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File: Maclisp-Commands, Node: Top, Up: (Languages)Maclisp atom SUBR 1 arg The atom predicate is nil if its argument is a dotted-pair or a list, and t if it is any kind of atomic object such as a number, a character string, or an atomic symbol. fixp SUBR 1 arg The fixp predicate returns t if its argument is a fixnum or a bignum, otherwise nil. floatp SUBR 1 arg The floatp predicate returns t if its argument is a flonum, nil if it is not. numberp SUBR 1 arg The numberp predicate returns t if its argument is a number, nil if it is not. typep SUBR 1 arg typep is a general type-predicate. It returns an atomic symbol describing the type of its argument, chosen from the list (fixnum flonum bignum list symbol string random) eval LSUBR 1 or 2 args (eval x) evaluates x, just as if it had been typed in at top level, and returns the result. Note that since eval is an lsubr, its argument actually will be evaluated twice. apply LSUBR 2 or 3 args (apply f y) applies the function f to the list of arguments y. Unless f is an fsubr or fexpr such as 'cond' or 'and' which evaluates its arguments in a funny way, the arguments in the list y are used without being evaluated. Examples: (setq f '+) (apply f '(1 2 3)) => 6 (setq f '-) (apply f '(1 2 3)) => -4 (apply 'cons '((+ 2 3) 4)) => ((+ 2 3) . 4) not (5 . 4) (apply f y p) works like apply with 2 arguments except that the application is done in the binding environment specified by the "a-list" pointer p. function FSUBR Function is like quote except that its argument is a function. It is used when passing a functional argument. Example: (f00 x (function (lambda (p q) (cond ((numberp q) p) ((numberp p) q) ;or any other random function in here (t (cons p q)) ))) y) calls f0 with 3 arguments, the second of which is the function defined by the lambda-expression. Note: quote and function are completely equivalent in the interpreter. The compiler sometimes needs function to tell it that a lambda-expression is a function to be compiled rather than a constant. comment FSUBR comment ignores its arguments and returns the atomic symbol comment. Used in commenting code. ; is preferred. prog2 LSUBR 2 or more args Prog2 evaluates its arguments from left to right, like any lsubr, and returns the value of its second argument. Examples: (prog2 (do-this) (do-that)) ;get 2 things evaluated (setq x (prog2 nil y (setq y x))) ;parallel assignment. ;exchanges x and y. progn LSUBR 1 or more args progn essentially evaluates all of its arguments and returns the value of the last one. Although lambda-expressions, prog-forms, do-forms, cond-forms and iog-forms all use progn implicitly, there are occasions upon which one needs to evaluate a number of forms for side-effects when not in these forms. progn serves this purpose. Example: (progn (setq a 1) (cons a '(stuff))) => (1 stuff) arg SUBR 1 arg (arg nil), when evaluated inside a lexpr, gives the number of arguments supplied to that lexpr. (arg i), when evaluated inside a lexpr, gives the value of the i'th argument to the lexpr. i must be a fixnum in this case. It is an error if i is less than 1 or greater than the number of arguments supplied to the lexpr. Example: (defun foo nargs ; define a lexpr foo. (print (arg nil)) ; print the number of args supplied. (print (arg 2)) ; print the second argument. (+ (arg 1) (arg 3))) ; return the sum of 1st and 3rd args. setarg SUBR 2 args Setarg is used only inside a lexpr. (setarg i x) sets the lexpr's i'th argument to x. i must be greater than zero and not greater than the number of arguments passed to the lexpr. After (setarg i x) has been done, (arg i) will return x. listify SUBR 1 arg listify is a function which efficiently manufactures a list of n of the arguments of a lexpr. With a positive argument n, it returns a list of the first n arguments of the lexpr. With a negative argment n, it returns a list of the last (abs n) arguments of the lexpr. funcall LSUBR 1 or more args (funcall f a1 a2 ... an) calls the function f with the arguments a1, a2, ..., an. It is similar to apply except that the seperate arguments are given to funcall, rather than a list of arguments. If f is an expr, a lexpr, a subr, or an lsubr, the arguments are not re-evaluated. If f is a fexpr or an fsubr there must be exactly one argument. f may not be a macro. Example: (setq cons 'plus) (cons 1 2) => (1 . 