEROX PARC)

There is no on-line documentation.

File: Languages, Node: ILisp, Up: Lisp, Next: (Scheme), Previous: Interlisp

ILisp: interpreter

 > Comes from: Rutgers (from IMSSS (from UCI (from Stanford A.I. Labs)))
 > Invoke via: ILISP, extension: .LSP, logical name: LISP:.
 > System orientation: -20 (really, Tenex)
 > Description:  See the Culture node for language flavor.  ILisp
is a version of UCI Lisp (which is a version of Stanford Lisp 1.6),
adapted for the Tenex (and thus, nearly fully, the TOPS-20)
environment by the Stanford IMSSS (Institute for Mathematical Studies
in the Social Sciences) group.  ILisp lacks the additional features of
Rutgers/UCI Lisp (see RUCI Lisp node), and purportedly has a buggy
compiler, but we recommend its use over RUCI Lisp due to ILisp's
Tenex/Twenex orientation.  Unfortunately, like RUCI Lisp, there are
three manuals that you need for total system use, unless you already
know Lisp, in which case you can skip the basic Stanford 1.6 Lisp
manual (these manuals are listed below).
 > Debugging: built in to the system

* Menu:

* Basic Manual:	(LSP:SAILSP.MAN)*
		This is the Stanford 1.6 Lisp manual, which contains
		basic language information.
* UCI Version:	(LSP:UCILSP.MAN)*
		The UCI version of Stanford 1.6 Lisp.
		Describes the new features of ILisp vs. UCI Lisp.

File: Languages, Node: Bliss, Up: Top, Previous: Lisp, Next: PPL

Bliss: compiler

A recursive, block-structured, expression-oriented language which DEC
uses for writing its compilers (Basic+2 and Fortran, for instance).
There are no data types in Bliss, only words, and there is no built-in
i/o or monitor interface, but packages exist for these things as well
as for string manipulation, etc.  Versions for the -10 and the -11
exist, but they all run on the -10 (or the -20, of course), and
produce code for the appropriate machine.  Currently the versions for
the -10 and the -11 are Bliss-10 and Bliss-11, respectively, but there
is now a Common Bliss language, from which offshoot the various Bliss
compilers for the -10/-20, -11 and VAX (Bliss-36, Bliss-16, and
Bliss-32).  The newer compiler has just been announced commercially.

* Menu:		The following versions of Bliss are available:

* Bliss-10::
* Bliss-11::
* Common Bliss::

File: Languages, Node: Bliss-10, Up: Bliss, Next: Bliss-11

Bliss-10 (Bliss for the -10): Compiler

 > Comes from: CMU via DEC
 > Invoke via: 'blis10'.  Extension: .BLI or .B10
 > System orientation: -10.
 > Description: Generates code for -10's and -20's.
 > Debugging: Six12 in conjunction with DDT
 > References:
1. Bliss-10 Programmer's Reference Manual, DEC-10-LBRMA-A-D (1974)
2. Wulf, "Bliss: A Language for Systems Programming", CACM (Dec 1971)

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:		(HLP:BLISS.HLP)*
* Six12 Manual:	(BLI:SIX12.MAN)*

File: Languages, Node: Bliss-11, Up: Bliss, Next: Common Bliss,
 Previous: Bliss-10

Bliss-11: Compiler

 > Comes from: Carnegie-Mellon University
 > Invoke via: 'blis11'
 > System orientation: -10
 > Description:  Generates Macro-11 code for the PDP-11, which in turn
can be assembled on the -20 by MACN11 or MACY11 and linked on the -20
using Link11.  See the language utilities node for more information
about MACx11, Link11, and a package of RSX macros (*Note Utilities: Utilities.)
 > Debugging: Six12 (but for the -11) in conjunction with ODT on the -11.
 > References:
1. "Bliss-11 Programmer's Manual" (1974) available from CMU or DECUS.

