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AN ANNOTATED OUTLINE OF TECO COMMANDS
This is an attempt at a very terse introduction to TECO.
Use it together with the subject-oriented sections at the end
of TECORD. Refer also to the description in TECORD
of the ^] command, and of the ^R command. Note that EMACS
is always running inside the TECO ^R command,
^x Denotes the single character, control-x.
| Used alone to denote alternation.
m | n | arg Integer arguments.
string String argument.
cmd A command string.
$ Denotes the character altmode unless mentioned otherwise.
k Denotes either "m,n", or "n"; a text range of characters m through
n, or n lines.
sp Denotes a string pointer. A string pointer is something
which can pretend to be a "numeric value", but which
actually signifies a string of text rather than a number.
file Denotes a file name pair, e.g., "FOO BAR".
dir Denotes a device and directory specification, e.g., "DSK: USERS;".
TECO COMMAND LOOP
Note that EMACS functions do not go through the TECO command loop.
^G Quit to TECO top-level; cancels partial command line.
^Z (ITS) Interrupt to DDT.
^C (Twenex) Interrupt to EXEC.
altmode Terminates text argument; two successive altmodes terminate
rubout Deletes last character typed in.
^Q Quote next character, in search strings.
^]^Q Quote next character, preventing it from serving
as a delimiter or as a string substitution command.
: | @ Prefix to certain commands, modifies them.
& Logical and, an arithmetic operator.
^A Inclusive or, an arithmetic operator.
# Exclusive or, an arithmetic operator.
0-9 Digits are interpreted in base FS IBASE$ (10)
unless followed by a period. In that case, they
are interpreted in radix FS I.BASE$ (8).
+ Addition, an arithmetic operator.
space Same as "+", except that space, by itself, is not a non-null arg.
- Subtraction, an arithmetic operator.
* Multiplication, an arithmetic operator.
There is no operator precedence. Evaluation is left to right.
/ Division, an arithmetic operator.
( | ) Parentheses, grouping in arithmetic expressions.
All commands are allowed inside parentheses.
If the last command before the close paren returns
values, they are merged in (and override) any values
that were saved by the open parentheses.
F( ... ) F( saves the values, like (, but also lets them
pass through to the next command.
, Separates numerical arguments (values).
There can be two values in effect at any time.
Parentheses save them both.
Most commands discard them both, and may use
one or both. Only commands that can contribute to
the values fail to discard them.
. Value is character position of the pointer.
Z Value is number of chars in buffer.
If virtual boundaries are in use, it is the char position
of the virtual end of the buffer.
B Value is 0, i.e., beginning of buffer*.
If virtual boundaries are in use, it is the char position
of the virtual beginning of the buffer, not necessarily 0.
H Equivalent to "B,Z", i.e., specifies whole buffer,
within the virtual boundaries.
FS Z$ The real number of characters in the buffer,
not affected by virtual boundaries.
Istring$ Insert string in buffer to left of pointer.
@Ixstringx Insert string delimited by char x to left of pointer.
nI Insert the char with ASCII code n.
m,nI Insert m copies of the char with code n.
n\ Insert printed representation of n (in base ..E).
^^ Value = ASCII code of next char in cmd.
FI Read one char from TTY and return its ASCII code as value.
mA Value = ASCII code of char m positions to right of ptr.
0A => char to immediate left of ptr.
n,mA like mA but returns n if a non-existent character
position is addressed.
F$ Controls case conversion on input/output ($ => dollar).
kFC Convert text range k to lower-case.
k@FC Converts to upper case.
sp:FC Returns string converted to upper case.
mJ Position ptr to after m-th char in buffer.
RELATIVE CHARACTER POSITION
mR Move ptr left m char; R => 1R, -mR => mC.
m:R Same as mR but returns -1(move OK) or 0(if move would cause an error).
mC Move ptr right m char; C => 1C.
m:C Returns value like m:R.
\ Move ptr right over number, return number's value.
mL Move ptr to beginning of m-th line after current position;
0L => beginning of current line.
m,nL Same as m+n-.J, used by FW, etc.
m:L Do mL, then backup over CR-LF; :l => end of current line.
@L @L, with whatever args, is like L, but considers
only CRLF as a line separator. Plain L, by tradition,
regards every LF as a line separator.
nFW Returns ".,m", a buffer range where m is the position immediately after
the n-th word(contiguous string of non-delimiters; see ..D, the delimiter
-nFW Returns "m,.", the range to the left.
n:FW Same as FW, but stops before the n-th word; i.e., n:FWL = nFWL-FWL.
n@FW Same as FW, but finds LISP atoms, not words.
nFWL Do an nFW, yielding ".,m", move to m (=m+.-.J).
nFWR Same as nFWL.
nFL Returns ".,m", where m is the position immediately after the
n-th list to the right.