2) (funcall cons 1 2) => 3 cdr SUBR 1 arg Note: the cdr of an atomic symbol is its property list. assoc SUBR 2 args (assoc x y) looks up x in the association list (list of dotted pairs) y. The value is the first dotted pair whose car is equal to x, or nil if there is none such. Examples: (assoc 'r '((a . b) (c . d) (r . x) (s . y) (r . z))) => (r . x) (assoc 'fooo '((foo . bar) (zoo . goo))) => nil assq SUBR 2 args Assq is like assoc except that the comparison uses eq instead of equal. sassoc SUBR 3 args (sassoc x y z) is like (assoc x y) except that if x is not found in y, instead of returning nil sassoc calls the function z with no arguments. sassq SUBR 3 args (sassq x y z) is like (assq x y) except that if x is not found in y, instead of returning nil sassq calls the function z with no arguments. length SUBR 1 arg Length returns the length of its argument, which must be a list. The length of a list is the number of top-level conses in it. The warning about dotted lists given under last applies also to length. member SUBR 2 args (member x y) returns nil if x is not a member of the list y. Otherwise, it returns the portion of y beginning with the first occurrence of x. The comparison is made by equal. y is searched on the top level only. Example: (member 'x '(1 2 3 4)) => nil (member 'x '(a (x y) c x d e x f)) => (x d e x f) memq SUBR 2 args Memq is like member, except eq is used for the comparison. sxhash SUBR 1 arg Sxhash computes a hash code of an S-expression, and returns it as a fixnum which may be positive or nagative. A property of sxhash is that (equal x y) implies (= (sxhash x) (sxhash y)). The number returned by sxhash is some possibly large number in the range allowed by fixnums. It is guaranteed that: 1) sxhash for an atomic symbol will always be positive. 2) sxhash of any particular expression will be constant in a particular implementation for all time. 3) Two different implementations may hash the same expression into different values. 4) sxhash of any object of type random will be zero. 5) sxhash of a fixnum will = that fixnum. cons SUBR 2 args This is a primitive function to construct a new dotted pair whose car is the first argument to cons, and whose cdr is the second argument to cons. Thus the following identities hold: (eq (car (cons x y)) x) => t (eq (cdr (cons x y)) y) => t Examples: (cons 'a 'b) => (a . b) (cons 'a (cons 'b (cons 'c nil))) => (a b c) (cons 'a '(b c d e f)) => (a b c d e f) ncons SUBR 1 arg (ncons x) = (cons x nil) = (list x) xcons SUBR 2 args xcons ("exchange cons") is like cons except that the order of arguments is reversed. Example: (xcons 'a 'b) => (b . a) list LSUBR 0 or more args list constructs and returns a list of the values of its arguments. Example: (list 3 4 'a (car '(b . c)) (+ 6 -2)) => (3 4 a b 4) append LSUBR 0 or more args The arguments to append are lists. The result is a list which is the concatenation of the arguments. The arguments are not changed (cf nconc). For example, (append '(a b c) '(d e f) nil '(g)) => (a b c d e f g) subst SUBR 3 args (subst x y z) substitutes x for all occurrences of y in z, and returns the modified z. The original z is unchanged, as subst recursively copies all of z replacing elements eq to y as it goes. If x and y are nil, z is completely copied, which is a convenient way to copy arbitrary list structure. Example: (subst 'Tempest 'Hurricane '(Shakespeare wrote (The Hurricane))) => (Shakespeare wrote (The Tempest)) sublis SUBR 2 args sublis makes substitutions for atomic symbols in an S-expression. The first argument to sublis is a list of dotted pairs. The second argument is an S-expression. The return value is the S-expression with atoms that are the car of a dotted pair replaced by the cdr of that dotted pair. The argument is not modified - new conses are created where necessary and only where necessary, so the newly created structure shares as much of its substructure as possible with the old. For example, if no successful substitutions are made, the result is eq to sublis's second argument. Example: (sublis '((x . 100) (z . zprime)) '(plus x (minus g z x p) 4)) => (plus 100 (minus g zprime 100 p) 4) rplaca SUBR 2 args (rplaca x y) changes the car of x to y and returns (the modified) x. Example: (setq x '(a b c)) (rplaca x 'd) => (d b c) Now x => (d b c) rplacd SUBR 2 args (rplacd x y) changes the cdr of x to y and returns (the modified) x. Example: (setq x '(a b c)) (rplacd x 'd) => (a . d) Now x => (a . d) nconc LSUBR 0 or more args nconc takes lists as arguments. It returns a list which is the arguments concatenated together. The arguments are changed, rather than copied. (cf. append) Example: (nconc '(a b c) '(d e f)) => (a b c d e f) Note that the constant (a b c) has been changed to (a b c d e f). If this form is evaluated again, it will yield (a b c d e f d e f). nreverse SUBR 1 arg nreverse reverses its argument, which should be a list. The argument is destroyed by rplacd's all through the list (cf. reverse). Example: (nreverse '(a b c)) => (c b a) delete LSUBR 2 or 3 args (delete x y) returns the list y with all top-level occurrences of x removed. Equal is used for the comparison. The argument y is actually modified (rplacd'ed) when instances of x are spliced out. (delete x y n) is like (delete x y) except only the first n instances of x are deleted. n is allowed to be zero. If n is greater than the number of occurences of x in the list, all occurrences of x in the list will be deleted. Example: (delete 'a '(b a c (a b) d a e)) => (b c (a b) d e) delq LSUBR 2 or 3 args delq is the same as delete except that eq is used for the comparison instead of equal. prog FSUBR prog is the "program" function. It provides temporary variables and the ability to do "go-tos." The first thing in a prog is a list of temporary variables <var>. Each variable has its value saved when the prog is entered and restored