File: Languages, Node: Common Bliss, Up: Bliss, Previous: Bliss-11, 

Common Bliss: Compiler

 > Comes from: DEC
 > Invoke via: 'bliss' [but not yet at Columbia], extension: .BLI
 > System orientation: -20
 > Description:
 DEC's corporate "system implementation language", intended mainly for
writing compilers, editors, and other programs that could conceivably
run on more than one of {PDP-10,DEC-20,VAX,PDP-11}.  Great care has
gone into designing the language to be both highly optimized and
transportable.  Common Bliss actually refers to the union of
{Bliss-16,Bliss-32,Bliss-36}, which are the specific compilers that
generate code for PDP-11's, VAXes, and PDP-10's/DEC-20's,
respectively.  Bliss-16, by the way, only runs on PDP-10's and
DEC-20's, and may never be available commercially.  It is highly
doubtful that any flavor of Bliss will ever be available on any
non-DEC machine.  Bliss-36 has just been proclaimed available to
customers by DEC (April 1980), but it's still not clear what the
pricing will be.
 > References:
1. Bliss Language Guide, DEC AA-H275A-RK (1978).
2. Bliss Pocket Guide, DEC AV-H289A-TE (1978).
3. DEC also has some kind of Bliss Primer or Reader.

File: Languages, Node: PPL, Up: Top, Previous: Bliss, Next: ECL

PPL: interpreter

 > Comes from: Harvard via XEROX PARC
 > Invoke via: 'ppl', Extension: .PPL
 > System orientation: -20 (actually, Tenex), does its own irritating
TTY-style editing.
 > Description: 
 A language developed at Harvard for research in extensible languages,
which turned into a pedagogic tool.  It was used to teach programming
systems to non-science majors, and was quite successful in this task.
Its flavor is APL-ish, if you know APL; if not, then it's an
interpretive, highly interactive language, with a great deal of power,
allowing you to define new data types and operators, as well as
performing in more mundane ways (e.g. like Basic).  PPL is now in use
at several universities, most of whom run it under UNIX, and is the
subject of at least two books on introductory programming (one of
which, quite good, is about to appear later this year; see reference
2, below).
 > Debugging: an integral part of the system
 > References:
   1. "PPL User's Manual", by Ed Taft and Tim Standish, Technical Report
15-67, Center for Research in Computing Technology, Harvard
University, August 1976.  Note that TOPS-20 PPL uses the "old editor"!
   2. "A First Course in The Art and Science of Computing", by Mark
Tuttle, Charles Prenner and Thomas Standish, to be published by
Addison-Wesley, 1978.

* Menu:		On-line documentation

* Help:		(HLP:PPL.HLP)*	A brief help file.

Note from RMS:

My first system programming experience was helping a little in
implementing PPL.  As far as I can see, any advantage it has over
other languages for pedagogy lie in its interactive
line-number-within-function editor, which somewhat resembles the APL
editor.  This is easier than using a standard printing terminal text
editor, and more so for students.  However, any display editor (such
as EMACS) ought to even things out for other languages.

Aside from that, PPL does have the advantage of not having strong
typing, so that the user is not burdened with data type declarations
for variables.  This makes less to worry about when writing a simple
program.  However, Lisp has the same advantage.

File: Lanaguages, Node: ECL, Up: Top, Previous: PPL, Next: C

ECL: complete programming system

 > Comes from: Harvard
 > Invoke via: 'ecl:ecl', Extension: .ECL (.BIN for compiled modules)
 > System orientation: -10, a little -20 (Tenex, actually)
 > Description (taken from the manual): "The ECL programming system
has been designed as a tool for general applications programming.  Its
emphasis is on providing a powerful linguistic medium and convenient
programming environment for the production of software spanning a
large range of applications areas.  In providing such an environment,
three goals were considered primary: (a) to allow problem-oriented
description of algorithms, data and control over a wide range of
applications areas; (b) to facilitate program construction and
debugging; and (c) to facilitate smooth progression between initial
program construction and the realization of a well-tuned final product.
ECL consists of a programming language, called EL1, and a system
built around this language to realize these goals.  The system allows
on-line interactive construction, testing, and running of programs.
It includes a language-oriented editor, an interpreter, and a fully
compatible compiler.  Utilities include a debugging package, a
source-level frequency profile package, and a source program
 > Debugging: an integral part of the system.
 > References:
   1. "ECL Programmer's Manual", TR 23-74, Center for Research in
       Computing Technology, Harvard University, December 1974.
   2. Wegbreit, "The ECL Programming System", Proc. AFIPS 1971
       FJCC, vol.39.
   3. Wegbreit, "The Treatment of Data Types in EL1", CACM (May 74).
   4. ("The Computer Journal" article by Wegbreit, about closure in

There is no on-line documentation.

