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         SERVER    COMPUTER:  DEC-2060T        HOST 0/IMP 44

         MIT-XX is a research facility that offers researchers at the 
         Laboratory for Computer Science computer time for ARPA related 
         projects, including Dataflow machine architecture; interpersonal
         message systems; and CLU, an experimental structured programming 
         language which provides support for the implementation and use 
         of abstract data types.


         Massachusetts Institute of Technology
         Laboratory for Computer Science
         545 Technology Square, Room 203
         Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139


           Michael Hammer (Hammer@MIT-XX)    (617) 253-5840
           Barbara Liskov (Liskov@MIT-XX)    (617) 253-5886
           Albert Vezza (AV@MIT-XX)          (617) 253-1450

           Albert Vezza (AV@MIT-XX)             (617) 253-1450

           Michael Travers (MT@MIT-XX)          (617) 253-1429

           Janet Schoof (JAN@MIT-XX)            (617) 253-1458

           Michael Travers (MT@MIT-XX)          (617) 253-1429

           Michael Travers (MT@MIT-XX)          (617) 253-1429

           There is currently no full-time operator.
           Computer room                        (617) 253-2910


         CONTACT:  Janet Schoof (JAN@MIT-XX)    (617) 253-1458

         Currently accounts are issued only to Laboratory for Computer 
         Science researchers working on ARPA contracts.  MIT-XX is not 
         selling time to outside users.


         MIT-XX is scheduled to be down for preventive maintenance 
         alternating Thursdays 0600-1000 Eastern time.

         Pending downtimes are given at connect and logout time, and 
         notification is automatically sent to active terminals well in 
         advance of the actual shutdown.  A list of all pending 
         downtimes is available by typing:

         [@] information <SP> downtime <CR>

         TYPICAL LOAD = 15-25 users

         MAXIMUM NO. USERS = 100



         TELNET INFO:

         . Appropriate echo mode = Character-at-a-time

         . Appropriate transmission mode = Full- or half-duplex;
           full-duplex is preferred.

         . To declare your terminal to the system, type:
              [@] terminal <SP> type <SP> TYPE <CR>

         . To see a list of all terminal types and settable modes, type:
              [@] terminal <SP> ? <CR>

         . To see what modes the terminal is currently set to, type:
              [@] information <SP> terminal <CR>

         . The default terminal type on initial network connection is
           NVT (Network Virtual Terminal) with remote echo, full-duplex.

         . The Local character set is ASCII and thus is the same as for
           the NVT (Network Virtual Terminal).

         . Both upper- and lower-case input is accepted, and a facility
           for translating lower-case characters to upper case, or
           flagging lower-case output, exists.

         . TIP settings - Transmit Each 1, Echo Remote

         LOGIN:  Connect to MIT-XX, then type:

            [@] USERNAME <SP> PASSWORD <CR>

           In most cases <CONTROL-C> will suspend the current process and
           give control to the superior EXEC.

         SUBSYSTEM RESUME = [@] continue <CR>
           After suspending a process with <CONTROL-C> the "continue"
           command will resume the process from where it left off.
           NOTE: "c" is a valid abbreviation for this command.

           : for CLU



            [@] logout <CR>
            [@] kkjob <CR>

            KKJOB is a fast version of LOGOUT since it will immediately 
            detach the job from the terminal before actually logging 


            Not-logged-in jobs will be automatically killed after a few 

            Logged-in users will eventually be logged out automatically
            if idle for a certain amount of time settable by the system
            staff, normally two hours if attached, or one hour if
            detached by the user.

            NOTE:  Jobs which are detached by carrier loss, such as by 
            hanging up the phone or disconnecting a net connection 
            without logging out, will be logged out automatically after five 


         The function a control-character performs at any given instance
         is controlled by the current process tree, but several 
         conventions are generally adhered to.