when the prog is left. The variables are initialized to nil when the prog is entered, thus they are said to be "bound to nil" by the prog. The rest of a prog is the body. An item in the body may be an atomic symbol which is a <tag> or a non-atomic <statement>. prog, after binding the temporary variables, evaluates its body sequentially. <tag>s are skipped over; <statement>s are evaluated but the values are ignored. If the end of the body is reached, prog returns nil. If (return x) is evaluated, prog stops evaluating its body and returns the value of x. If (go tag) is seen, prog jumps to the part of the body labelled with the tag. The argument to 'go' is not evaluated unless it is non-atomic. setq FSUBR setq is used to assign values to variables (atomic symbols.) setq takes its arguments in pairs, and processes them sequentially, left to right. The first member of each pair is the variable, the second is the value. The value is evaluated but the variable is not. The value of the variable is set to the value specified. You must not setq the special atomic-symbol constants t and nil. The value returned by setq is the last value assigned, i.e. the value of its last argument. Example: (setq x (+ 1 2 3) y (cons x nil)) returns (6) and gives x a value of 6 and y a value of (6). Note that the first assignment is processed before the second assignment is done, resulting in the second use of x getting the value assigned in the first pair of the setq. set SUBR 2 args Set is like setq except that the first argument is evaluated; also set only takes one pair of arguments. The first argument must evaluate to an atomic symbol, whose value is changed to the value of the second argument. Set returns the value of its second argument. Example: (set (cond ((predicate) 'atom1) (t 'atom2)) 'stba) evaluates to stba and gives either atom1 or atom2 a value of stba. boundp SUBR 1 arg The argument to boundp must be an atomic symbol. If it has a value, cons of nil with that value is returned. Otherwise nil is returned. Example: (boundp 't) => (nil . t) ;since the value of t is t definedp SUBR 1 arg This predicate returns t if its argument (a symbol) has a value, and nil otherwise. makunbound SUBR 1 arg The argument to makunbound must be an atomic symbol. Its value is removed and it becomes undefined, which is the initial state for atomic symbols. get SUBR 2 args (get x y) gets x's y-property. x can be an atomic symbol or a disembodied property list. The value of x's y property is returned, unless x has no y-property in which case nil is returned. getl SUBR 2 args (getl x y) is like get except that y is a list of properties rather than just a single property. Getl searches x's property list until a property in the list y is found. The portion of x's property list beginning with this property is returned. The car of this is the property name and the cadr is what get would have returned. Getl returns nil if none of the properties in y appear on the property list of x. putprop SUBR 3 args (putprop x y z) gives x a z-property of y and returns y. x may an atomic symbol or a disembodied property list. This is like defprop except that the arguments are evaluated. After somebody does (putprop x y z), (get x z) will return y. defprop FSUBR (defprop x y z) gives x a z-property of y. The arguments are not evaluated. remprop SUBR 2 args (remprop x y) removes x's y-property, by splicing it out of x's property list. The value is t if x had a y-property, nil if it didn't. x may be an atomic symbol or a disembodied property list. Example: samepnamep SUBR 2 args The arguments to samepnamep must evaluate to atomic symbols or to character strings. The result is t if they have the same pname, nil otherwise. The pname of a character string is considered to be the string itself. Examples: (samepnamep 'xyz (maknam '(x y z))) => t (samepnamep 'xyz (maknam '(w x y))) => nil (samepnamep 'x "x") => t alphalessp SUBR 2 args (alphalessp x y), where x and y evaluate to atomic symbols or character strings, returns t if the pname of x occurs earlier in alphabetical order than the pname of y. The pname of a character string is considered to be the string itself. Examples: (alphalessp 'x 'x1) => t (alphalessp 'z 'q) => nil (alphalessp "x" 'y) => t getchar SUBR 2 args (getchar x n), where x is an atomic symbol and n is a number, returns the nth character of x's pname, where n = 1 selects the first character. The character is returned as a character object. nil is returned if n is out of bounds. maknam SUBR 1 arg Maknam takes as its argument a list of characters, like readlist, and returns an uninterned atom whose pname is determined by the list of characters. Example: (maknam '(a b 60 d)) => ab0d gensym LSUBR 0 or more args gensym creates and returns a new atomic symbol, which is not interned on the obarray (is not recognized by read.) The atomic symbol's pname is of the form <prefix><number>, e.g. g0001. The <number> is incremented each time. If gensym is given arguments, a numeric argument is used to set the <number>. The pname of an atomic-symbol argument is used to set the <prefix>. E.g. (gensym 'foo 40) => f0032 