Note from RMS:

I was connected with ECL for a while too.  If you imagine Lisp, with
user-defined record and array data types which can be defined at run
time, given an Algolish syntax, you get the idea.

ECL has the right basic idea for how to do data type definitions,
because data types are objects in their own right which can be created
and manipulated at run time.  So a program has a chance of working on
data types which did not exist when the program was written (because
they are part of another program which is also loaded).  This is
essential for writing debuggers, interpreters, etc. in the language
itself.  Unfortunately, ECL fails to make it completely possible to
omit type checking entirely when that is desired, and this must be
programmed around.  It would be easy to fix this.

The Algol-style front end is a bad idea to begin with.  If you can't
adapt to winning Lisp syntax, most Lisp systems come with simple
optional Algol-style syntax front ends which do the same thing that
ECL does, and they can be extended by the user.  ECL's syntax cannot

File: Languages, Node: C, Up: Top, Previous: ECL, Next: BCPL

C: Compiler

 > Comes from: The C Language was invented at Bell Laboratories.
The Portable C compiler was written by Alan Snyder at M.I.T.
Portable C was implemented for the -20 by Norman Kincl and Chris
Ryland at Columbia University.  Contact Eliot B. Moss at MIT Lab for
Computer Science (545 Tech Square, Cambridge, MA 02139) for
information on obtaining MIT's version of C.
 > Invoke via: 'c:cc'. Extension: .C
 > System orientation: -20
 > Description:
"C is a general-purpose programming language which features economy of
expression, modern control flow and data structures, and a rich set of
operators.  C is not a 'very high level' language, nor a 'big' one,
and is not specialized to any particular area of application.  But its
absence of restrictions and its generality make it more convenient and
effective for many tasks than supposedly more powerful languages."(1)
C was designed to be machine-independent, but Columbia's version
includes a Jsys interface to allow it to take full advantage of the
TOPS-20 environment.  The C compiler currently generates a Macro-20
(q.v.)  source program that can be compiled in the normal way.  Work
on the runtime support is still in progress.
 > References:

1. Kernighan & Ritchie, "The C Programming Language", Prentice-Hall (1978).

2. Snyder, "A Portable Compiler for the Language C", M.I.T. Project MAC
    (May 1975).

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:		(HLP:C.HLP)Top

File: Languages, Node: BCPL, Up: Top, Previous: C, Next: CPL

BCPL (BBN Combined Programming Language): compiler

 > Comes from: BBN (Bolt, Baranek, & Newman)
 > Invoke via: 'bcpl'. Extension: .BCP
 > System orientation: Tenex (and therefore almost entirely -20)
 > Description:  A simple recursive programming language designed for
compiler writing and system programming; readable, easy to learn, and
efficient. It is made self-consistent and easy to define accurately by
an underlying structure based on a simple idealized object machine.
The treatment of data types is unusual and allows the power and
convenience of a language with dynamically varying types and yet the
efficiency of Fortran.  BCPL is itself written in BCPL and has been
transferred successfully to other machines, including IBM 360's and
370's,  the PDP-11, Univac 1100 series, Honeywell 6180, and many more.
Has the flavor of (and shares common ancestry with) C.  Includes a
Jsys interface; can be linked with external modules in BCPL or
 > Debugging: BDDT interactive source-level debugger.
 > References:
1. BCPL Manual, BBN (1974).
2. Richards, "BCPL: A Tool for Compiler Writing and Structured
     Programming", AFIPS (1969 SJCC, v.34).

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:		(HLP:BCPL.HLP)*
* Concordance:	(BCP:CONC.DOC)*
   Makes a concordance of a BCPL program.