         The conventional control-characters are:

         Delete character                             <DELETE>
         Delete word                                  <CONTROL-W>
         Delete line                                  <CONTROL-U>
         Retype edited line                           <CONTROL-R>
         Force recognition                            <ESCAPE>
         Interrupt                                    <CONTROL-C>
         Attention (prints a brief process status)    <CONTROL-T>
         Flush output                                 <CONTROL-O>


         The standard conventions for asking for help from a command 
         parser are to type a question mark ("?") to see a list of 
         alternatives, or to issue the command "HELP" to the parser to 
         see a short description of the more common options available 
         and how to get more help.  Note that the question mark can be 
         imbedded in a keyword to view the alternatives matched so far. 
         Also, <ESC> (normally 33 octal) will complete a unique keyword.
         A complete list of available topics is shown by typing:
            [@] help <SP> * <CR>

         The device DOC: can be used to find subsystem or general 
         documentation.  To see a list of some of the online 
         documentation available, type:
            [@] directory <SP> doc: <CR>



            Numerous commands and programs exist to obtain system status
            reports, FINGER and SYSTAT being the most commonly used.  To
            see a list of all users logged into the system, type:
               [@] finger <CR>

            To get information on a specific user, USERNAME, type:
               [@] finger <SP> USERNAME <CR>

            NOTE:  It is not necessary to log in to use either FINGER or


            Both FINGER and SYSTAT will list the remote host a user is 
            coming from, and LD will additionally list active 
            connections related to users.  To obtain a complete list of 
            sockets and their states, type:

            [@] netstat <CR>


            To converse with an active user in a real time conversation,
	       [@] talk <SP> USERIDENT <CR>

            where USERIDENT can be the name of the user or else the 
            octal terminal number obtained from SYSTAT or FINGER or the 

            After acknowledgment is printed such as:
               [Link from Dang, TTY1]

            both input and output of a terminal will be echoed on the 
            other linked terminal; but both terminals will be left with 
            the same process listening to their own input as before.  
            Thus, if at the command level an exclamation mark ("!") or a
            semicolon (";") should be used to make the EXEC ignore the 
            typed line, e.g.
               [@]; Please feed the animals.

            The proper way to terminate a link is to issue the BYE 
               [@]bye <SP> USERID <CR>

            where USERID can be the octal tty number of the terminal to 
            end the link with, or else it can be the user name, or else 
            it can be omitted entirely which will terminate all current 


            To send a message which will appear on another logged-in 
            user's terminal immediately, type:
               [@] send <SP> USERID <SP> MESSAGE <CR>

            Where USERID is the same as above.  If the user is not 
            logged in, or if sending mail is preferred, type:
               [@] sndmsg <CR>
               [To: ] USERNAMELIST <CR>
               [CC: ] USERNAMELIST <CR>
               [Subject: ] TEXT <CR>
               [Message (? for help):]
               TEXT <CONTROL-Z>
               [Q, s, or carriage return: ] <CR>

            For more details, give the command:
               [@] help <SP> sndmsg <CR>


            The system will inform a user of the arrival of new mail by 
            typing a message such as:
               [You have new mail from Dang at 08:30]

            To read mail, the program MM should be used, which is 
            documented in DOC:MM.DOC or type:
               [@] help <SP> mm <CR>

            Just a few related EXEC commands are:

            [@]information <SP> mail <SP> USERNAME <CR>
               (Checks if USERNAME has mail)
            [@]set <SP> mail-watch <SP> USERNAME <CR>
               (Watches USERNAME's mailbox)
            [@]set <SP> automatic <CR>
                (Will check for new mail every five minutes even if not
                 at EXEC command level.)


            Since there is no full-time operator coverage, the best way 
            to report a bug, ask for assistance, or request for some 
            action to be performed is to send a message to <ACTION> via 
            the mechanism described under (SEND-MESSAGE).  
            Alternatively, you may link to a user and ask for help.


         The syntax for a full file name looks like:


         where all fields are optional as long as enough exist to 
         uniquely identify the file.  See the write-up for SRI-KL for 
         more details.