-nFL Returns "m,.", the range to the left.
n@FL Same as nFL, but finds S-expressions, not lists.
nFU Returns ".,m", where m is the position immediately after the n-th
level up in parentheses to the right.
-nFU Same as nFU, but returns "m,.", and works to the left.
nFD Returns ".,m", where m is the position immediately after the n-th
level down in parentheses to the right.
-nFD Same as nFD, but returns "m,.", and works to the left.
nFLL Does nFL, yielding ".,m", moves to m.
nFLR Same as nFLL.
TECO deletion commands do not save the deleted text anywhere
unless explicitly mentioned. Saving the text in EMACS is a function
implemented at a higher level, but the EMACS function & Kill Text.
m,nK Kill chars in the range m,n. Move ptr there.
nD Delete n chars to right of ptr.
-nD Delete n chars to left of ptr.
nK Kill chars from . to position nL would have moved to.
K => 1K, kill to beginning of next line.
n:K Kill chars from . to position n:L would have moved to.
:K => 1:K, kill to end of current line.
nFWK Do an nFW returning ".,m"; kill chars in this range.
nFWD Same as nFWK.
nFLK Do an nFL returning ".,m"; kill chars in this range.
nFLD Same as nFLK.
kT Type out text in range k (n lines or m,n chars).
kV Display text in range k on CRT.
FTstring$ Types its string argument.
FVstring$ Displays its string argument.
kVW Does kV, then waits for TTY input of one char whose ASCII code
is returned as value.
k= Types out k ("n" or "m,n") in current output radix(in ..E).
Note: the @ modifier makes many of the above commands output in the
echo area. The colon modifier is also useful.
spFS ECHO OUT output string (or character, represented by numeric code)
in echo area.
spFS IMAGE OUT output string or character directly to terminal
with no code conversion or padding.
spFS ECHO DIS output string or character to echo area, processing
display codes. A display code is ^P followed by another char.
Possible second chars include T for move to top, C for clear,
L for clear line, A for move to new line unless in position 0.
Others exist but are not likely to be useful.
F+ Clear the screen.
nSstring$ Find n-th occurrence of string searching forward and position ptr after it.
-nSstring$ Same as nSstring$, but search backward and position ptr before n-th string.
n@Sxstringx Same as nSstring, where string is delimited by any char x.
n:Sstring$ Same as nSstring$, but returns value = -n if successful, 0 if not.
Special chars in string:
^B Matches any delimiter(see ..D).
^Nx Matches any char but x.
^O Divides string into alternate patterns.
^Qx Quotes x.
^X Matches any char.
nNstring$ Same as nSstring$, but does P if end of buffer is reached.
n_string$ Same as nSstring$, but does Y if end of buffer is reached.
kFBstring$ Same as Sstring$ in the search domain defined by k; for k = m,n where
m>n, search backwards; ":" and "@" modifiers work.
FK Returns value = - FS INSLEN$ = - length of last string inserted, or found
by search or FW. FK < 0 except for backward search or FW.
^Pcmd0$cmd1$cmd2$ ASCII sort command, with the following algorithm:
Move ptr to start of buffer;
..0 := cmd0; ..1 := cmd1; ..2 := cmd2;
Ptr is at start of next record;
Cmd0 moves ptr to start of key;
Cmd1 moves ptr to end of key;
Cmd2 moves ptr to end of record;
Do a sort of records based on keys;
Notes: Dollar signs in the cmdi are replaced by altmodes.
If FS ^P CASE$ .NEQ. 0, then ^P ignores case.
ETfile$ Set default filenames to file.
EL Type out listing of default directory.
EYdir$ Same as EL, but with specified device and sname.
EM Insert listing of default directory in buffer.
EZdir$ Same as EM, but with specified device and sname.
ERfile$ Opens file for input.
EI Open a file "_TECO_ OUTPUT" for writing on default device and sname.
0EI Same as EI, but sets default device to DSK:.
:EI Same as EI, but uses current filename defaults rather than "_TECO_ OUTPUT".
EWdir$ Same as EI, but with specified device and sname.
:EW dir file$ Same as EW, but also with specified filenames.
Y Kills the buffer; inserts one page from current input file into buffer.
@Y Kills the buffer; yanks the entire input file into buffer.
A Append next page of input file to buffer (no arg allowed).
n:A Append n lines or up to page boundary of input file to buffer.