No online language manual. 
Various interesting items under logical name bcp:.

File: Languages, Node: CPL, Up: Top, Previous: BCPL, Next: PL/I

CPL (Conversational Programming Language): Interactive Interpreter

 > Comes from: DEC
 > Invoke via: 'cpl'. Extension: .CPL
 > System orientation: -10, partially 20-ized.
 > Description: 

A subset of standard ANSI PL/I with some extensions.  Totally
interactive, with built-in syntax-checking editor, immediate-mode or
deferred execution of statements, etc., but with several deficiencies
which make it impractical as a "serious" language: there is no
matching compiler, hence no way to link CPL programs with external
modules or to run CPL programs efficiently;  there is no random-access
(or keyed or binary) i/o; PL/I structures are missing; the CPL editor
will not let you format your programs - all statements are
left-justified (but you can use EMACS's PL/I formatter after the
fact).  There are a few missing minor features, too: complex and
decimal datatypes, label and file variables, various ON-conditions,
etc., but even with its faults it's a good instructional language, and
a useful facility for PL/I program development.  CPL was written and
documented by a single person (John Xenakis) but DEC has no plans for
further work on it.
 > Debugging: built in (immediate mode statements, etc.)
 > Reference:
DECSYSTEM10/20 Conversation Programming Language User's Manual,

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:		(HLP:CPL.HLP)*	A brief help file.
* Summary:	(DOC:CPL.DOC)*
   The summary of language elements, from the manual (ch. 32).

File: Languages, Node: PL/I, Up: Top, Previous: CPL, Next: Basic

Programming Language I - Compiler.

 > Comes from: DEC
 > Invoke via: [we don't have it]
 > System orientation: unknown
 > Description:
DEC is still keeping this under wraps, but they will announce a
fullblown PL/I sometime in the near future.  It is being done by the
same person that did CPL.

File: Languages, Node: Basic, Up: Top, Previous: PL/I, Next: APLSF

Basic (Beginner's All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was invented
at Dartmouth by John Kemeny to popularize interactive computing.  Its
major features are supposed to be simplicity and interactiveness; a
beginner can write a Basic program with just a manual and very little
prior knowledge.   However, Basic lacks certain essential language
features: scoping of variables, statement bracketing, and usually the
ability to load external procedures.  The PDP-11 RSTS system has a
better basic than you can get for the -20.

The Basic Language definition can be found in:
American National Standard, BSR X3.60, Programming Language Minimal
BASIC (draft standard) available from CBEMA.

Another draft standard for extended Basic is in preparation.

There are dozens of books about Basic, mostly introduction to computing
using Basic.  Among them:

1. Bennett, "Scientific and Engineering Problem-Solving with the
    Computer", Prentice-Hall (1976).
2. Gross [fill in]

* Menu:		There are two versions of Basic on the -20:

* Basic-20::	Simple but not interactive.
* Basic+2::	Not simple, not very interactive either.


Basic is very popular for pedagogy and on microcomputers.  It's
peculiar that so many people believe that Basic is somehow simple or
good for beginners.

The reason for this is probably that Basic's line-number editor was
better than punched cards, for beginners.  The language which you
edit, however, is terrible.  Even Fortran is better, on the whole.

File: Languages, Node: Basic-20, Up: Basic, Next: Basic+2

Basic-20: Non-interactive interpreter.

 > Comes from: DEC via Stanford LOTS (Low Overhead Timesharing System).
 > Invoke via: [fill this in when we decide what to do with it...]
 > System orientation: -20.  Extension: .BAS
 > Description:
This is just a TOPS-20ized version of DEC's Basic-10.  LOTS found 
that they had to replace Basic+2 with this much more modest version
of Basic just so their system wouldn't grind to a halt.  The major
drawback of Basic-20 is that there are no immediate-mode statements,
and therefore no convenient way to debug programs.  More about
Basic-20 if we ever install it.
 > References:
1. BASIC User's Guide, DEC-20-LBMAA-A-D

* Menu:		Online information:

[to be filled in...]