            PROTOCOL       SOCKET (octal)   DOCUMENTATION

            Telnet, Old    1                NIC 15372 etc.
            FTP*           3                NIC 17759
            Echo           7
            Systat         13
            Time Server    15               
            Netstat        17
            Telnet, New    27               NIC 18639 etc.
            Finger         117              NIC 42758

            *FTP has been augmented with the XSEN and XSEM commands to 
            allow remote users to send an immediate message to a local 
            user (see NIC 42217).  It also supports the XRSQ/XRCP mail
	    extensions (see NIC 42752).


            User Telnet is available as TELNET for the new protocol and 
            OTELNET for old protocol.  Information about the program can 
            be obtained by typing "help" to telnet.

            User FTP is available as FTP.  Typing "help" to FTP will 
            provide assistance.

            The Finger program will allow a remote finger to be done by 
            adding in the host name preceded with an atsign ("@").  The 
            /whois switch will give more information on specific users.



            TYPE           MEMORY AMOUNT       MEMORY SPEED      WORD LENGTH
            DEC 2060T      2 megawords (MOS)    MF20               36 bit


            HOW MANY       TYPE              MAKE            MODEL
               3           40 M 36 bit words DEC             RP06

               2           9 track 1600 bpi  DEC            TU45A


            HOW MANY       TYPE              MAKE            MODEL
               1           printing          DEC             LA36
               7           display           DEC             VT52
	       1           programmable      DEC             VT71
               15          display           DEC             VT100
               1           programmable      HP              2645
               1           programmable      IMLAC           PDS-1(D)
               9           display           Heath           H19


         Augmented TOPS-20


         MIT-XX has the usual array of programs plus many interesting 
         additions.  To obtain an up-to-date list of the generally 
         available programs type:
            [@] help <SP> subsys <CR>

         to the EXEC, or peruse the file HLP:SUBSYS.  In any case, a few
         of the more unusual major subsystems are listed below.


            TYPE:  Language

            CONTACT:  CLU@MIT-DMS
                      Bob Scheifler  (RWS@MIT-XX)  (617) 253-1945

            DESCRIPTION:  CLU is an experimental structured programming 
            language which provides support for the implementation and 
            use of abstract data types.  The current compiler does not 
            type-check inter-file references.

              To compile a CLU program type:
              [@]clu <SP> FILENAME <CR>
              To run a CLU program type:
              [@]clusys <CR>
              [: ]load ("BINARY-FILENAME") <CR>
              [: ]PROCEDURE-NAME(ARG,ARG,ARG,...) <CR>
              [: ]...
              [: ]quit_() <CR> (_ = underscore)

              1. A Note on CLU, Computation Structures Group Memo 112
              2. CLU Reference Manual
              3. MIT-XX files:
                 <CLU>CLU.INFO      (info on compiler)
                 <CLU>CLU.ORDER     (compiler commands)
                 <CLU>CLUSYS.INTRO  (introductory info)


            TYPE:  Language

            CONTACT: MDL@MIT-DMS

            DESCRIPTION:  MDL is an interactive interpreter for the MDL 
            language, which is similar to LISP but has more data types, 
            more readable syntax, extensibility, flexible input/output 
            (including the network), graphics, multiprocessing, and 
            debugging facilities.  A compiler and assembler are 
            available.  Facilities for putting generally-useful, 
            documented programs in a library and for sharing compiled 
            code are available.

              [@] mdl <CR>
              [mdl NNN in operation.]
              [listening-at-level 1 process 1]
              <QUIT> <ESC>  (NOTE: '<QUIT>' must actually be typed as
              NOTE:  MDL primitives are defined in upper case, so most
              input is normally in upper case; to have your input
              translated to upper case, type:
              [@] terminal <SP> raise <CR>

              1. The MDL Programming Language, MIT/LCS Document
              2. The MDL Programming Environment, MIT-DMS Document SYS.11.xx
              3. MIT-DMS files:  DSK: MUDMAN; * *


            TYPE:  Text Formatter

            CONTACT:  R@MIT-DMS
                      Eliot Moss (EBM@MIT-XX)  (617) 253-5982

            DESCRIPTION:  R is a text formatter that produces output for
            printing devices and the Xerox Graphics Printer.  (R is called
	    R20 here, because "R" is already an EXEC command.)