@A Append all of input file, and close file.
nP Output buffer and "^L", kill buffer, read one page from input file;
all done n times.
nP See description above under input.
m,nP Output specified range of buffer, but do not clear it or input.
nPW Output buffer and "^L", but do not clear it or input; done n times.
m,n@P Like m,nP, but does not clear the low bit of each word.
Can be used for outputting binary files.
EEfile$ Same as "infinityP EFfile$ EC".
EFfile$ Close the output file and change its name to "file".
EC Close the input file.
EDfile$ Delete the file.
E_old$new$ Make a copy of file "old" and name it "new".
EQfrom$to$ Create a link named "from" pointing to the file "to".
ENold$new$ Rename the file "old" to have name "new".
A q-register is a sort of variable which can contain any sort
of TECO datum. Q-registers have names which are letters or digits
preceded by 0, 1 or 2 periods. Those with 2 periods usually have
special meanings to TECO. Those with one period have special
meanings to specific TECO-based programs such as EMACS.
It is also possible to refer to the definition of a particular
^R command character as a q-register; such as, Q.^RA for Control-A.
An expression in parentheses can also be used, if the q-reg
command does not want to alter the contents of the q-reg.
In this case, the value returned by the expression is used as
the "contents". The value can be a number or a string pointer.
Qq Returns the contents of Q-reg q, as a number or string pointer.
This command does not discard numeric values;
you can do arithmetic on it.
nUq Inserts number or string-pointer n in Q-reg q; returns no value.
m,nUq Inserts number n in Q-reg q; returns m.
:Iqstring$ Insert string into Q-reg q, replacing prior contents.
"*" can be used as the q-register name; then the
string pointer is returned as a value.
This applies to all q-reg commands that do not
use the old contents of the q-reg.
n:Iq Insert char with ASCII code n into Q-reg q, replacing prior contents.
@:Iqxstringx Same as :Iqstring$, where string is delimited by any char x.
m,n:Iq Same as n:Iq, but inserts m copies of char.
kXq Inserts text range k into Q-reg q, replacing prior contents.
k@Xq Same as kXq, but appends text to q's contents.
kFXq Same as X and K combined, i.e., "kXq kK".
nFWXq Combines nFW with Xq.
nFLXq Combines nFL with Xq.
Gq Inserts text (or decimal representation of number) from Q-reg q into buffer.
FS INSLEN$ is set to length of inserted string.
%q Increments numeric contents of Q-reg q and returns result.
[q Push text or number from Q-reg q onto Q-reg push-down list.
]q Pop text or number from Q-reg push-down list into Q-reg q.
FQq Value = number of char in Q-reg q or -1 if contents are a number.
m,nMqstring$ Execute string or buffer contents of Q-reg q as a TECO command. If q
contains a number, it must be a valid built-in ^R function,
and it is called.
^X Value is m, first arg to m,nMq. Only used inside macros.
^Y Value is n, second arg to m,nMq (or only arg to nMq).
F^X Value is all args to kMq.
argsF^Y Value says which args are present.
0 => none. 1 => just one. 2 => just one, followed by comma.
3 => two args are present.
^]^X Reads string arg which follows kMq, and substitutes
it into the command stream at this point.
Refer to the full definition of ^] in TECORD.
n< cmd > Command is executed n times, or indefinitely if n is null.
n; Does nothing if n<0, otherwise passes control to char after next ">",
i.e., terminates iteration. Null n => use value of last search.
:< ... > like < but is also an errset: an error occurring inside
the :< ... > causes control to return immediately to the ">".
In that case, anything pushed on the q-reg pdl since
the :< was entered is popped back to where it was pushed from
The value returned by the ">" is 0 if there was no error
(the iteration count was exhausted), or else the error message,
a string pointer.
This construct is usually used with 1 as an iteration count.
@< ... > like < ... > but is also an error catch.
Errors within are processed normally, but telling the error
handler to abort causes control to return to the front
of this loop.
F<!tag! ... > This is a catch. The command F;tag causes control to
pass to the ">" which ends the F< with the matching tag.
The ">" returns as values the arguments given to the F;.
TEST AND BRANCH
arg"x then-cmd '"# else-cmd '
Conditional which checks arg according to condition x; discards arg;
executes then-cmd if condition was true, else-cmd if false.
arg"x then-cmd '
Conditional without else-cmd.
argF"x Same as arg"x, but passes first arg to then-cmd or else-cmd.
Note: The conditions x are:
B Arg is ASCII code for a delimiter(see ..D).
C Arg is ASCII code for a non-delimiter.
E Arg = 0.
G Arg > 0.
L Arg < 0.
N Arg .NEQ. 0.
!label! Defines label, or brackets comments.
Olabel$ Sends command execution to character after !label!.