File: Languages, Node: Basic+2, Up: Basic, Previous: Basic-20

Basic-Plus-2: Semi-interactive interpreter and compiler

 > Comes from: DEC
 > Invoke via: 'basic'.  Extension: .B20
 > System orientation: -20
 > Description:  This monstrosity is the product of DEC's attempt to
capitalize on the micro-computer-spawned Basic frenzy, and suffers
mainly from trying to incorporate every feature that's ever been put
into every version of Basic that ever existed, and then adding a lot
more besides.  The result is one of the worst core hogs on our system,
and a language that's unwieldy, cumbersome, inconsistent, and full of
bugs.  Furthermore, it lacks a feature that all Basics should have:
the ability to interrupt your program during execution, issue
immediate-mode statements and/or modify your program, and resume
execution - the primary debugging feature of Basic.  It also lacks an
adequate resequencer - there is no way to change the order of
statements.  Furthermore, although a compiler (and a linker!) are
built into the Basic system, there is no way to link a program with
external modules in Basic or any other language.  Those who need a
simple, totally interactive language on the DEC-20 should consider
something other than Basic, perhaps PPL.  Those who are attracted to
Basic-Plus-2 for its "power" should consider using some other
language, such as Snobol (for string manipulation), Sail (for almost
anything if you are willing to put up with its idiosyncracies);
Lisp for a clean, powerful and extensible system programming language
which can implement extensible programs, Pascal, Algol, or C for
clear, structured implementation of algorithms which do not need to be
extensible , APLSF for matrix manipulation (and much more), even
Fortran for scientific or statistical applications (because it's
well-defined, widely known, and quite efficient in production
 > References:

1. Basic-Plus-2 Language Manual, DEC AA-0153A-TK (1977).
    This manual is for PDP-11's and DEC-20's.  It describes
    DEC's corporate standard Basic-Plus-2.
2. Basic-Plus-2 User's Guide, DEC AA-0152A-TM (1978).
    TOPS-20 system-dependent aspects of Basic+2.
2. TOPS-20 BASIC-PLUS-2 Language Manual, AA-H654A-TM (1979).
    This one actually supersedes the other two; in version 2 of B+2,
    DEC dropped the "corporate standard" machine-independent business,
    tacitly acknowledging the failure of the project.

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:		(HLP:BASIC.HLP)*
* Conversion:	(BAS:CONVRT.MEM)*
   How to convert a RSTS Basic-Plus program to Basic-Plus-2/20.

In addition, there's usually some news in a file called
BAS:BASxxx.DOC, where xxx is the latest version number.

File: Languages, Node: APLSF, Up: Top, Previous: Basic, Next: Snobol

APLSF (A Programming Language (with Shared Files)): interactive interpreter

 > Comes from: CMU via DEC
 > Invoke via: 'aplsf'.  Extension: .APL
 > System orientation: -10
 > Description:
 A world in itself.  A powerful, concise, interactive programming
system that, alas, prefers to be used on terminals with special
character sets.  Especially noted for its vector and matrix
manipulation capabilities.  Invented by K.E. Iverson at IBM, written
for the -10 at CMU (where the 'shared file' capability was added -
this just means that APLSF can read/write files that are accessible to
other processors), and adopted, marketed, and supported by DEC.
Extensive proprietary libraries are available.
See LIB1:NEWS for more information (i.e. type ')LOAD LIB1:NEWS',
and then type 'DESCRIBE').
 > References:
1. APLSF Programmer's Reference Manual, DEC-20-LASFA-A-D (1977).
2. Iverson, "A Programming Language", Wiley (1962).
3. Polivka et al., "APL: the Language and Its Usage", Prentice-Hall (1975).
4. APL Quote-Quad, ACM STAPL/SIGPLAN (a periodical).