              [@]r20 <SP> FILENAME <CR>

              1. R Reference Manual
              2. MIT-XX files:
                 HLP:R.HLP           (brief info)
                 DOC:R20.MANUAL      (reference manual)
                 <R>R.RECENT         (recent info)
                 <R>RMACRO.INFO      (info on standard macros)
                 <R>RMACRO.RECENT    (recent info on macros)


         1.  Data base management

         We are developing several systems to enhance the efficiency, 
         correctness, and usability of data bases.  Among these are the 

         . A system to automatically select a near-optimal physical
           file structure for a data base, based upon the pattern
           of the users' access to it and the characteristics of the 
	   data it contains.

         . A system that examines data submitted to a data base and
           determines its plausibility and legitimacy based on its
           agreement with a user-supplied model of the data base's
           problem domain.  The key issue is the execution of a large 
	   set of potentially expensive validity tests in an efficient

         . A data error-correction system, which seeks to determine
           from an incorrect piece of data its original uncorrupted
           version, based on the characteristics of the faulty data and
           a model of the kinds of error mechanisms that can befall a

         . A system to assist a user in interacting with a data base
           and formulating queries to it, by explaining its structure
           to him or her in problem-oriented terms.

         2.  Office automation

         We are exploring two issues in automated office systems:

         . The design of a problem-oriented specification language, in
           which to describe the function and organization of an office
           in non-procedural terms

         . The development of aids to the online decision-maker in an
           office environment, including such tools as an easy-to-use
           data base system, sophisticated alerter and monitoring
           functions, etc.

         3.  CLU system

         We are developing a system to support the use of data, 
         procedural, and control abstractions in program design and 
         implementation.  The major components of this system are:

         . A compiler for the CLU programming language, an
           object-oriented language with complete compile-time

         . A run-time system for executing and debugging CLU programs

         . A system-maintained, system-wide library of all abstractions
            and their implementations

         4.  Message system

         We are developing a system for processing interpersonal 
         messages in a completely automated way.  This system has 
         several components:
          . A clean and friendly user interface for reading, annotating,
            forwarding, composing, revising, and filing messages
          . A data base for storing messages for later recall and
          . An autonomous process for transmitting and receiving
            messages both locally and via the ARPANET via protocols
            under development
          . Means for ensuring security in all components


         Most non-DEC documentation is available online in DOC:.  To 
         obtain a list of available documentation type:

         [@]dir <SP> doc: <CR>

         For descriptions of research projects, see:

         . MIT Laboratory for Computer Science Progress Reports

	 . "The Semantic Data Model: A Modelling Mechanism for
           Database Applications", by M. Hammer and D. J. McLeod,
	   in Proceedings of 1978 ACM SIGMOD International Conference
	   on Management of Data, Austin, Texas, May 31 - June 2, 1978.
	 . "Research Directions in Database Management", by M. Hammer,
	   in P. Wegner (ed.), Research Directions in Software Technology,
	   MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1979.
	 . "Design and Implementation of Office Information Systems",
	   by M. Hammer and M. D. Zisman, in Proceedings of the NYU
	   Symposium on Automated Office Systems, New York, N.Y.,
	   May 17-18, 1978.

         . "Abstraction Mechanisms in CLU", by Liskov et al, Comm. ACM
	   vol 20, no 8 (August 1977), pp. 564-576.
	 . "CLU Reference Manual", by Liskov et al, MIT/LCS/TR-225,
	   October 1979.

         . "An Electronic Message System: Where does it fit?"
	   by Vezza and Broos, in "Trends and applications 1976:
	   Computer Networks" (IEEE), pp. 89-97.


         DEC manuals can be ordered directly from Digital Equipment 

         MIT-XX documents may be ordered from Janet Schoof (JAN@MIT-XX)
         (617) 253-1458.