Note that the <number> is in decimal and always four digits, and the <prefix> is always one character. args LSUBR 1 or 2 args (args 'f) determines the number of arguments expected by f. If f wants n arguments, args returns (nil . n). If f can take from m to n arguments, args returns (m . n). If f is an fsubr or a lexpr, expr, or fexpr, the results are meaningless. defun FSUBR defun is used for defining functions. The general form is: (defun <name> <optional-type> ( <lambda-variable>...) <body>...) however, <name> and <type> may be interchanged. <type> may be expr, fexpr, or macro. If it is omitted, expr is assumed. Examples: (defun addone (x) (1+ x)) ;defines an expr (defun quot fexpr (x) (car x)) ;defines a fexpr (defun fexpr quot (x) (car x)) ;is the same (defun zzz expr x (foo (arg 1)(arg 2))) ;this is how you define a lexpr. Note: the functions defprop and putprop may also be used for defining functions. bigp SUBR 1 arg The predicate bigp returns its argument if that argument is a bignum, and nil otherwise. smallnump SUBR 1 arg The smallnump predicate returns its argument if it is a fixnum (as opposed to a bignum or a flonum), nil otherwise. zerop SUBR 1 arg The zerop predicate returns t if its argument is fixnum zero or flonum zero. (There is no bignum zero.) Otherwise it returns nil. plusp SUBR 1 arg The plusp predicate returns t if its argument is strictly greater than zero, nil if it is zero or negative. It is an error if the argument is not a number. minusp SUBR 1 arg The minusp predicate returns t if its argument is a negative number, nil if it is a non-negative number. It is an error if the argument is not a number. oddp SUBR 1 arg The oddp predicate returns t if its argument is an odd number, otherwise nil. The argument must be a fixnum or a bignum. signp FSUBR The signp predicate is used to test the sign of a number. (signp c x) returns t if x's sign satisfies the test c, nil if it does not. x is evaluated but c is not. It is an error if x is not a number. c can be one of the following: l means x<0 le " x<0 e " x=0 n " x/=0 ge " x>0 g " x>0 Examples: (signp le -1) => t (signp n 0) => nil = SUBR 2 args (= x y) is t if x and y are numerically equal. x and y must be both fixnums or both flonums. greaterp LSUBR 2 or more args Greaterp compares its arguments, which must be numbers, from left to right. If any argument is not greater than the next, greaterp returns nil. But if the arguments to greaterp are strictly decreasing, the result is t. > SUBR 2 args (> x y) is t if x is strictly greater than y, and nil otherwise. x and y must be both fixnums or both flonums. lessp LSUBR 2 or more args Lessp compares its arguments, which must be numbers, from left to right. If any argument is not less than the next, lessp returns nil. But if the arguments to lessp are strictly increasing, the result is t. < SUBR 2 args (< x y) is t if x is strictly less than y, and nil otherwise. x and y must be both fixnums or both flonums. max LSUBR 1 or more args Max returns the largest of its arguments, which must be numbers. min LSUBR 1 or more args Min returns the smallest of its arguments, which must be numbers. fix SUBR 1 arg (fix x) converts x to a fixnum or a bignum depending on its magnitude. Examples: (fix 7.3) => 7 (fix -1.2) => -2 float SUBR 1 arg (float x) converts x to a flonum. Example: (float 4) => 4.0 abs SUBR 1 arg (abs x) => |x|, the absolute value of the number x. minus SUBR 1 arg Minus returns the negative of its argument, which can be any kind of number. plus LSUBR 0 or more args Plus returns the sum of its arguments, which may be any kind of numbers. + LSUBR 0 or more args + returns the sum of its arguments. The arguments must be fixnums, and the result is always a fixnum. Overflow is ignored. Examples: (+ 2 6 -1) => 7 (+ 3) => 3 ;trivial case (+) => 0 ;identity element +$ LSUBR 0 or more args +$ returns the sum of its arguments. The arguments must be flonums and the result is always a flonum. Examples: (+$ 4.1 3.14) => 7.24 (+$ 2.0 1.5 -3.6) => -0.1 (+$ 2.6) => 2.6 ;trivial case (+$) => 0.0 ;identity element add1 SUBR 1 arg (add1 x) => x + 1. x may be any kind of number. 1+ SUBR 1 arg (1+ x) => x+1. x must be a fixnum. The result is always a fixnum. Overflow is ignored. 1+$ SUBR 1 arg (1+$ x) => x+1.0. x must be a flonum. The result is always a flonum. difference LSUBR 1 or more args difference returns its first argument minus the rest of its arguments. It works for any kind of numbers. - LSUBR 0 or more args This is the fixnum-only subtraction function. It does not detect overflows. (-) => 0, the identity element (- x) => the negative of x. (- x y) => x - y. (- x y z) => x - y - z etc. -$ LSUBR 0 or more args This is the flonum-only subtraction function. (-$) => 0.0, the identity element (-$ x) => the negation of x. (-$ x y) => x - y. (-$ x y z) => x - y - z. etc. *dif SUBR 2 args This is an obsolete arithmetic difference function. (*dif x y) => x - y. sub1 SUBR 1 arg (sub1 x) => x-1. X may be any kind of number. 1- SUBR 1 arg (1- x) => x-1. x must be a fixnum. The result is always a fixnum and overflow is not detected. 