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:		(HLP:APLSF.HLP)*
   How to use APL on a TTY (i.e. a non-APL terminal)
* Commands:	(DOC:APLSF.DOC)*
   A list of APLSF system commands

In addition, voluminous documentation is built in to the APLSF system

File: Languages, Node: Snobol, Up: Top, Previous: APLSF, Next: Cobol

Snobol (StriNg-Oriented symBOlic Language): Non-interactive interpreter

 > Comes from: Stevens Institute of Technology (Sitbol)
 > Invoke via: 'snobol' or load-class command.  Extension: .SNO
 > System orientation: -10
 > Description:
 A truly magic language for string manipulation invented by Griswold,
Poage, and Polonsky at Bell Laboratories, and written for the -10 at
Stevens.  Includes powerful pattern-matching facilities, dynamic
creation of variables (and even code!), and many features to be found
nowhere else.  Suffers from the lack of any control mechanism other
than goto and function invocation.  Superhuman discipline is required
to write readable code.  If you actually want to create code at run
time, it's simpler in Lisp.

There are other implementations of SNOBOL for the -20, including FASBOL
(which is compiled and is alleged to be very fast).

 > SNODDT interactive source-level debugger.
 > References:
1. Griswold et al., "The Snobol4 Programming Language", 2nd ed., 
    Prentice-Hall (1971).  The standard language manual.
2. Gimpel, "Sitbol Version 4B", Stevens Inst. Tech. S4D30B (1976).
    Describes Sitbol, our version of Snobol.
3. Griswold & Griswold, "A Snobol4 Primer", Prentice-Hall (1974).
    An introduction to Snobol at a relatively simple level.
4. Gimpel, "Algorithms in Snobol4", Wiley (1976).
    A collection of Snobol programs and algorithms, with some
    attention to programming style.  Includes a large bibliography.
5. Griswold, "SNOBOL4 -- Structure and Implementation", Bell Labs,
    presented at SHARE XXXVII, NYC (Aug 1971).
6. Griswold & Hanson, "An Alternative to the Use of Patterns in String
    Processing", ACM TOPLAS v2 (April 1980).

* Menu:		Online information:

* Help:			(HLP:SNOBOL.HLP)*
* Manual:		(DOC:SNOBOL.DOC)*
* Debugger:		(HLP:SNODDT.HLP)*
* Version 5:		(DOC:SNO5.DOC)*

File: Languages, Node: Cobol, Up: Top, Next: PCL, Previous: Snobol

COmmon Business Oriented Language.  Probably 90% of all computer
programs are written in this language.  As the name implies, those
programs are the ones used in business - accounts payable, general
ledger, etc (whatever all that is!).  The language was designed to
read like English, so that the boss could look over the "coder's"
shoulder.  Cobol has no place in an academic environment, and is not
available on Columbia's DEC-20.  If you want to use Cobol, you'll have
to elsewhere; if you want to learn Cobol, go to a trade school.

File: Languages, Node: PCL, Up: Top, Previous: Cobol, Next: Muddle

PCL - Programmable Command Language for TOPS-20 (compiler).

 > Comes from: Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center
     J. Ray Scott
     CMU Computation Center
     Schenley Park
     Pittsburgh PA 15213
 > Invoke via: PCL
 > System orientation: -20
 > Description:
 PCL is a compiled language for writing custom TOPS-20 Exec commands.
It is block structured, has various data types and all the normal
control structures, and when completed (it is in the early stages of
development at the time of this writing), it will give to TOPS-20
users the long awaited ability to write programs of Exec commands
(comparable in power to CMS Execs, TOPS-10 MIC, Wylbur Execfiles,
etc).  Procedures that you write in PCL become part of your Exec.
PCL is expected to be supported by DEC in release 5 of TOPS-20.

File: Languages, Node: Muddle, Previous: PCL, Up: Top

Muddle is a lisp-like language from MIT.

Invocation: MDL, MDL105, or MDL106
Extension: MDL

File: Languages, Node: Utilities, Up: Top

Language Utilities.  These include debuggers, linking loaders,
cross-referencers, cross assemblers and linkers, symbol-table dumpers,
etc, that don't apply to any particular language on the -20.

* Menu:

* DDT::			Dynamic Debugging Tool
* Linkers::		Linking loaders.
* ATSIGN: (ATSIGN).	The ATSIGN program makes cross-reference
			listings from source files.
* SRCCOM: (SRCCOM).	SRCCOM is a fast program for comparing
			and merging source files.
* CREF::		Produces cross-reference listings.
* Misc::		Miscellaneous utilities.
* PDP-11::		Utilities for the PDP-11.

File: Languages, Node: Linkers, Up: Utilities, Next: CREF

Linking loaders are programs that produce from a .REL file (the
relocatable binary output from a compiler) an executable program in
memory by resolving external references, calling in external modules
and combining them with your program and fixing up references among
the modules.  The final result is left in memory, ready to run.  If
you want a copy to be saved on disk, you must save it yourself using
the 'save' or 'csave' command of the Exec.  Executable programs are
kept on the disk with the extension .EXE.

* Menu:		There are 2 loaders available:

* Link::	This is the standard DEC-20 product.
* Loader::	This is the old DEC-10 loader, which is much
		 smaller and faster, and sometimes suffices.

File: Languages, Node: DDT, Up: Utilities, Next: Misc

DDT is actually a family of programs that do interactive source-level
debugging of executable programs, most suitably those originally
written in assembly language.  DDT is word-oriented; it displays the
contents of each word as a KL-10 instruction, with the various fields
filled in from the program's symbol table (which is usually loaded
with the program).  The display format can be changed for data words
to octal, decimal, ascii, sixbit, etc.  Breakpoints can be inserted and
deleted, programs can be single-stepped, arbitrary locations can be
examined and/or modified, searches can be performed, patches can be
inserted, etc.

Many high-level languages have their own DDT's (ALGDDT, FORDDT, etc)
which are described elsewhere, but DDT itself is the tool of last
resort, and can be used to debug any executable program, providing you
can understand its internal representation.

DDT is available through the 'DDT', 'SDDT', and 'Debug' Exec commands.
The appropriate version of DDT is loaded 'above' your program (but in
the same fork), at address 764000.  If you're programming in assembly
language, you must remember to leave room for DDT at 764000-777777.

There is no single definitive source for information about DDT, but a
DDT manual is forthcoming from DEC.  In the meantime, there is a brief
description in the DECSYSTEM-20 User's Guide (versions 3A and
earlier), and a more thorough (but dated) description in the
DECsystem-10 Utilities Manual.

There are various versions of DDT that are appropriate under different

UDDT (the default) works as described above.

SDDT is like UDDT, except it knows all the MONSYM symbols, and can be
 used "standalone", e.g. to write a program on the fly to try out some
 JSYS feature.

IDDT (invisible DDT) is like UDDT, except it sits in its own fork and
 therefore cannot interfere with your program inadvertently.  It
 must be requested explicitly.  IDDT is also handy for debugging
 programs that run in multiple forks, or that use UDDT's addresses.

FILDDT (file DDT) works like DDT, but on arbitrary files which could
 be dumps, binary data files, etc.

* Menu:		For further information, see

* Help:		(HLP:DDT.HLP)top
   which contains pointers to further information.

File: Languages, Node: Link, Up: Linkers, Next: Loader


This is the standard DEC-20 linking loader.  It is a huge program,
mostly -10 oriented (in its present state, it only understands TOPS-10
filenames).  It has far more power than most people will ever need,
but all programs compiled on the DEC-20 can be linked with it (except
for those languages that do their own linking, like Basic-Plus-2,
Mainsail, or those that are strictly interpretive and need no linking,
like APL).

1. DECSYSTEM-20 LINK Reference Manual, AA-4183B-TM.

* Menu:

* Help:		(HLP:LINK.HLP)

File: Languages, Node: Loader, Up: Linkers, Previous: Link

LOADER.  This is the old TOPS-10 linking loader; it has been replaced
even on DECsystem-10's by LINK.  However, it still works under some
circumstances and it's a lot smaller and more efficient than LINK and
should be used whenever possible, e.g. with Sail.  The command string
is in the following format:


Switches may also be included.  Each time CR is typed, loading is
performed for all files listed on that line.  When loading is
completed for that line, LOADER prints an asterisk requesting
additional instructions.  When ESC, the /G switch, or ^Z is typed, all
remaining loading operations, library searches, and output operations
are completed, and the program terminates.  Some useful switches:

/D Load DDT.
/T Load with DDT, and start DDT when done.
/E begin execution after loading.
/G Exit after loading.
/S Load with local symbols.
/W Load without local symbols (default).