1-$ SUBR 1 arg (1-$ x) => x-1.0. x must be a flonum. times LSUBR 0 or more args Times returns the product of its arguments. It works for any kind of numbers. * LSUBR 0 or more args * returns the product of its arguments. The arguments must be fixnums. Th result is always a fixnum. Overflow is not detected. Examples: (* 4 5 -6) => -120. (* 3) => 3 ;trivial case (*) => 1 ;identity element *$ LSUBR 0 or more args *$ returns the product of its arguments. The arguments must be flonums and the result is always a flonum. Examples: (*$ 3.0 2.0 4.0) => 24.0 (*$ 6.1) => 6.1 ;trivial case (*$) => 1.0 ;identity element quotient LSUBR 1 or more args Quotient returns its first argument divided by the rest of its arguments. The arguments may any kind of number. (cf. / and /$) Examples: (quotient 3 2) => 1 ;fixnum division truncates (quotient 3 2.0) => 1.5 ;but flonum division does not.. (quotient 6.0 1.5 2.0) => 2.0 // LSUBR 0 or more args This is the fixnum-only division function. The arguments must be fixnums and the result of the division is truncated to an integer and returned as a fixnum. Note that the name of this function must be typed in as //, since LISP uses / as an escape character. (//) => 1, the identity element. (// x) => the fixnum reciprocal of x, which is 0 if |x| > 1. (// x y) => x/y. (// x y z) => (x/y)/z. etc. //$ LSUBR 0 or more args This is the flonum-only division function. Note that the name of this function must be typed in as //$, since LISP uses / as an escape character. (//$) => 1.0, the identity element (//$ x) => the reciprocal of x. (//$ x y) => x/y (//$ x y z) => (x/y)/z. etc. remainder SUBR 2 args (remainder x y) => the remainder of the division of x by y. The sign of the remainder is the same as the sign of the dividend. The arguments must be fixnums or bignums. SUBR 2 args (x y) returns the remainder of x divided by y, with the sign of x. x and y must be fixnums. Examples: (5 2) => 1 (65. -9.) => 2 (-65. 9.) => -2 gcd SUBR 2 args (gcd x y) => the greatest common divisor of x and y. The arguments must be fixnums or bignums. expt SUBR 2 args y (expt x y) = x The exponent y may be a bignum if the base x is 0, 1, or -1; otherwise y must be a fixnum. x may be any kind of number. sqrt SUBR 1 arg (sqrt x) => a flonum which is the square root of the number x. isqrt SUBR 1 arg (isqrt x) => a fixnum which is the square root of x, truncated to an integer. exp SUBR 1 arg x (exp x) = e log SUBR 1 arg (log x) = ln x, the natural log of x. sin SUBR 1 arg (sin x) gives the trigonometric sine of x. x is in radians. x may be a fixnum or a flonum. cos SUBR 1 arg (cos x) returns the cosine of x. x is in radians. x may be a fixnum or a flonum. atan LSUBR 1 or 2 args (atan x) returns the arctangent of x, in radians. x and y may be fixnums or flonums. (atan x y) returns the arctangent of x/y, in radians. y may be 0 as long as x is not also 0. random LSUBR 0 or 1 arg (random) returns a random fixnum. (random nil) restarts the random sequence at its beginning. (random x), where x is a fixnum, returns a random fixnum between 0 and x-1 inclusive. ascii SUBR 1 arg (ascii x), where x is a number, returns the character object for the ascii code x. Examples: (ascii 101) => A (ascii 56) => /. explode SUBR 1 arg (explode x) returns a list of characters, which are the characters that would have been typed out if (prin1 x) was done, including slashes for special characters but not including extra newlines inserted to prevent characters from running off the right margin. Each character is represented by a character object. Example: (explode '(+ 1x 3)) => ( /( + / // /1 x / /3 /) ) ;;Note the presence of slashified spaces in this list. explodec SUBR 1 arg (explodec x) returns a list of characters which are the characters that would have been typed out if (princ x) was done, not including extra newlines inserted to prevent characters from running off the right margin. Special characters are not slashified. Each character is represented by a character object. Example: (explodec '(+ 1x 3)) => ( /( + / /1 x / /3 /) ) exploden SUBR 1 arg (exploden x) returns a list of characters which are the characters that would have been typed out if (princ x) was done, not including extra newlines inserted to prevent lines characters from running off the right margin. Special characters are not slashified. Each character is represented by a number which is the ascii code for that character. cf. explodec. Example: (exploden '(+ 1x 3)) => (50 53 40 61 170 40 63 51) flatc SUBR 1 arg Flatc returns the length of its argument in characters, if it was printed out without slashifying special characters. (flatc x) is the same as (length (explodec x)). flatsize SUBR 1 arg Flatsize returns the length of its argument in characters, if it was printed out with special characters slashified. (flatsize x) is the same as (length (explode x)). readlist SUBR 1 arg The argument to readlist is a list of characters. The characters may be represented either as numbers (ascii codes) or as character objects. The characters in the list are assembled into an S-expression as if they had been typed into read (See chapter 12 for a description of read.) If macro characters are used, any calls to read, readch, tyi, or tyipeek in the macro character functions take their input from readlists's argument rather than from an I/O device or a file. Examples: (readlist '(a b c)) => abc (readlist '( /( p r 151 n t / /' f o o /) )) => (print (quote foo)) ;;Note the use of the slashified special characters left paren, space, quote, right paren in the argument to readlist. *array LSUBR 3 or more args (*array x y b1 b2 ... bn) defines x to be an n-dimensional array. The first subscript may range from 0 to b1-1, the second from 0 to b2-1, etc. If y is t a normal array is created; if y is nil an "ungarbage-collected" array is created. array FSUBR (array x y b1 b2 ... bn) is like (*array x y b1 b2 ... bn) except that x is not evaluated. The other arguments are evaluated. *rearray LSUBR 1 or more args *rearray is used to redefine the dimensions of an array. (*rearray x) gets rid of the array x. x is evaluated - it must evaluate to an atomic symbol. The value is t if it was an array, nil if it was not. (*rearray x type dim1 dim2 ... dimn) is like (*array x type dim1 dim2 ... dimn) except that the contents of the previously existing array named x are copied into the new array named x. store FSUBR The first argument to store must be a subscripted reference to an array. The second argument is evaluated and stored into the referenced cell of the array. Store evaluates its second argument before its first argument. Examples: (store (data i j) (plus i j)) (store (sine-values (fix (*$ x 100.0))) (sin x)) arraydims SUBR 1 arg (arraydims 'x), where x is an array, returns a list of the type and bounds of x. Thus if x was defined by (array x t 10 20), (arraydims 'x) => (t 10 20) bltarray SUBR 2 args Bltarray is used to copy one array into another. (bltarray x y) moves the contents of the array x into the contents of the array y. If x is bigger than y, it is truncated. If x is smaller than y, the rest of y is unchanged. x and y must evaluate to atomic symbols which have array properties. fillarray SUBR 2 args (fillarray <array> <list>) fills the array with consecutive items from the list; thus fillarray could have been defined by: (defun fillarray (a x) (do ((x x (cdr x)) ((n 0 (1+ n))) ((null x)) (store (a n) (car x)) )) If the array is too short to contain all the items in the list, the extra items are ignored. (This is not reflected in the LISP definition above.) If the list is too short to fill up the array, the last element of the list is used to fill each of the remaining slots in the array. An additional flaw in the LISP definition is that fillarray will work with arrays of more than one dimension, filling the array in row-major order. fillarray returns its first argument. listarray SUBR 1 arg (listarray <array-name>) takes the elements of the array specified by <array-name> and returns them as the elements of a list. The length of the list is the size of the array and the elements are present in the list in the same order as they are stored in the array, starting with the zeroth element. map LSUBR 2 or more args The first argument to map is a function, and the remaining arguments are lists. Map "goes down" the lists, applying the function to the lists each time. The value returned by map is its second argument. Map stops as soon as one of the lists is exhausted. Example: (map '(lambda (x y z) (print (list x y z))) '(1 2 3 4) '(a b c d e) '(+ - * |)) prints ((1 2 3 4) (a b c d e) (+ - * |)) ((2 3 4) (b c d e) (- * |)) ((3 4) (c d e) (* |)) ((4) (d e) (|)) and returns (1 2 3 4). mapc LSUBR 2 or more args Mapc is just like map except that the function is applied to successive elements of the lists rather than to the lists themselves. Thus the example given under map would print (1 a +) (2 b -) (3 c *) (4 d |) and return (1 2 3 4) mapcar LSUBR 2 or more args Mapcar is like mapc except that the return value is a list of the results of each application of the function. Thus the example given with mapc would return, not (1 2 3 4), but ((1 a +) (2 b -) (3 c *) (4 d |)) maplist LSUBR 2 or more args Maplist is like map except that the return value is a list of the results of each application of the function. Thus the example given with map would return, not (1 2 3 4), but (((1 2 3 4) (a b c d e) (+ - * |)) ((2 3 4) (b c d e) (- * |)) ((3 4) (c d e) (* |)) ((4) (d e) (|))) mapcan LSUBR 2 or more args Mapcan is like mapcar except that the values returned by the function are nconc'ed together instead of being listed together. Thus the example would return (1 a + 2 b - 3 c * 4 d |) mapcon LSUBR 2 or more args Mapcon is like maplist except that the values returned by the function are nconc'ed together instead of being listed together. This can have disastrous effects on the arguments to mapcon if one is not careful. The example would return ((1 2 3 4) (a b c d e) (+ - * |) (2 3 4) (b c d e) (- * |) (3 4) (c d e) (* |) (4) (d e) (|)) sort SUBR 2 args The first argument to sort is an S-expression array, the second a predicate of two arguments. The domain of the predicate must include all objects in the array; thus if the array contains only atomic