1. DECsystem-10 Assembly Language Handbook, 2nd Ed., DEC-10-NRZB-D.

File: Languages, Node: CREF, Up: Utilities, Previous: Linkers, Next: Misc

CREF produces cross-reference listings from special (.CRF) files that
are generated by compilers when cross-referencing is requested.  CREF
is invoked by typing 'Cref' to the Exec; you must first have used a
load-class command with the /CREF switch.  If you have used a compiler
that is not supported by load-class commands, you must have requested
cross-referencing first; then you type 'r cref' to the Exec (to
request the Cref program; 'cref' is an Exec command) and then supply a
standard TOPS-10 command string.  Not all languages produce Cref
input; some have their own cross-referencing facililty.  See the
appropriate language manual for details.

File: Languages, Node: Misc, Up: Utilities, Previous: CREF, Next: PDP-11

Miscellaneous language utilities.

* Menu:

* Glob::	Produces listings of global symbols.
* Grump::	Produces symbolic dumps of .REL files.
* Maklib::	Produces load-module libraries fro .REL files.

File: Languages, Node: Glob, Up: Misc, Next: Grump

The GLOB program reads multiple binary program files and produces
an alphabetical cross-referenced list of all the global symbols
(symbols accessible to other programs) encountered.  This program also
searches files in library search mode, checking for globals, if the
program file was loaded in library search mode.

GLOB is strictly a TOPS-10 program.

Command format (in response to "*" prompt):


where [p,p] is a TOPS-10 project-programmer number, and the command
string is terminated by ESC.  If the output device is omitted, DSK is
assumed.  If the entire output filespec is omitted, TTY is used.  If
any PPN's are omitted, DSK is used.


/A	Output all global symbols.
/E	List only multiply defined globals.
/F	List nonrelocatable symbols only.
/H	Help.
/L	Library search mode.
/M	Turn off library search mode.
/N	List only symbols that are never referenced.
/P	List all routines that define a symbol to have the same value.
/Q	Suppress listing of subsequent definers resulting from /P.
/R	List only relocatables.
/S	List symbols with non-conflicting values that are multiply defined.
/X	Don't print listing header.

Symbols are flagged in the listing as follows:

M	Multiply defined.
N	Never referred to (i.e. never declared external).
S	Multiply specified with no conflict.
U	Undefined.

File: Languages, Node: Grump, Up: Misc, Previous: Glob, Next: Maklib

Prints an alphabetic dump of (symbol, octal value) the symbol table of
a .REL file.  Various options are available (there is a built-in help
message).  Useful for producing symbol definition files for languages
that have this feature (e.g. Sail).  Seems to be TOPS-10 oriented.

File: Languages, Node: Maklib, Up: Misc, Previous: Grump

Manipulates relocatable binary files (.REL files), which are single
programs or a collection of programs or routines (libraries).  The
relocatable binary file is the machine-readable output from a source
language translator such as the Fortran compiler or the Macro
assembler.  Allows examination of individual modules and libraries and
modification of modules, deletion of unnecessary symbols, and adding
an index that can be used by link to speed up library searches.
Typically used for building a library from a set of separately
compiled routines.  Strictly a TOPS-10 program.

Manual:  MAKLIB Program Functional Specification, DEC-20-UMKLA-A-D.
 More recently, there's a MAKLIB chapter in the TOPS-20 Utilities
 Manual, AA-D850A-TM.

* Menu:		See also,

* Help:		(HLP:MAKLIB.HLP)*	commands, switches, etc.

File: Languages, Node: PDP-11, Up: Utilities, Previous: Symbols

Here we should mention MAC{X,Y}-11, LINKX11 or whatever it's called,
Bliss-11 (and -16), etc.

Another cross-assembler PALX-11 is available from MIT.