symbols, the predicate need only apply to atomic symbols, but if the array also contains S-expressions, the predicate must apply to them also. The predicate should take two arguments, and return non-nil if and only if the first argument is strictly less than the second (in some appropriate sense). The sort function proceeds to sort the contents of the array under the ordering imposed by the predicate, and returns its first argument. Note that since sorting requires many comparisons, and thus many calls to the predicate, sorting will be much faster if the predicate is a compiled function rather than interpreted. Example: (defun mostcar (x) (cond ((atom x) x) ((mostcar (car x))))) (sort fooarray (function (lambda (x y) (alphalessp (mostcar x) (mostcar y))))) If fooarray contained these items before the sort: (tokens (the lion sleeps tonight)) (carpenters (close to you)) ((rolling stones) (brown sugar)) ((beach boys) (i get around)) (beatles (i want to hold your hand)) then after the sort fooarray would contain: ((beach boys) (i get around)) (beatles (i want to hold your hand)) (carpenters (close to you)) ((rolling stones) (brown sugar)) (tokens (the lion sleeps tonight)) sortcar SUBR 2 args sortcar is exactly like sort, but the items in the array should all be non-atomic. sortcar takes the car of each item before handing two items to the predicate. Thus sortcar is to sort as mapcar is to maplist. (status date) returns a 3-list indicating the current date as (year-1900. month-number day) (status daytime) returns a 3-list of the 24-hour time of day as (hour minute second). (status time) is the same as (time), the number of seconds the system has been up. (status runtime) is the same as (runtime), the number of microseconds of cpu time that has been used. (status system x) returns a list of the system properties of the atomic symbol x, which is evaluated. This list may contain subr, fsubr, macro, or lsubr if x is a function, and value if this atomic symbol is a system variable. (status uname) returns an atomic symbol whose pname is the current user's name. In the Multics implementation this is in the format User.Project; the dot will be slashified if print is used to display this. (status udir) returns the name of the user's directory. In the ITS implementation this is the same as the user's name as returned by (status uname). In the Multics implementation this is the user's default working directory. (status lispversion) returns the version number of lisp. lisp environment "foo bar" sysp SUBR 1 arg The sysp predicate takes an atomic symbol as an argument. If the atomic symbol is the name of a system function (and has not been redefined), sysp returns the type of function (subr, lsubr, or fsubr). Otherwise sysp returns nil. Examples: (sysp 'foo) => nil (sysp 'car) => subr (sysp 'cond) => fsubr runtime SUBR no args (runtime) returns the number of microseconds of cpu time used so far by the process in which LISP is running. The difference between two values of (runtime) indicates the amount of computation that was done between the two calls to runtime. time SUBR no args (time) returns the time that the system has been up, in seconds. (As a flonum.) sleep SUBR 1 arg (sleep n) causes a real-time delay of n seconds, then returns n. n may be a fixnum or a flonum. lisp is (mapc 'eval errlist), which allows the user programs to start up. quit SUBR no args (quit) causes the lisp subsystem to remove itself and return to its caller. The current environment is lost. (cf. save). namelist SUBR 1 arg Namelist converts its argument to a namelist. Omitted or * components in the argument produce *'s in the result. namestring SUBR 1 arg Namestring converts its argument from a namelist to a namestring. It is the opposite of namelist. shortnamestring SUBR 1 arg shortnamestring is just like namestring except that there is no mention of directory or device in the resulting string. Example: (shortnamestring '(abc d e)) => "d.e" names LSUBR 1 or 2 args (names f), where f is a file object, gets f's namelist. (names nil) gets the default namelist. In Multics MACLISP, the default namelist is initially set to (<working-directory> . *) when lisp is entered. In ITS MACLISP, the default namelist is initially set to (<udir> . *) when lisp is entered, where <udir> is the name by which the user logged in. (names nil x) sets the default namelist to x and returns x. open LSUBR 1 or two args OPEN takes one or two arguments. It may take a namelist, namestring, short namestring, or file-object as the first argument. It takes an optional list of modes as the second, or a single atom if there is only one mode. The most important modes are IN and OUT, the default is IN except in the case of the file-object, in which case it defaults to the mode it was opened in in the first place. (open <file or namelist or namestring> <mode>) close SUBR 1 arg (close x), where x is a file, closes x and returns t. If x is already closed nothing happens, otherwise the file system is directed to return x to a quiescent state. read LSUBR 0 to 2 args This is the S-expression input function. (read) reads an S-expression from the default input source. (read f), where f is a file or nil meaning the terminal, reads an S-expression from f. During the reading, infile and ^q are bound so that evaluation of (read) within a macro-character function will read from the correct input source. (read x), where x is not a file and not nil, passes x as an argument to the end-of-file function of the input source if the end of the file is reached. Usually this means that read will return x if there are no more S-expressions in the file. (read t) suppresses the calling of the end-of-file function if the end of the file is reached. Instead, read just returns t. (read x f) or (read f x) specifies the end-of-file value x and selects the input source f. readch LSUBR 0 to 2 args Readch reads in one character and returns a character object. The arguments are the same as for read. readline LSUBR 0 to 2 args readline reads in a line of text, strips off the newline character or characters at the end, and returns it in the form of a character string. The arguments are the same as for read. The main use for readline is reading in file names typed by the user at his terminal in response to a question. tyi LSUBR 0 to 2 args Tyi inputs one character and returns a fixnum which is the ascii code for that character. The arguments are the same as for read. tyipeek LSUBR 0 or 1 arg (tyipeek) is like (tyi) except that the character is not eaten; it is still in the input stream where the next call to an input function will find it. Thus (= (tyipeek) (tyi)) is t. If the end of the file is reached, tyipeek returns 3, (the ascii code for "end of text.") The end of file function is not called. (tyipeek n), where n is a fixnum < 200 octal, skips over characters of input until one is reached with an ascii code of n. That character is not eaten. (tyipeek n), where n is a fixnum > 1000 octal, skips over characters of input until one is reached whose syntax bits from the readtable, logically anded with (lsh n -9.), are nonzero. (tyipeek t) skips over characters of input until the beginning of an S-expression is reached. Splicing macro characters, such as ";" comments, are not considered to begin an object. If one is encountered, its associated function is called as usual (so that the text of the comment can be gobbled up or whatever) and tyipeek continues scanning characters. prin1 LSUBR 1 or 2 args (prin1 x) outputs x to the current output destination(s), in a form suitable for reading back in. (prin1 x f) outputs x on the file f, or the terminal if f is nil. print LSUBR 1 or 2 args Print is like prin1 except that the output is preceded by a newline and followed by a space. This is the output function most often used. (print x) prints x to the default output destinations. (print x f) prints x to the file f, or to the terminal if f is nil. princ LSUBR 1 or 2 args Princ is like prin1 except that special characters are not slashified and strings are not quoted. (princ x) outputs x to the current output destination(s). (princ x f) outputs x to the file f, or the terminal if f is nil. tyo LSUBR 1 or 2 args (tyo n) types out the character whose ascii code is n on the current output destination(s). (tyo n f) types out the character whoe ascii code is n on the file f or on the terminal if f is nil. Tyo returns its first argument. terpri LSUBR 0 or 1 arg (terpri) sends a newline to the current output destination(s). (terpri x) sends a newline to x, where x may be an output file or nil meaning the terminal. cursorpos LSUBR 0 or 2 args The cursorpos function is used to manipulate the cursor on a display terminal. With no arguments it returns the dotted pair (line . column), where line is the line number, starting from 0 at the top of the screen, and column is the column position, starting from 0 at the left edge of the screen. If the terminal being used is not a display terminal with this type of cursor, nil is returned instead. With two arguments, (cursorpos line column) moves the display cursor to the indicated position and returns t if it was successful, or nil if the terminal was incapable of doing this. listen SUBR no args (listen) returns a fixnum which is non-zero if there is any input that has been typed in on the terminal but has not yet been read. deletef SUBR 1 arg (deletef x), where x specifies a file, deletes that file. The return value is the namelist of the file actually deleted, i.e. x mergef'ed over the defaults. rename SUBR 2 args (rename x y), where x and y are namelists or namestrings, renames the file specified by (mergef x (names nil)) to the name specified by (mergef y x (names nil)). The directory part of y is ignored; a file may not be renamed onto a different device or directory. The return value is the namelist of the new name of the file. clear-input SUBR 1 (clear-input x), where x is a file or nil meaning the terminal, causes any input that has been received from the device but has not yet been read to be thrown away, if that makes sense for the particular device involved. force-output SUBR 1 (force-output x), where x is a file or nil meaning the terminal, causes any buffered output to be immediately sent to the device.